Iswari S. Dewi
Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian, Jl. Tentara Pelajar 3A, Bogor 16111

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Characterization of Doubled Haploid Derived from Anther Culture for New Type Upland Rice Herawati, Reny; Purwoko, Bambang S.; Dewi, Iswari S.
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Anther culture is one of tissue culture methods which can be applied to plant breeding programs in order to accelerate the process of obtaining pure lines. The successful development of rice varieties is highly dependent on genetic diversity and desirable traits. To obtain the genetic variability of doubled haploid lines through anther culture techniques, anther F1 or F2 were used as explants sources. The objectives of the study were to select and characterize doubled haploid lines of upland rice having the characters of new plant type, and to study the genetic variability and agronomic characters of tested doubled haploid lines. A total of 58 doubled haploid lines, and four parents i.e. Fatmawati, SGJT-28, SGJT-36, and Way Rarem were used in this study. The experiment used completely randomized design with three replications. Results showed that the characters of the doubled haploid lines vary considerably. Selection of the character i.e. number of productive tillers, number of filled grain per panicle, and percentage of empty grain was more effective to be selected because they were well correlated to weight of grain per hill, possessed high heritability values, and have wide genetic variability. Based on productive tillers number, number of filled grains per panicle, fertility, weight of 1,000 grains, and weight of grains per hill, the lines of P3-26, P3-27, P3-28, P4-45, P5-50, P6-103, P6-105,  P3-120, P3-134, P3-135, P3-150, P3-158, P3-248, P3-249, P6-271, P6-272, P6-274, P6-276, and  P6-295 were potential for further selection for new type of upland rice.   Keywords:  variability, characters, doubled haploid, new plant type, upland rice
Regenerasi Tanaman pada Kultur Antera Padi: Pengaruh Persilangan dan Aplikasi Putresin Dewi, Iswari S.; Purwoko, Bambang S.; Aswidinnoor, Hajrial; Somantri, Ida H.
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 35, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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The efficient use of anther culture in crop improvement depends on the success of plant regeneration techniques and the recovery of sufficient number of either green haploid plants that may be artificially or spontaneously doubled yielding homozygous diploid pure lines in first generation.  Putrescine, one of growth regulator polyamines, was known as essential factor in embryogenesis on various plant tissues.  The objective of this research was to study the effect of crosses and putrescine application on certain stages of culture most efficient in increasing green plant regeneration.  The experiment was arranged factorially. The first factor was reciprocal crosses of Taipei 309 to Asemandi and Asemandi to Taipei 309.  The second factor was application of putrescine consisted of control (M0: N6 induction medium and MS regeneration medium); M1: N6 induction medium,  MS regeneration medium + 10-3 M putrescine;  M2: N6 induction medium + 10-3 M putrescine, MS regeneration medium;  and M3: N6 induction medium + 10-3 M putrescine, MS regeneration medium + 10-3 M putrescine.  The results indicated that the addition of 10-3 M putrescine into callus induction and plant regeneration media was the best in increasing number and percentage of responding anther, callus formation, responding calli, green plants and number of total plants.  Rice anther culture efficiency, which was indicated by ratio of green plant to responding calli and percentage of green plant to number of anther innoculated, was also increased by the addition of 10-3 M putrescine. At that best treatment maternal effect showed in number of calli producing green plantlets, number of green plantlets, and percentage of green plant to number of anther innoculated. F1 from Taipei309/Asemandi was better  than F1 from Asemandi/Taipei30.   Key words :  Rice, anther culture, putrescine, green plant, reciprocal crosses
Karakter Morfologi dan Kimia 18 Kultivar Pamelo (Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.) Berbiji dan Tanpa Biji Susanto, Slamet; Rahayu, Arifah; Sukma, Dewi; Dewi, Iswari S.
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 16, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Pamelo is one of the oranges species which have variety of form, size, colour and taste. Most of the pamelo cultivars with seeds, while part of it is seedless. The concumen prefer to chose seedles than with seed because they could consume more. The research proposed to know the morphologycal and chemical characteristics of pamelo with seed and seedless. Characteristication done in RGCI and port harvesting laboratory at IPB to the Pamelo come from Sumedang, Pati, Kudus, Magetan, Aceh and Pangkep (South Sulaewsi) in the period of April 2009 until July 2010. The result of research shown that several pamelo seedless cultivars have pyriform, while other with seed have spheroid form. A few fruit from pamelo seedless cultivars have sweet taste until less taste, with pH of its juice vary from 6.2-6.3, except Jawa cultivar which have pH 4 which its total tertiration acid is 0.47- 0.50 g/g, PTT 9.8- 11.0 ( 0brix), PTT/ATT 19,5-25,3. Vitamine C content 38-48.2 mg/100 g and narigin content from 118,3-1063,2 mg/ml, while pamelo with seed have taste sweet acid, with fruit juice pH 3.7 - 4.7, except "red bali 1", which have pH 6.0, ATT 0,35 - 0,59 g/g, PTT 8.7 - 11.3 ( 0brix), PTT/ATT 16.9 - 24.6, vita mine C content 28.6 - 43.8 and narigin content 55.2 - 461.2 mg/ml. Keywords: Pamelo, morphology characters, chemical characters, PTT/ATT, narigin. 
Evaluasi Galur Haploid Ganda Pelestari Hasil Kultur Antera untuk Perakitan Galur Mandul Jantan pada Padi Rumanti, Indrastuti A.; Dewi, Iswari S.; Purwoko, Bambang S.; Aswidinnoor, Hajrial
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 37, No 1 (2009): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Hybrid rice has been proven to be the key factor to increase food supply in highly populated countries such as China and India. The success has encouraged the government of Indonesia to intensify research and development on hybrid rice using cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility system. The use of good male sterile line is a prerequisite for commercial seed production of hybrid rice.  The objective of this research was to evaluate several F1 plants to develop completely sterile cytoplasmic male sterile line (CMS) with good agronomic characters.  This research was conducted at screen house of Bogor Agricultural University during dry season (DS) of 2007.  Fourty eight F1s, derived from testcross between cytoplasmic male sterile sources with doubled-haploid (DH) maintainer lines, were evaluated in randomized complete design using three replications.  Observation was done on pollen sterility, panicle and stigma exsertion, plant height, and tillering ability.  The results showed 14 F1s were completely sterile (100 % pollen sterility).  They were A-2/H36-3-Ma, A-1/H36-3-Mb, A-2/H36-3-Mb, A-3/H36-3-Mb, A-1/H36-4-M, A-2/B1-1-Mb, A-3/B1-1-Mb, A-1/B1-2-Pa, A-2/B1-2-Pb, A-3/B2-1-M, A-1/B2-4-Pb, A-3/B4-1-Da, A-1/B4-1-Dc, and A-3/B4-1-Dc.  They also had early flowering date, averaged from 66 - 90 days after planting (DAP).  There were other 14 F1s with stigma exsertion more than 70 % and good panicle exsertion, i.e.  A-2/H36-3-Mb, A-1/H36-3-Mc, A-2/H36-3-Mc, A-1/H36-4-M, A-2/B1-2-Pa, A-2/B1-2-Pb, A-3/B2-1-Db, A-1/B2-1-Dc, A-1/B2-1-M, A-1/B2-4-Pb, A-3/B2-4-Pb, A-2/B4-1-Da, A-1/B4-1-Dc and A-3/B4-1-Dc.  However, only five F1s had all desirable characteristics as male sterile line candidates, such as 100% pollen sterility, good panicle exsertion, high stigma exsertion, semi-dwarf in plant height and good tillering ability.  They were A-1/H36-4-M, A-2/B1-2-Pb, A-1/B2-4-Pb, A-1/B4-1-Dc, A-3/B4-1-Dc.   Key words:  Doubled-haploid maintainer lines, CMS, pollen sterility, hybrid rice
Keragaman Genetik dan Karakter Agronomi Galur Haploid Ganda Padi Gogo dengan Sifat-Sifat Tipe Baru Hasil Kultur Antera Herawati, Reny; Purwoko, Bambang S.; Dewi, Iswari S.
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 37, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The development  of new plant type of upland rice in relatively short time can be done by using anther culture technique. The technique has been recognized as a rapid and efficient technology for plant improvement. Plant materials  used in this research were 320 s doubled haploid lines derived from anther culture and their 4 parents   namely Fatmawati, SGJT-28, SGJT-36 and Way Rarem. Observation was conducted on  plant height, number of productive tillers, days of flowering and maturity, length of panicle, number of grains per panicle,  number of filled grains per panicle, percentage of unfilled grains, weight of 1000 grains and weight of grains per hill. The result showed that there were broad variations in the agronomic characters of doubled haploid lines. There were 58 upland rice lines can be obtained with new plant type characters (NPT).  Several lines showed superior characters. Line P6-105, P3-134, P3-135, P3-175 had productive tiller more than that of parental, P3-160, P3-196, P6-274  had long panicle, number of grain per panicle and low percentage of unfilled grain,  P3-135, P6-271, P6-274, and P6-276 had weight of grains per hill. These lines had potential as new plant type of upland rice. Length of panicle, number of grains per panicle,  number of filled grains per panicle, and weight of grains per hill had high heritability and wide genetic variability.   Key words: Genetic variability,  doubled haploid, anther culture, upland rice  
THERAPY CYCLING TO ELIMINATE HIGH-TITERED, MULTIPLE VIRUS INFECTION IN VITRO POT A TO PLANTLETS Dewi, Iswari S.; Slack, Steven A.
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 22, No 2 (1994): Buletin Agronomi
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

A protocol for treatment of in vitro potato plantlets to eliminate systemic viruses was established. Efficiency decreased, however, for selected genotypes when a virus was high-titered and/or multiple viruses existed Modified nodal cutting (Mncs =  
Anther Culture Ability from Crossess Between Upland and New Plant Types of Rice Safitri, Heni; Purwoko, Bambang Sapta; Wirnas, Desta; Dewi, Iswari S.; Abdullah, Buang
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 2 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Anther culture provides rapid route in obtaining pure lines in a single generation through producing green haploid plants that may be spontaneously doubled. This technique has been used for crop improvement especially in rice. The objective of this research was to determine regeneration ability of eight F1s derived from crossess between upland and new plant types of rice and from their four parents through anther culture. Completely randomized design with 25 replications was used in this research. Treatments consisted of four parent lines/varieties i.e. P1 (Fatmawati and BP360E-MR-79-2), P2 (Fulan Telo Gawa and Fulan Telo Mihat) and eight F1s obtained from reciprocal crosses of P1 and P2. Callus induction medium was based on N6 medium + 2.0 mg L-1 NAA + 0.5 mg L-1  kinetin + 10-3  M Putrescine, while regeneration medium was based on MS + 0.5 mg L-1  NAA + 2.0 mg L-1  kinetin + 10-3  M Putrescine. The result indicated that F1 derived from Fatmawati x Fulan Telo Gawa (5.00% green plants per total anther) and their reciprocal (3.80% green plants per total anther) crosses were the most responsive genotypes in rice anther culture (had high anther culture ability). The F1 genotypes were more effective to produce green and doubled haploid plants in rice anther culture than their parents. From this research, 161 double haploid plants (29.81%) from total acclimated green plantlets were obtained.  Keywords: anther culture, upland rice, new plant type of rice
Pembentukan Galur Haploid Ganda Padi Gogo dengan Sifat-Sifat Tipe Baru melalui Kultur Antera Herawati, Reny; Purwoko, Bambang S.; Khumaida, Nurul; Dewi, Iswari S.; Abdullah, Buang
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 36, No 3 (2008): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The breeding of upland rice with New Plant Type characters in relatively short time can be done by using anther culture technique. The technique has been recognized as a rapid and efficient technology for crop improvement. Plant materials used in this research were F1 crossing P1 (Fatmawati x Way Rarem), P2 (Fatmawati x SGJT-28),  P3 (Fatmawati x SGJT-36), P4  (Way Rarem x Fatmawati), P5 (SGJT-28 x Fatmawati), and P6  (SGJT-36 x Fatmawati). Media for calli induction (N6) and regeneration (MS) were according to Dewi methods (2003). The results of this study indicated that P3 (Fatmawati x SGJT-36) and P6 (SGJT-36 x Fatmawati)  from resiprocal crosses gave better response in anther culture than the others crosses for their calli induction and green plant regeneration. From the six F1 crosses, 348 (53.5%) spontaneous doubled haploid (DH) pure lines were obtained, six lines from Farmawati x Way Rarem, 13 lines from Fatmawati x SGJT-28, 187 lines from Fatmawati x SGJT-36, three lines from Way Rarem x Fatmawati, five lines from SGJT-28 x Fatmawati, and 134 lines from SGJT-36 x Fatmawati.  These lines should be evaluated and characterized for their agronomical and morphological  traits.    Key words: Anther culture, doubled haploid, callus induction, green plant regeneration        
Kultur Antera untuk Mendukung Program Pemuliaan Tanaman Padi Dewi, Iswari S.; Purwoko, Bambang S.
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 29, No 2 (2001): Buletin Agronomi
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The Objectives of rice breeding program in Indonesia is to obtain high yielding varieties, tolerant, resistant to abiotic and biotic stress and appropriate to planting system in specific area. To accelerate the obtainment of the varieties, a combination of conventional and no conventional breeding method can be used. One alternative procedure is anther culture. Doubled haploid lines can be obtained through cholchicine treatment or rattooning of haploid plants. Plants with high heterozygositas (F1 or F2) can be used as anther source to obtain genetic variability of doubled haploid plants. High degree of homozigousity can be obtained at the first (DHO) generation of doubled haploid plants, less than on year. Evaluation of agronomic characters follows m DHI and DH2 generations. Compared to conventional methods, the use of anther culture in rice breeding program has several advantages including efficiency of selection process, reduction of cost, time and labor. Effort to optimize anther culture method and its rize in rice breeding program in Indonesia is discussed. Key words: Anther culture, Rice
Evaluasi Ketahanan Tanaman Padi Haploid Ganda Calon Tetua Padi Hibrida terhadap Wereng Batang Coklat dan Hawar Daun Bakteri Dewi, Iswari S.; Apriana, A.; Sisharmini, A.; Somantri, Ida H.
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 35, No 1 (2007): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The susceptibility of introduced hybrid rice to main rice pests and diseases is subject to be improved through the improvement of its parental lines, i.e. restorer and male sterile/cms lines.  From previous experiment, through anther culture of F1 from maintainer or restorer crossed to released varieties we obtained doubled haploid spontaneous plants or pure lines.  The objectives of this research were to evaluate those doubled haploid plants to brown plant hopper (BPH biotype SU) and bacterial leaf blight (BLB) strain IV and VIII. Standard Evaluation System for Rice (SES, IRRI) was used to evaluate their resistance to those pest and disease.  Plant materials used were a) 15 doubled-haploid plants (DH2) potential as cms lines derived from anther culture of F1 IR58025B x Sintanur and IR62829B x Ciherang; and b) 17 doubled-haploid plants (DH2) potential as restorer lines derived from anther culture of F1 IR53942R x Ciherang and BR827-35R x Sintanur.  Bioassay with BPH showed that for plants potential as maintainer lines there were only 3 moderately susceptible lines, while for plants potential as restorer lines there were one resistance line (BioR-Ac-W-HD-15) and one moderately resistance line (BioR-Ac-W-HD-16). The results of bioassay with BLB in lines potential as maintainer were: a).  For BLB strain IV we obtained one moderately resistance line (BioM-Ac-W-HD-4), b) For BLB strain VIII we obtained 5  moderately resistance lines (BioM-Ac-W-HD-5, 6, 7, 11 dan 12).  Furthermore, the results of bioassay with BLB in lines potential as restorer lines were: a)  For BLB strain IV we obtained 2 moderately resistance lines (BioR-Ac-W-HD-15, and 16), b) For BLB strain VIII we obtained 16 moderately resistance lines, i.e. BioR-Ac-W-HD-(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, dan 17).  All lines will be evaluated further in the field.   Key words: doubled-haploid, rice, BPH, BLB