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Role of nuclear factor kappa beta, tumor necrosis factor α, and cyclooxygenase-2 in preterm labor

Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 23, No 4 (2014): November
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: The pathway of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activation in releasing prostaglandins is suggested to be crucial for initiating labor in the pathogenesis of preterm labor. The aim of the study was to know whether there were mean differences of NF-κB, TNFα, and COX-2 expressions between preterm and term labor and also to know the correlation among them in preterm labor.Methods: A case-control study was performed from May 2013 to February 2014 in Arifin Achmad Hospital, Pekanbaru. There were 30 subjects with preterm labor as cases and 30 with normal labor as controls. All subjects had singleton gestation with maximum parity was three, age limit of 35 year-old, and spontaneous labor in both groups. Placental tissue was collected from all subjects and evaluated with hematoxylin eosin staining. The expressions of TNFα, NF-κB, and COX-2 in the tissue were assessed with immunohistochemical staining by counting the percentage of smeared cells by two experts. The expressions of TNFα, NF-κB, and COX-2 between case and control were compared using t-test and the correlation was analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficient.Results: Mean (SD) of expressions of TNFα (93.05% [12.68] vs 49.11% [27.33]), NF-κB (42.46% [27.29] vs 13.66% [17.77]), and COX-2 (88.75% [10.86] vs 46% [30.36]) were significantly higher in the preterm labor compared to term labor (p = 0.001). There was significant correlation between TNFα and NF-κB expression (r = 0.385; p = 0.036) and no correlation was found between NF-κB and COX-2 (p = 0.982) in preterm labor.Conclusion: High expressions of TNFα, NF-κB, and COX-2 in preterm labor showed to contribute in the onset of preterm labor. High TNFα may suggest that infection was a leading cause of preterm labor. This is supported with an increase in NF-κB activation will increase COX-2 and subsequently prostaglandins that result in premature labor.

Hubungan Tingkat Pengetahuan Ibu tentang Gizi dengan Kejadian Obesitas Anak di SD Islam Al-Azhar 32 Padang

Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas Vol 4, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Andalas University

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Abstract

AbstrakObesitas adalah kelainan yang ditandai oleh penimbunan berlebihan jaringan lemak dalam tubuh. Salah satu kelompok usia yang berisiko mengalami obesitas adalah kelompok usia 6-12 tahun. Pengetahuan gizi ibu berhubungan dengan kejadian obesitas pada anak.Hal tersebut mempengaruhi pemilihan nutrisi yang dikonsumsi anak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan tingkat pengetahuan ibu tentang gizi dengan kejadian obesitas pada anak usia sekolah dasar. Penelitian ini bersifat analitik dengan rancangan studi cross sectional. Populasi penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas 1-3 di SD Islam Al-Azhar 32 Padang dengan subyek penelitian sebanyak 102 orang. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan pembagian angket kepada ibu yang berisi pertanyaan seputar gizi. Status gizi anak ditentukan dengan pengukuran berat dan tinggi badan. Hasil pengukuran dikategorikan berdasarkan standar antropometri penilaian status gizi anak menurut Departemen Kesehatan Indonesia. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis univariat dan bivariat fisher’s exact test. Hasil penelitian didapatkan subyek obesitas sebanyak 17,6% dengan rerata IMT adalah 16,6 ± 3,20. Tingkat pengetahuan gizi ibu ditemukan hampir seluruhnya dalam kriteria cukup baik, yaitu sebesar 98%. Hasil uji statitik didapatkan bahwa tidak terdapat hubungan bermakna antara pengetahuan gizi ibu dengan kejadian obesitas (p = 0.323)Kata kunci: obesitas anak, pengetahuan ibu, giziAbstractObesity is a disorder that is marked by excessive accumulation of body fat. Age group 6-12 years is one group that is at risk of childhood obesity. Mother’s nutritional knowledge is related to childhood obesity. The knowledge influence mother’s decision on child’s daily consumption. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between mother’s knowledge of nutrition and childhood obesity among elementary school students.This research was analytic research with cross sectional study. The research population was class 1-3 in Al-Azhar 32 elementary school with 102 subjects. Sample collection was conducted by distributing questionnaire upon child’s mother. Nutrition status was determined by measuring weight and height of children. The result was categorized by using children’s nutritional status assessment of standard anthropometry according to Indonesian Health Department. The data was analyzed by univariate and bivariate analysis by using fisher’s exact test. From the research, obtained obesity rate for about 17,6% with average BMI 16,6 ± 3,20. Mother’s nutritional knowledge levels is good criteria (98%). From Fisher’s exact test statistic, obtained that there is no significant relationship between mother’s nutritional knowledge with incidence of childhood obesity (p = 0,323).Keywords: childhood obesity, mother’s knowledge, nutrition

Pengaruh Inisiasi Menyusu Dini (IMD) terhadap Suhu dan Kehilangan Panas pada Bayi Baru Lahir

Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas Vol 3, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Andalas University

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Abstract

AbstrakHipotermia merupakan penyebab utama kesakitan dan kematian bayi baru lahir di negara berkembang. Salah satu asuhan untuk mencegah hipotermi adalah dengan melaksanakan Inisiasi Menyusu Dini (IMD). Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh inisiasi menyusu dini terhadap suhu aksila dan kehilangan panas kering pada bayi baru lahir. Ini merupakan studi cross-sectional comparative yang melakukan observasi bayi yang lahir dengan persalinan normal yang dilaksanakan IMD atau tidak, kemudian dilakukan pengukuran suhu aksila dan kehilangan panas kering pada kedua kelompok. Data dianalisa menggunakan uji t-test, dan nilai p<0.05 dianggap bermakna secara statistik. Rerata suhu aksila kelompok IMD sebesar 37,1 ± 0,20C dan rerata suhu aksila pada kelompok non IMD sebesar 36,8 ± 0,40C. Rerata total kehilangan panas kering pada kelompok IMD sebesar 30,1 ± 3,4 J dan pada kelompok non IMD sebesar 31,2 ± 3,9 J. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa IMD berpengaruh terhadap peningkatan suhu aksila. Kehilangan panas kering lebih rendah pada kelompok IMD walau tidak bermakna secara statistikKata kunci: IMD, suhu aksila, kehilangan panas keringAbstractHypothermia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal period. One of essential care for newborn to prevent hypothermia is early initiation of breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to see the effects of early initiation of breastfeeding to increase axillary temperature and decrease dry heat loss in newborn. The design of this study is observational study with cross-sectional comparative design. The subjects were normal newborn with early initiation of breastfeeding and without early initiation of breastfeeding. Axillary mean temperature after early initiation of breastfeeding is 37,1 ± 0,20C and axillary mean temperature on non early initiation of breastfeeding group is 36,8 ± 0,40C. Total dry heat loss mean on early initiation of breastfeeding group is 30,1 ± 3,4 J and on non early initiation of breastfeeding group is 31,2 ± 3,9 J. This study concluded that there is the effect of early initiation of breastfeeding to axillary temperature. Total dry heat loss is lower on early initiation of breastfeeding group but not significant statistically.Keywords: early initiation of breastfeeding, axillary temperature, dry heat loss

Pola Kejadian ISPA pada Balita di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Anak Air Padang Tahun 2012

Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas Vol 3, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas

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Abstract

AbstrakInfeksi Saluran Pernafasan Akut (ISPA) masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang penting karena menyebabkan kematian bayi dan balita yang cukup tinggi yaitu 1 dari 4 kematian yang terjadi. Kejadian ISPA di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Anak Air Kota Padang tahun 2012. Masih menduduki peringkat pertama dari sepuluh penyakit terbanyak dan merupakan puskesmas dengan angka kejadian ISPA tertinggi di Kota Padang. Desain penelitian ini adalah cross sectional study dengan menggunakan catatan rekam medik anak yang menderita ISPA di puskemas Anak Air sebagai data sekunder. Hasil penelitian diperoleh bahwa frekuensi balita ISPA adalah 28,29% dari total penderita ISPA, dimana anak berusia 0-5 tahun yang terdiiri dari bayi sebanyak 21,5% dan balita sebanyak 78,5%. Distribusi antara balita laki-laki dan perempuan sebesar 50,04% dan 49,96%. Wilayah kerja kelurahan Batipuh Panjang memiliki frekuensi sebesar 51,71% dan kelurahan Padang Sarai sebesar 47,94 sementara luar wilayah sebesar 0,25%, distribusi dan frekuensi berdasarkan bulan didapatkan bulan November sebagai bulan dengan kejadian tertinggi atau sebesar 16,56% dan bulan September sebagai bulan dengan kejadian terendah sebesar 5,10%.Kata kunci: ISPA, bayi, pola kejadian, distribusi AbstractAcute Respiratory Infection (ARI) is still an issue regarding the importance of public health, because it cause high death rates, in a scale 1 from 4. Every child was estimated having 3 - 6 episodes of ARI every year. ARI in Puskesmas Anak Air Kota Padang 2012 is still on top of ten most common disease and a Puskesmas with the highest rate of ARI in Padang. This was a cross sectional study by using medical record as secondary data. The result of the result was infants with ARI is 28,29% from the total of all ARI patients, where it happened to 0-5 years old children divided to baby as much of 21,5% and 78,5% to infants, while the gender distribution between male and female infants was 50,04% and 49,96% in the Batipuh Panjang region which is having a frequency of 51,71% and Padang Sarai region 47,94% while other region was 0,25%. The distribution and the frequency based on months, was gathered in November as the highest rate occurrences of 16,56% and September as the lowest, 5.10%.Keywords: ARI, infants , patterns, distribution

Cancer Immunology

Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas Vol 2 (2013): Supplement
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas

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Abstract

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Pengaruh Pemberian Glutamin pada Kemampuan Fagositosis Makrofag terhadap Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas Vol 4, No 3 (2015)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas

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Abstract

Abstrak Pseudomonas aeruginosa adalah bakteri penyebab infeksi terbanyak yang resisten terhadap antibiotik. Glutamin adalah asam amino yang terdapat dalam tubuh yang salah satu fungsinya dapat memodulasi imunitas tubuh. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan potensi glutamin dalam meningkatkan kemampuan sistem imun terhadap infeksi P. aeruginosa. Penelitian eksperimental dengan post test only control group design telah dilakukan terhadap 24 ekor mencit usia 6-8 minggu dengan berat 30 gr. Mencit dibagi ke dalam dua kelompok, yaitu kontrol (K) danperlakuan (P) yang diberi glutamin dengan dosis 30 mg/kg/hari selama 14 hari. Isolasi makrofag peritoneum mencit dilakukan pada hari ke-15 dan dilakukan uji fagositosis menggunakan latex dan bakteri P. aeruginosa. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap persentase makrofag aktif terhadap latex dan P. aeruginosa. Hasil pengamatan dan analisisstatistik menggunakan metode t-test menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang signifikan antara kontrol dan perlakuan (p<0.05). Persentase makrofag aktif terhadap latex adalah 0,63 ± 0,058 (K) dan 0,84 ± 0,04 (P), sedangkan terhadap P. aeruginosa adalah 0,56± 0,07 (K) dan 0,80± 0,03 (P). Terlihat bahwa angka persentase fagositosis terhadap P.aeruginosa lebih kecil karena adanya kemampuan bakteri untuk menghadapi makrofag dibandingkan latex. Kesimpulan yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini adalah bahwa asam amino non-esensial glutamin memiliki pengaruh untuk meningkatkan kemampuan sistem imun tubuh. Kata kunci: glutamin, fagositosis makrofag, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common cause of bacterial infections that are resistant to antibiotics. Glutamine is an amino acid  in the body that able to modulate the bodys immune function. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of glutamine in enhancing the ability of the immune system against infection of P.aeruginosa. Experimental research with post test only control group design was conducted on 24 male minutes 6-8 weeks of age weighing 30 grams. Mice were divided into two groups: control (K) and treatment (P) are given glutamine at a dose of 30 mg / kg / day for 14 days. Isolation of peritoneal macrophages of mice performed on day-15 and testedusing latex and bacterial phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa. Observations were made of the percentage of activated macrophages toward latex and P. aeruginosa. The observation result and statistical analysis using t -test showed a significant difference between the control and treatment (p <0.05). The percentage of active macrophages to latex was0.63 ± 0.058 (K) and 0.84 ± 0.04 (P), while to P. aeruginosa is 0.56 ± 0.07 (K) and 0.80 ± 0.03 (P). That seein it percentage of phagocytosis against P. aeruginosa smaller than compared to latex. Because of the ability of bacteria to confront macrophages. The conclusion from this study is a non-essensial amino acid glutamine has the effect to increase the ability of the bodys immune system. Keywords: glutamin, immunity phagocytosis macrophage, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 

Pengaruh Lama Pemberian Diet Tinggi Kolesterol terhadap Kadar LDL dan TGF-Β Serum Tikus Putih (Rattus novergicus) strain Wistar

Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas Vol 5, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas

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Abstract

AbstrakDiet tinggi kolesterol ini akan meningkatkan kadar Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) sebagai penanda hiperlipidemia yang berdampak pada terjadinya aterosklerosis. Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β) memiliki peranan dalam proses terjadinya aterosklerosis ini. Keterlibatannya dalam hiperlipidemia sebagai faktor risiko utama aterosklerosis belum banyak diketahui. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan pengaruh lama permberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap kadar LDL dan TGF-β pada tikus putih (Rattus novergicus) strain Wistar. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode post test only control group design yang dilakukan terhadap tikus Rattus novergicus jantan umur 3-4 bulan, berat 200-250 gram. Sampel penelitian terdiri dari 24 ekor tikus yang dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok, yaitu kelompok kontrol, A, B dan C. Selain kelompok kontrol, kelompok tikus diberi diet tinggi kolesterol berupa lemak kambing 10%, telur puyuh 5%, selama 10 hari untuk kelompok A, 20 hari untuk kelompok B dan 30 hari untuk kelompok C. Pada akhir percobaan darah tikus diambil dan dilakukan pemeriksaan kadar LDL dan TGF-β serum. Hasil penelitian diolah secara bivariat. Analisis yang digunakan yaitu uji oneway Anova. Hasil penelitian diketahui terdapat pengaruh lama pemberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap peningkatan kadar LDL serum tikus dengan p=0,01 (p<0,05). Terdapat pengaruh lama pemberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap penurunan kadar TGF-β dimana p=0,04 (p>0,05). Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh lama pemberian diet tinggi kolesterol terhadap kadar LDL dan tikus putih Rattus novergicus strain Wistar.Kata kunci: diet tinggi kolesterol, LDL, TGF-β AbstractHigh-cholesterol diet will increase Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) levels which impact to atherosclerosis. Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β) play a role in atherosclerosis process. But its involvement in hyperlipidemia as the main risk factor of atherosclerosis still unknown. The objective of this study was to observe the effect of duration of giving  high-cholesterol diet on Low Density Lipoprotein and Transforming Growth Factor β levels white rats (Rattus novergicus) Wistar strain. This study uses  post-test only control group design, carried out on male rats Rattus novergicus 3-4 months, weight 200-250 grams. The study sample consisted of 24 rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, group A, group B and group C. Except  the control group, the group of rats given a high-cholesterol diet in the form of goat fat 10%, 5% quail eggs for 10 days to group A, group B for 20 days and 30 days for group C. At the end of the experiment blood was taken and examined LDL and TGF-β levels. Results were analyzed using bivariate. The analysis is oneway Anova test. The results of research known to have effect of duration on giving high-cholesterol diet to increase serum LDL levels of rats with p = 0.01 (p<0.05). This is the same case with TGF-β, which there was effect of duration on giving high-diet cholesterol diet to decrease serum TGF-β levels of rats where p = 0.04 (p>0.05). This study concludes that there are effect of duration on giving high-cholesterol diet to levels of LDL and TGF-β white rats Rattus novergicus Wistar strain.Keywords:  high-cholesterol diet, LDL, TGF β

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in early-onset neonatal sepsis

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 56 No 1 (2016): January 2016
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

Background Neonatal sepsis remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in newborns. Early-onset neonatal sepsis occurs in infants under the age of 72 hours, while late-onset neonatal sepsis occurs in infants over the age of 72 hours and may be due to nosocomial infection. Diagnosing neonatal sepsis is a challenge, as its clinical symptoms are not clear. Corroborating tests include routine blood, C-reactive protein (CRP), serology, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) examinations.Objective To compare the TNF-α and IL-6 levels in patients with proven and unproven early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS)Methods This case-control study was done in the Perinatology Unit, Abdul Moeloek Hospital, Lampung. Subjects were under the age of 72 hours with risk factors and clinical symptoms of sepsis. They underwent routine blood tests and blood cultures. Infants with positive cultures were considered to have proven sepsis (26 subjects) and infants with negative blood cultures were considered to have unproven sepsis (26 subjects). All subjects underwent serological examinations of TNF-α and IL-6.Results There were no differences in the basic characteristics of subjects between the two groups. Levels of TNF-α in the sepsis group were significantly higher than in the unproven group [(28.30 vs. 10.96 pg/mL, respectively (P=0.001)]. Furthermore, Il-6 was significantly higher in the proven sepsis group than in the unproven sepsis group [(28.3 vs. 9.69 pg/mL, respectively) (P=0.006)].Conclusion Levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 are significantly higher in infants with proven than unproven early-onset neonatal sepsis.

The Role of Endothelial Microparticle in Coronary Heart Disease as The Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

Jurnal Biodjati Vol 4, No 1 (2019): May
Publisher : UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung

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Abstract

  Coronary heart disease (CHD) is caused by obstruction of coronary blood flow due to endothelial dysfunction triggered by various genetic and non-genetic risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia and obesity. Endothelial cell activation due to hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus induces production of pro-inflammatory factors that damage the cell membrane triggering the formation of membrane particles called microparticles. Endothe-lial microparticles contain proteins including endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) which plays a role in the production of nitric oxide (NO). To determine the role of microparticles in the occurrence of coro-nary heart disease in diabetes mellitus due to endothelial dysfunction, a study was conducted by comparing the levels of eNOS and NO in DM patients who had CHD with DM patients who had no CHD. Blood samples from 20 DM patients who had CHD and 20 DM patients who had no CHD of the outpatients in Cardiology Department and Inter-nal Medicine department of regional public hospital were included in this study. All patients were fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria and diagnosed by the appropriate specialist. The eNOS and NO lev-els were measured using the ELISA method. The results of this study show that eNOS levels in the group of DM patients who had CHD (21,292±12,415 ng/ml) were significantly lower (p <0.05) than those in the group of DM patients who had no CHD (29,721±11,952 ng/ml). Nitric oxide levels in DM patients who had CHD (0,053±0,021 nmol/ μl) were not statistically different to the levels in DM patients who had no CHD (0,047±0,032 nmol/μl). From the results of this study we concluded that endothelial microparticle protein eNOS plays a role in the occurrence of CHD due to the complications of diabetes mellitus 

Perbedaan Rerata Kadar Resistin dan TNF-Α Antara Wanita Hamil Yang Obesitas dengan yang Memiliki Berat Badan Normal Pada Preeklamsi Berat Awitan Lambat

Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas Vol 7, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas

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Abstract

Faktor maternal merupakan pencetus Preeklamsi Awitan Lambat (PEAL). Salah satu faktor maternal adalah resistin, TNF-α yang dihubungkan dengan inflamasi dan resistensi insulin.. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui perbedaan rerata kadar Resistin dan TNF-α maternal antara wanita hamil obesitas dan berat badan normal pada Preeklamsi Berat Awitan Lambat. Desain penelitian ialah comparative cross sectional yang dilakukan di RSUP Dr. M Djamil dan Laboratorium Biomedik Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas Padang dari Februari 2016 sampai Januari 2017. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 40 yang dipilih secara consecutive sampling, yang dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu 20 responden obesitas dan 20 responden berat badan normal. Kadar Resistin danTNF-α diperiksa dengan metode ELISA, kemudian data dianalisis dengan uji mann-whitney. Hasil penelitian median kadar resistin pada kelompok obesitas adalah 7,760 (3,862 – 40,620) ng/ml dan median kelompok berat badan normal adalah 2,696 (0,0154 – 6,1070) ng/ml. Median kadar TNF-α pada kelompok obesitas adalah 169,719 (152,312 – 451,04) ng/ml dan median kelompok berat badan normal 131,077(75,724 – 150,920) ng/ml. Secara statistik dengan uji mannwhitney diperoleh nilai p<0,001. Simpulan studi ini ialah terdapat perbedaan bermakna antara kadar Resistin dan TNF-α pada obesitas dan berat badan normal.