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Lack of Atherosclerotic Lesion Progression on Severe Hyperlipidemic Rabbits

HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 16, No 2 (2009): June 2009
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

In human, coronary heart disease causes by severe pathological atherosclerosis. In this study, we established animal model to study atherosclerosis caused by hyperlipidemia. This study therefore was undertaken to define the effect of increasing atherosclerosis risk factor, include body weight as well as age, cholesterol concentration and dietary fat in rabbit chow, and time of treatment. Male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into 4 groups; Group I and III were consisted of 2 months rabbit were fed with standard rabbit chow. To introduce atherosclerosis, the chow for Group II was contained 0.25% cholesterol and 5% palm oil; whereas the chow for group IV was contained 0.5% cholesterol and 5% coconut oil to induce higher atherosclerotic lesion. Results showed that group II and IV developed hyperlipidemia. However, aortic cholesterol concentration in those groups did not different significantly (P > 0.05). We suggest that low carbohydrate composition in diet, 50% lower compared to the previous researches, was able to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration. This study demonstrated the complex interactions between low carbohydrate diet and cholesterol metabolism and the dramatic effects of reducing atherosclerosis risk factor; however, even though hyperlipidemic condition was achieved, total plasma cholesterol HDL ratio was maintained low. Key words: atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, rabbit, low carbohydrate diet

Changes of Gibberellin and Total Sugar Content in Flower Developmental Stages of Mangosteen

HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 13, No 3 (2006): September 2006
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

The objectives of this experiment were to study the changes of gibberellic acid and total sugar content in flower developmental stages of mangosteen. The result showed that flower development of mangosteen consisted of four stages: induction, differentiation, maturition of flower organs, and anthesis. Floral induction was microscopically characterized by the swelling of the basal structure of the new shoot. It was found that induction stage of mangosteen flowering was characterized by sharp decrease of gibberellic acid (GA3, GA5, GA7) and increase of total sugar content of leaf. On the other hand, it was found that leaf of the non-flowering shoot apices had high gibbrellic acid and low total sugar. Key words: mangosteen, flowering, induction, gibberellic acid

Bioactive Proteins from Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn

HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 16, No 4 (2009): December 2009
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

The research was carried out to isolate and characterize of bioactive proteins from plant parts of Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn and to analyse of the toxicity and cytotoxicity of the proteins. The proteins were extracted with phosphate buffer saline, then they were precipitated using 80% saturated ammonium sulphate, continued with the dialysis  using pH 7 phosphate buffer. The dialysate was fractionated through gel filtration chromatography and characterized using SDS-PAGE. The toxicity of the proteins was analyzed through brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT), followed with cytotoxicity test using HeLa and K-562 cancer cell lines. Three bioactive protein fractions were isolated from the fruits, the seeds and roots. The lowest yield of proteins was 0.021% from the fruit, then 0.051% from the seed, while the highest was 0.54% from the root. All proteins were toxic on BSLT with LC50 within the range of 24-39 µg. Characterization of proteins using SDS-PAGE indicated the molecular mass of those proteins were approximately 17-29 kDa. The cytotoxicity test of the root protein showed that the protein could inhibit proliferation of HeLa cell up to 28.50% and K-562 cell up to 36.60% compared to that  of non treated cell.                   Key words: Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn, bioactive protein, cytotoxicity

Potensi Daerah Sidik Jari Spektrum Inframerah Sebagai Penanda Bioaktovitas Ekstrak Tanaman Obat

Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 12, No 3 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Efficacy and quality of medicinal plant extracts depend on chemical composition therein. Therefore, to ensure its efficacy orquality, the chemical composition of extracts have to be analyzed based on its chemical marker or its chemical pattern. This study tried to develop a method for extracts quality assay based on infrared spectrum in fingerprint region and extracts inhibition activity to xanthine oxidase. Five extracts from kunyit (Curcuma domestica), temulawak ( C xanthorriza), jahe (Zingiber officina/e), temukunci (Boesenbergia pandurata), and cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum) were tested to inhibit xanthine oxidase activity. The bioactive data of extracts and its infrared spectrum was analyzed using PCA and PLS-DA (partial least squarediscriminant analysis). Almost all extracts that were tested showed inhibition activity to xanthine oxidase activity, except the extract of jahe. The result showed that PCA can group all of extract into each of their region. Meanwhile, PLS-DA has shown to be a good prediction model for classifying extracts based on fingerprint region of its mR Spectrum and its biological activity. Keywords: fingerprint, mR spectra, compound marker, xanthine oxidase

Protein Patterns in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Roots and Non-Mycorrhizal Roots of Oil Palm Seedling

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 1, No 1 (2007): April 2007
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

A comparison of the protein patterns in root extracts from none mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal oil palm roots has been made. The polypeptides were analyzed every three weeks up to 11 weeks. A factorial design of fungi species (no mycorrhizal, Acaulospora tuberculata, Gigaspora margarita) and with or without fertilizer was assessed. The result showed that specific polypeptides were detected in primary and secondary roots. In unfertilized oil palm root, a 60 kDa polypeptide was detected while it was abcent in fertilized root. Inoculation of A. tuberculata with the addition of fertilizer application yielded a specific 26.7 kDa polypeptide in primary root on the 11th week after inoculation. A specific 64.2 kDa polypeptide of G. margarita was detected in unfertilized secondary root also on the 11th week.

Induksi Ekstrak Pegagan Secara in vitro terhadap Proliferasi dan Diferensiasi Sel-Sel Otak Besar Anak Tikus (IN VITRO INDUCTION OF CENTELLA ASIATICA (PEGAGAN) EXTRACT ON THE PROLIFERATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF NEWBORN RAT CORTEX CEREBRI CELLS)

Jurnal Veteriner Vol 14, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Jurnal Veteriner

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Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyze the potency of Centella asiatica extract to induce proliferation andneurogenesis process of newborn rats cortex cerebri.   Research has been conducted on in vitro culture ofthree days old rat (Sprague Dawley) cerebrum cells in DMEM (Dulbecco’s Modiûed Eagle’s Medium)containing 10% NEAA (Non Essential Amino Acid), 1 mM NaHCO3, 10% NBCS (Newborn Calf Serum)and 50 µg/mL gentamycin (mDMEM), with and without Centella asiatica (CA) leaf extracts. The experimentwas set in five groups of treatment consisted of positive control (mDMEM+30 µg/mL asiaticoside (AC)),negative control (mDMEM), and mDMEM with three concentration of CA extract i.e. 100 ppm, 200 ppmand 400 ppm. Culture was done in 5% CO2 incubator at 37oC for six days. The parameters observed werecells proliferation based on Population Doubling Time (PDT), neuron and glia composition, and the lengthof axon and dendrite. Cells concentration were counted using Newbauer hemocytometer.  Neuron and gliacells were determined based on morphology after Hematoxylin-Eosin staining, and the length of axon anddendrite were measured using eyepiece micrometer. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan test.The results showed that Centella asiatica extract at concentration 100 ppm could induce neurogenesisand increased the axon length growth.  However, at concentration 200 and 400 ppm, CA extract  inhibitedthe neuronal cells proliferation and the axonal growth (P<0,05). In conclusion, induction of Centella asiaticaextracts at concentration of 100 ppm on the cortex cell cerebrum cells culture increase the axon lengthgrowth and tends to induce neurogenesis; however at higher concentration CA extract was neurotoxic.

Pengembangan Pupuk Cair Nitrogen Berukuran Nanometer untuk Meningkatkan Efisiensi Pemupukan

Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 17, No 2 (2012): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Conventional utilization of urea just has absorbed 30-60%. Remaining, 40-70% lost to environment, give not economic benefit and serious problem in environment. The use of less efficient urea has received attention lately. One way to overcome the problem of inefficiency of urea fertilizer use is a nano-sized fertilizer. Synthesized nanofertilizer in this study were nanomagnetit (Fe3O4). Nanomagnetit synthesized from FeCl3 as a source of iron, sodium citrate as the reductant, and urea as a source base. Nanomagnetite synthesized using a hydrothermal method. Based on the results of X-ray diffraction, the nanomagnetit has average crystal size 46.66 nm and crystal structure is Face Center Cubic. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows constituent elements in nanomagnetite are iron (29.45%), oxygen (53.07%), carbon (14.86%), and sodium (2.62%). This shows the iron and oxygen is the main constituent elements nanomagnetite. In the process of magnetite formation absorbed urea by 30% with N content (0.14%) and most are in the liquid synthesis (0.82%) so that it can be used as fertilizer on crops. Based on this research, variations of pH (6-8) liquid fertilizer provided no significant effect. The addition of 0.15 g nanomagnetite have better growth among other treatments.  Keywords: corn, hydrothermal, magnetite, nanofertilizer, urea

Zingiber cassumunar, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Murraya paniculata Extracts as Antiobesity: In Vitro Inhibitory Effect on Pancreatic Lipase Activity

HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 18, No 1 (2011): March 2011
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. (Bangle), Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk. (Jati belanda), and Murraya paniculata (Kemuning) have been used as slimming agents in jamu. A few researches have performed studies on their potency as antiobesity. The aim of this research was to investigate the potency of Z. cassumunar rhizome, G. ulmifolia, and M. paniculata leaf extracts as antiobesity agent based on in vitro inhibition activity of the extracts on pancreatic lipase activity. In this research, water content determination, phytochemical assay, toxicity assay and in vitro assay of inhibition activity on pancreatic lipase were performed toward single and mixture extracts of Z. cassumunar, G. ulmifolia, and M. paniculata resulted by water, ethanol, and saponin extractions. The results indicated that 100 ppm of ethanol extraction of Z. cassumunar had highest inhibition effect on the activity of pancreatic lipase (29.17%), followed by 100 ppm of water extraction of M. paniculata  (25.66%), 60 ppm of ethanol extraction of G. ulmifolia leaves (25.13%) and ethanol extraction mixture of Z. cassumunar, G. ulmifolia, and M. paniculata  leaves with ratio of 25:25:25 (21.58%). These inhibition effects were higher than inhibitory effect of 100 ppm of Xenical®/orlistat as the positive control, with the inhibition value of 17.53%. Saponin crude extracts had lower inhibitory effect than the other extractions. It was suggested that ethanol extraction of Z. cassumunar, and G. ulmifolia and water extraction of M. paniculata had potency as antiobesity agent

Diversity of Endophytic Fungi from Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Plant and Their Inhibitory Effect to Fusarium oxysporum Plant Pathogenic Fungi

HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 20, No 3 (2013): September 2013
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Indonesia has been known as a country with high medicinal plant diversity. One of the most common medicinal plant from Indonesia is red ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Nevertheless, limited studies of endophytic fungi associated with these medicinal plants are hitherto available. The objectives of this research were to study the diversity of endophytic fungi on red ginger and to analyze their potential as a source of antifungal agent. All parts of plant organs such as leaf, rhizome, root, and stem were subjected for isolation. Fungal identification was carried out by using a combination of morphological characteristic and molecular analysis of DNA sequence generated from ITS rDNA region. Thirty endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from leaf, rhizome, root, and stem of red ginger plant. Antagonistic activity was tested against Fusarium oxysporum, a pathogenic fungus on plants, using an antagonistic assay. Based on this approach, the fungi were assigned as Acremonium macroclavatum, Beltraniella sp., Cochliobolus geniculatus and its anamorphic stage Curvularia affinis, Fusarium solani, Glomerella cingulata, and its anamorphic stage Colletotrichum gloeosporoides, Lecanicillium kalimantanense, Myrothecium verrucaria, Neonectria punicea, Periconia macrospinosa, Rhizopycnis vagum, and Talaromyces assiutensis. R. vagum was found specifically on root whereas C. affinis, L. kalimantanense, and M. verrucaria were found on stem of red ginger plant.  A. macroclavatum was found specifically in red ginger plant’s organ which located under the ground, whereas C. affinis was found from shoot or organ which located above the ground. The antagonistic activity of isolated endophytic fungi against F. oxysporum varied with the inhibition value range from 1.4 to 68.8%. C. affinis (JMbt7), F. solani (JMd14), and G. cingulata (JMr2) had significantly high antagonistic activity with the value above 65%; and R. vagum (JMa4) and C. geniculatus (JMbt9) had significantly low antagonistic activity with the range value 0-10%.

Physiological Response of Crocidolomia pavonana to the Calophyllum soulattri Active Fraction

HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 13, No 1 (2006): March 2006
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological response of the cabbage head caterpillar Crocidolomia pavonana treated with an active fraction of Calophyllum soulattri bark extract. Extraction of the test plant materials were performed with maceration method using methanol, continued by counter-current distribution separation in ethylacetate and water. Methanol fractionation of C. soulattri was performed by vaccuum liquid chromatography and the bioassays were conducted by a leaf-feeding method. The results showed that the dichloromethane fraction of C. soulattri had strong insecticidal activity against C. pavonana larvae, with LC50 of 0.05%. Sublethal treatments with the active fraction at LC15, LC50, and LC85 reduced the relative growth rate of the fourth instars by 48.9-94.1%. The treatments with the fraction at LC15 and LC50 to the fourth instars reduced the activity of invertase and protease enzyme by 20.7-24.1 and 14.4-25.14%, respectively, but increased the activity of trehalase by 26.7-120% as compared with controls. Key words: Physiological response, Crocidolomia pavonana, Calophyllum soulattri, botanical insecticide