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MIKROENKAPSULASI EKSTRAK FORMULA PEGAGAN-KUMIS KUCING-SAMBILOTO SEBAGAI INHIBITOR Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme SECARA In Vitro

Jurnal FAPERTA : CEFARS Vol 3, No 1 (2011): JURNAL AGRIBISNIS DAN PENGEMBANGAN WILAYAH
Publisher : Jurnal FAPERTA : CEFARS

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Abstract

Abstract Chitosan microencapsulation contained extract formula pegagan-kumis kucing-sambiloto was resulted from ionic gelation process. Chitosan microencapsulation was resulted by cleaning bath type of ultrasonication and homogenization methods. Optimum condition obtained at 2% of chitosan concentration (w/v) and 50 mL (v/v) of extract formula. The yields of chitosan microparticles was 64.24%. Characterization by SEM at 5000× magnification showed that the particle size of chitosan microparticles was not uniform. Chitosan microparticles without and contained extract formula had diameters between 0.40 µm-8.5 µm and 1 µm-6 µm, respectively. Each chitosan microparticles contained extract formula and extract formula had the ACE inhibitory activity of 78.41 %, and 75.73 %, respectively, while the captopryl as an positive control had ACE inhibitory activity of 75.24 %. Wave number peaks of chitosan spectrum was different  with microparticles spectrum by using of FTIR analysis. Chitosan microparticles-sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) contained extract formula had absorbance bands of 1652.32 cm-1 (C=O) and 1565.63 cm-1 (C=C, aromatic group of benzene). New absorbance bands also appeared at wave numbers of 1153.82 cm-1 and 1154.66 cm-1 which showed absorbance band of P=O group from STP compound. Keywords: chitosan-STP, microencapsulation

Screening Marker Components Of Tyrosinase Inhibitor From Xylocarpus Granatum Stem

VALENSI Vol 2, No 3 (2011): Valensi Vol. 2, No. 3, November 2011
Publisher : Program Studi Kimia, Fakultas Sains dan Teknologi, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta

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Abstract

The aim of our research was to screen the marker components of tyrosinase inhibitor from Xylocarpus granatum stem collected from Pulau Sebuku, South Kalimantan, Indonesia.  The screening method started from selection of part of X. granatum, stem or stem bark.  Stem and stem bark of X. granatum were dried and grounded before submitted to methanol.  The stem extracts is more potent as tyrosinase inhibitor (IC50 for monophenolase is 45.12 μg/ml and diphenolase is 31.59μg/ml) compared to the bark extracts. The IC50 values of kojic acid as positive control are 17.43μg/ml for monophenolase and 20.69 μg/ml for diphenolase. The stem extract then separated with silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography.  The results showed that component with Rf 0,25 and 0.63 (TLC analysis with stationary phase silica gel GF254 and mobile phase ethyl acetic: methanol (8:2)) are the marker components as tyrosinase inhibitor for X. granatum.

Extraction and analysis of Phytosterol from wheat germ (Triticum sp.)

Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan Vol 16, No 1 (2005): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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Abstract

Phytosterol may reduce the absorption of cholesterol, and used for preventing atherosclerosis. It is limited in soybean, but potentially abundant in wheat germ. Research on the utilization of wheat germ sterol had not been reported so far. Many aspects of germ sterol extraction from wheat germ and its characteristics were still unknown. In this research, the best extraction method, kinds and content of phytosterol from wheat germ were investigated. This research consisted of two steps: (1) extraction of phytosterol directly form whole germ and ground germ using hexane, and indirect extraction through germ oil using hexane and mixed solvent of hexane and ethanol, and direct extraction from ground germ using ethanol; (2) analysis of the type and content of phytosterol in the crude extract through the following steps: preparation of crude extract, fractionation, and analysis. Results showed that indirect extraction through germ oil was considered as the best method which yielded 1.37% of phytosterol. The highest yield was obtained when extracted using a mixed solvent of hexane – ethanol 82:18. However, the odor of ethanol and hexane (gasoline like odor) was still detected. The solvent’s ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:2 resulted better odor of the extract. Extraction of sterol using ethanol yielded 18.39% of sterol when the ratio of germ to ethanol at 1:10 (w/v) was applied. Results of quantitative analysis on the main component of crude extract of wheat germ sterol showed that the total content of sterol extracted with mixed solvent was higher than those extracted with ethanol. The ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:1 (v/v) gave higher content of total sterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, whereas higher content of -sitosterol was produced at the solvent’s ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:2 (v/v). Keywords: Wheat germ sterol, extraction, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol

ANAL1SIS BEBAN PENCEMARAN, KAPASITAS ASIMILASI DAN TINGKAT PENCEMARAN DALAM UPAYA PENGENDALIAN PENCEMARAN PERAIRAN DANAU MANINJAU

Jurnal Perikanan Dan kelautan Vol 12, No 01 (2007)
Publisher : Jurnal Perikanan Dan kelautan

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Abstract

Water quality in Maninjau Lake has been thereatened by organic and inorganicmatters that are flown into the lake. The pollution sources arc many activitiesaround the lake such as residential area, husbandry, agriculture, an fish culture onthe lake (floating net cage). These activities result in huge pollution laods and thetrends are predicted to increase. Understending on the pollution loads, polluitonsources and asssimilativc capacity are important in formulating pollution controltechniques in lake waters. The objectives of the research was to determine level ofpollution waters of Maninjau Lake. The results of this research showed thatpollution load parameter susch as Total Suspended Solid (TSS), ChemicalOxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and TotalPhosphorus were very high. All parameters of pollution loads have ciceded itsasssimilative capacity. The level of pollution in the study site is classified asmedium category.

EKSTRAKSI DAN ANALISIS FITOSTEROL LEMBAGA GANDUM (Triticum sp.) [Extraction and Analysis of Phytosterol from Wheat Germ (Triticum sp.)]

Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan Vol 16, No 1 (2005): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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Abstract

Phytosterol may reduce the absorption of cholesterol, and used for preventing atherosclerosis. It is limited in soybean, but potentially abundant in wheat germ. Research on the utilization of wheat germ sterol had not been reported so far. Many aspects of germ sterol extraction from wheat germ and its characteristics were still unknown. In this research, the best extraction method, kinds and content of phytosterol from wheat germ were investigated. This research consisted of two steps: (1) extraction of phytosterol directly form whole germ and ground germ using hexane, and indirect extraction through germ oil using hexane and mixed solvent of hexane and ethanol, and direct extraction from ground germ using ethanol; (2) analysis of the type and content of phytosterol in the crude extract through the following steps: preparation of crude extract, fractionation, and analysis. Results showed that indirect extraction through germ oil was considered as the best method which yielded 1.37% of phytosterol. The highest yield was obtained when extracted using a mixed solvent of hexane – ethanol 82:18. However, the odor of ethanol and hexane (gasoline like odor) was still detected. The solvent’s ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:2 resulted better odor of the extract. Extraction of sterol using ethanol yielded 18.39% of sterol when the ratio of germ to ethanol at 1:10 (w/v) was applied. Results of quantitative analysis on the main component of crude extract of wheat germ sterol showed that the total content of sterol extracted with mixed solvent was higher than those extracted with ethanol. The ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:1 (v/v) gave higher content of total sterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, whereas higher content of -sitosterol was produced at the solvent’s ratio of hexane to ethanol at 1:2 (v/v).

PENGOLAHAN LINDI SEBAGAI PUPUK CAIR UNTUK MENDUKUNG PENGEMBANGAN TPA SAMPAH LESTARI

Jurnal Matematika Sains dan Teknologi Vol 11 No 1 (2010)
Publisher : LPPM Universitas Terbuka

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Abstract

A laboratory scale research to obtain environmentally safe effluent and liquid fertilizer from leachate from Final Waste Disposal Site in Galuga owned by Regional Government of Bogor City was conducted from July 2006 through to April 2007. The experiment was initiated by aerating the leachate in 4 difference aeration rates (0, 10, 30 and 70 liters/minute) followed by processing the sediment to product the liquid fertilizer. The experiment of production liquid fertilizer was carried out by adding lime with different dosage into sediment generated from processing by aerating at 70 liters/minute followed by centrifugation process or secher. Further, the liquid fertilizer generated from such experiment was applied to chilis planting (Capsicum annum). The research found that the processing conducted by aerating at the rate 70 liters/minute was the most effective in reducing pollutant from leachate. The addition of 1000 ppm CaO or Ca(OH)2 limes in sediment from aeration is the most effective in depositing the dissolved material compared to the addition of limes in other dosage. Liquid fertilizer generated through the addition of 1000 ppm CaO have the content of N = 375,83 ppm, P = 121,44 ppm, K = 948,11 ppm, Ca = 827,20 ppm, Mg = 959,50 ppm, S = 48,53 ppm, Cu = 8,23 ppm, Zn = 30,02 ppm, Mn = 230,57 ppm, Fe = 320,95 ppm, Pb = 10,34 ppm, Cd = 7,46 ppm and Cr = 2,05 ppm. The use of liquid fertilizer generated by adding 1000 ppm CaO was the most effective in enhancing vegetation growth and production of chili. The non essential elements (Pb, Cd and Cr) in fruits from vegetation given liquid fertilizer produced from such treatment did not exceed tolerable threshold.

Metabolite Profiling of Tabat Barito (Ficus deltoidea) Using UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS

The Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research Vol 7, No 2 (2018): Edition May-August 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, The University of Brawijaya

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Abstract

Tabat Barito (Ficus deltoidea) is known as a plant that has potency as an antioxidant because of containing a significant phenolic compound. In this study, we performed metabolite profiling on F. deltoidea leaves by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS to identify its phenolic compounds. Extraction by maceration and ultrasonication techniques with methanol (MM and UM) and ethanol (ME and UE) were used to extract the F. deltoidea metabolites. About 70 metabolites were identified by using UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS in negative ion mode. The amounts of metabolites found in each extract were different, i.e., 45 metabolites in MM, 64 metabolites in UM, 42 metabolites in UE and 41 metabolites in ME. MS/MS could further tentatively identify 16 metabolites. The identified compounds belonged to the class of flavonoids and phenolic acid. Also, we conducted an antioxidant activity by using DPPH method on each extract to determine its potency as an antioxidant. The highest antioxidant activity was exhibited by UM extract (IC50 71.93 ppm) may be due to the number of metabolites in UM extract which was higher than the other extract based on the detected metabolites.

Aktivitas Insektisida Ekstrak Kulit Batang Empat Famili Tumbuhan terhadap Ulat Krop Kubis Crocidolomia pavonana (F.)

Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 10, No 1 (2004)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal activity of bark extracts of 35 plant species belonging to four families (Clusiaceae, Lecythidaceae Meliaceae, and Sapindaceae) against the cabbage head caterpillar Crocidolomia pavonana. Extraction of the test plant materials were performed with maceration method using ethanol and methanol continued by counter-current distribution separation in ethylacetate and water. Bark extract preparation of each plant species was tested against C. pavonana larvae by leaf-feeding method at concentration of 0.25% and 0.5%. Second-instar C. pavonana larvae were fed extract-treated broccoli leaves for 48 hours, then were presented with untreated leaves until the surviving larvae reached the fourth-instar larvae. The number of dead larvae was recorded. The phytochemical test of bark extract of Calophyllum soulattri was done by qualitative method. The results showed that the bark extracts of C. soulattri (Clusiaceae), Barringtonia sarcostachys (Lecythidaceae), and Aglaia tomentosa (Meliaceae) exhibited good insecticidal activity. Methanol extract of C. soulattri barks possessed strong insecticidal activity against C. pavonana larvae with LC95 of 0.21%. This extract showed positive response in alkaloid and triterpenoid qualitative tests. Further studies are needed to identify insecticidal compounds in those active extracts.

MINYAK ATSIRI DAUN ZINGIBERACEAE SEBAGAI ANTIOKSIDAN DAN ANTIGLIKASI

INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF ESSENTIAL OIL Vol 1, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Institut Atsiri Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Daun keluarga Zingiberaceae memiliki aroma khas yang mirip dengan rimpangnya. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengisolasi minyak atsiri daun beberapa spesies dari keluarga Zingiberaceae dan menentukan aktivitas minyak atsiri tersebut sebagai antioksidan dan antiglikasi yang berhubungan dengan anti-penuaan. Daun dari 8 spesies yaitu Alpinia galanga, Boesenbergia pandaratum, Curcuma aeruginosa, Curcuma domestica, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Curcuma zedoaria, Ellettaria cardamomum, dan Zingiber officinale diisolasi minyak atsirinya menggunakan teknik distilasi uap. Minyak yang diperoleh ditentukan kemampuannya sebagai antioksidan menggunakan metode ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) menggunakan spektrofotometer visual serta kemampuan antiaging melalui aktivitas antiglikasi mengunakan flourimetri. Rendemen minyak dihasilkan mulai dari 0.04 hingga 3.15%. Kapasitas antioksidan tertinggi dengan metode ABTS ditemukan pada minyak atsiri daun Curcuma aeruginosa sebesar 5.10g ekuivalen asam askorbat/ 100 g minyak sedangkan minyak dengan aktivitas antiglikasi terbesar ditemukan pada minyak daun Z. officinale dengan konsentrasi penghambatan 50%, IC50 sebesar 207.95mg/L.  Senyawa kimia pada minyak atsiri daun Z. officinale ditentukan menggunakan metode Kromatografi Gas- Spektrometri Massa dan ditemukan kariofilena sebagai komponen dominannya. Kariofilena mampu bertindak sebagai antiglikasi dengan konsentrasi penghambatan 50% sebesar 113.8 µM. Minyak atsiri dari daun Z officinale berpotensi dikembangkan sebagai antiaging.

AKTIVITAS INSEKTISIDA BAGIAN TUMBUHAN CALOPHYLLUM SOULTTRI BURM.F. (CLU IACEAE) TERHADAP LARVA LEPIDOPTERA

JURNAL HAMA DAN PENYAKIT TUMBUHAN TROPIKA Vol 4, No 1 (2004): Maret, Jurnal Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Tropika
Publisher : Universitas Lampung

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Abstract

 The objective of this test was evaluate the insecticidal activity of ectract of some parts of Calophyllum soulattri (Clusiaceae) against larvae of three species of Lepidoptera, i. e Crocidolomia pavonana, Plutella xylostela, and Pieris sp.. Extraction of plant materials was done by infusion method using ethanol. The bioassays were conducted by leaf-feeding method. Second-instar larvae were fed extract-treated broccoli leaves of 48 hours, then they were presented with untreated leaves until the surviving larvae larvae reached the fourth-instar stage. The number of dead larvae was recorded daily an larval mortality date were analyzed by probit method. The result showed the gummy bark exudates and bark extract of old and young C. soulattri plants were highly active against C. pavonana. The abrk extact of old C. soulattri plant was also effective against P. xilostella and Pieris sp. The gummy exudates possessed strong insecticidal activity against C. pavonana larvae with LC50 of 0.04% and prolonged the developmental time from second to fourth instar of C. soulattri 2.03-7.25 days compared with control. The bark excudate gave positive respon to alkaloid flavonoid, and tannin test. Futher studies are needed to identify insecticidal compound in those active extracts.