Saptadi DARMAWAN
Balai Penelitian Teknologi HHBK, Mataram

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OPTIMASI SUHU DAN LAMA AKTIVASI DENGAN ASAM PHOSFAT DALAM PRODUKSI ARANG AKTIF TEMPURUNG KEMIRI DARMAWAN, Saptadi; PARI, Gustan; SOFYAN, Kurnia
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Hasil Hutan Vol 2, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu Teknologi Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Departemen Hasil Hutan, IPB

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Abstract

Candlenut shell as a lignocelullose raw material is a potential by-product for produce activated charcoal. It’s quality are affected by raw material and activated process i.e. temperature, activation time and activating agent.  This paper intends to study the properties of activated charcoal made from candlenut shell. Candlenut shell was carbonization at 500 °C for 5 hour. Then activated using phosphoric acid in three different temperatures: 600 °C, 700 °C and 800 °C, in the duration time of 90, 120 and 150 minutes.  The result shows that candlenut shell activated charcoal more influence of temperature than activation time. Overall, the activated charcoal met the Indonesian Standard requirement for commercialised activated charcoal with optimation activation at 800 °C  for 120 minute.   Keywords :    Candlenut shell, activated charcoal, optimation, activation, phosphoric acid
EFFECT OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL ADDITION ON FORMALDEHYDE EMISSION OF MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARD Darmawan, Saptadi; Sofyan, Kurnia; Pari, Gustan; Sugiyanto, Krisdianto
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 7, No 2 (2010): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

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Abstract

The manufacturing of medium density fiberboard (MDF) using dry forming process for interior purpose requires extensive amount of thermo-setting urea formaldehyde (UF) adhesive. Unfortunately, this adhesive brings about formaldehyde emission from the resulting MDF, which was potentially harmful to human beings. The use of activated charcoal can be effective to reduce such emission. As the relevance, this research aimed to investigate the effect of activated charcoal addition to the MDF pulp on formaldehyde emission from the MDF. The fibers for the MDF-mat forming were the pulp procured from the MDF factory, resulting from the thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP) conducted on the mixed mangium wood (Acacia mangium) and rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) in 3:1 (w/w) proportion, respectively.  Such mixed TMP pulping was also done in the factor y.  The bonding between TMP pulp fiber during mat forming was assisted by the use of UF adhesive.  Prior to the MDF mat forming , was added to the resulting TMP pulp-fibers activated charcoal in  various amount, 2%, 4% and 6% based on fiber mass as well as based on UF adhesive mass. The activated charcoal was prepared by carbonizing candle nut shell into charcoal followed by activation process using phosphate solution.  Meanwhile the forming of MDF mat employed air-dr y process. As the control, MDF forming with UF adhesive was performed without addition of activated charcoal. It turned out that the activated charcoal-added MDF exhibited effective reduction in formaldehyde emission and significant improvement in physical and mechanical properties, i.e. lower thickness swelling , and greater MOR , MOE and internal bond, compared to the control MDF. The use of activated charcoal at 4% based on the adhesive mass seemed to be the optimum amount.  Physical and mechanical properties of the activated charcoal added MDF could mostly meet the JIS specification.
KARAKTERISASI STRUKTUR NANO KARBON DARI LIGNOSELLULOSA Pari, Gustan; Santoso, Adi; Hendra, Djeni; Buchari, Buchari; Maddu, Akhirudin; Rachmat, Mamat; Harsini, Muji; Heryanto, Teddi; Darmawan, Saptadi
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 31, No 1 (2013):
Publisher : Pusat Litbang Keteknikan Kehutanan dan Pengolahan Hasil Hutan

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Abstract

Perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan abad ini dan yang akan datang sudah memasuki teknologi nano. Di bidang hasil hutan, teknologi nano yang dapat dikembangkan di antaranya adalah nano karbon dari bahan berlignoselulosa. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menyediakan informasi dan teknologi pengolahan arang sebagai bahan baku nano karbon dari bahan lignoselulosa. Bahan baku lignoselulosa yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kayu jati, dan bambu yang dikarbonisasi pada suhu 400-500°C menggunakan kiln drum, arang yang dihasilkan dimurnikan dengan jalan dipanaskan pada suhu 800°C selama 60 menit yang sebelumnya didoping dengan logam Zn, Ni dan Cu. selanjutnya dihaluskan menggunakan high energy mechanic (HEM) selama 48 jam. Arang dengan kristalinitas tinggi disintering menggunakan spark plasma pada suhu 1.300°C. Karbon yang dihasilkan diuji sktuktur dan sifatnya menggunakan Py-GCMS, SEM-EDX, XRD,dan sifat elektrik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan struktur karbon yang terbaik dihasilkan dari arang jati yang dikarbonisasi pada suhu 800°C yang didoping dengan atom Ni pada perbandingan 1:5 yang menghasilkan derajat kristalinitas sebesar 78,98% resistensi (R) 0,17Ω, konduktivitas 175,52 Ω-1m-1. Kualitas nano karbon setelah disintering derajat kristalinitasnya menjadi 81,87%, resistensi (R) 0,01Ω, dan konduktivitasnya sebesar 1067,26 Ω-1m-1. Nano karbon yang dihasilkan dapat dibuat sebagai biosensor, biobatere dan bioelektroda. Sehingga diperlukan penelitian lebih lanjut.
Derajat Kristalinitas dan Struktur Anatomi Kayu Jati Muna Akibat Perlakuan Panas Fendi, .; Kurniaty, Dian; Darmawan, Saptadi
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 22, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (504.992 KB) | DOI: 10.18343/jipi.22.1.20

Abstract

Teak wood (Tectona grandis L.f.) is an important part of building material in Muna, Southeast Sulawesi. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of teakwood Muna namely the degree of crystallinity and the anatomical structure of teakwood after heat treatment for 0.5-12 hours. The results of XRD analysis showed crystallinity diameter without treatment and after treatment of temperature at 90, 120, 150, dan 180 C decreased with increasing temperature namely 5.95; 5.97; 6.02; 6.2; and 7.04 nm. SEM analysis showed teakwood surface profile changes after heat treatment applied.
SIFAT PAPAN SERAT MDF DENGAN PENAMBAHAN ARANG Darmawan, Saptadi; Pari, Gustan; Santoso, Adi
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 28, No 4 (2010): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2010.28.4.394-405

Abstract

Arang dengan strukturnya yang porous memiliki kemampuan menyerap polutan dalam fase cair maupun gas, walaupun tidak sebaik arang aktifnya. Saat ini papan serat kerapatan sedang (medium density fiberboard/MDF) merupakan salah satu produk panel kayu yang berkembang pesat. Pada penelitian ini arang yang ditambahkan dalam pembuatan MDF direkat menggunakan resin urea formaldehida dan dibentuk dengan proses kering, dimana bahan baku serat yang digunakan untuk pembuatan MDF merupakan campuran pulp TMP kayu mangium dan karet pada perbandingan 3:1 (b/b). Sementara itu arang yang digunakan diperoleh dari hasil karbonisasi campuran pulp TMP tersebut. Penggunaan arang dalam pembuatan MDF diharapkan dapat meningkatkan kemampuan daya serapnya. Pada pembuatan MDF, digunakan campuran serat dan arang pulp TMP pada beberapa komposisi yaitu 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 dan 70:30 berdasarkan berat kering. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap kemampuan daya serap MDF terhadap uap atau gas benzena, kloroform dan formaldehida serta menguji sifat fisik, mekanik dan emisi formaldehidanya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin banyak jumlah arang yang digunakan ternyata mampu meningkatkan daya serap MDF terhadap gas yang diuji namun menurunkan sifat fisik dan mekaniknya. Sifat fisik dan mekanik papan serat dengan penambahan arang 10% relatif sama dengan MDF kontrol dan telah memenuhi standar JIS tipe 25 kecuali untuk keteguhan lentur (JIS tipe 15) dan keteguhan rekat internalnya. Penggunaan arang juga mampu memperlambat keluarnya emisi formaldehida dari MDF.
KAJIAN STRUKTUR ARANG-PIROLISIS, ARANG-HIDRO DAN KARBON AKTIF DARI KAYU Acacia mangium Willd. MENGGUNAKAN DIFRAKSI SINAR-X Darmawan, Saptadi; Syafii, Wasrin; Wistara, Nyoman J; Maddu, Akhirudin; Pari, Gustan
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 33, No 2 (2015): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Litbang Keteknikan Kehutanan dan Pengolahan Hasil Hutan

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Abstract

KUALITAS PAPAN ISOLASI DARI CAMPURAN KAYU MANGIUM (Acacia mangium Willd) DAN ARANG Darmawan, Saptadi
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 27, No 4 (2009): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2009.27.4.291-302

Abstract

Potensi kayu berdiameter kecil (<10cm) dari hutan tanaman cukup besar namun belum dimanfaatkan secara optimal. Sesungguhnya kayu tersebut dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan papan isolasi. Pada penelitian ini menggunakan kayu mangium (Acacia mangium) berdiameter kecil untuk dijadikan pulp, kemudian digunakan dalam pembuatan papan isolasi. Selanjutnya guna meningkatkan fungsi dari papan tersebut, tidak hanya sebagai insulation juga sebagai penyerap gas/uap, maka sebelum dibentuk lembaran papan, pulp mangium dicampur terlebih dahulu dengan arang serat (hasil pengarangan serat kayu mangium dan karet) pada beberapa komposisi yaitu 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 (w/w). Pulp mangium dibuat dengan proses soda panas terbuka. Kualitas papan isolasi yang dibuat telah memenuhi standar Jepang kecuali untuk pengembangan tebalnya. Berdasarkan nilai scoring, kerapatan, dan sifat fisik-mekanik papan isolasi serta dibandingkan dengan standar Jepang maka papan isolasi yang optimal diperoleh pada kontrol dan komposisi pulp dan arang 90:10. Sifat-sifat tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa kayu mangium berdiamater kecil dapat dibuat papan isolasi dengan kualitas yang baik.
EFFECT OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL ADDITION ON FORMALDEHYDE EMISSION OF MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARD Darmawan, Saptadi; Sofyan, Kurnia; Pari, Gustan; Sugiyanto, Krisdianto
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 7, No 2 (2010): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (776.644 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2010.7.2.100-111

Abstract

The manufacturing of medium density fiberboard (MDF) using dry forming process for interior purpose requires extensive amount of thermo-setting urea formaldehyde (UF) adhesive. Unfortunately, this adhesive brings about formaldehyde emission from the resulting MDF, which was potentially harmful to human beings. The use of activated charcoal can be effective to reduce such emission. As the relevance, this research aimed to investigate the effect of activated charcoal addition to the MDF pulp on formaldehyde emission from the MDF. The fibers for the MDF-mat forming were the pulp procured from the MDF factory, resulting from the thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP) conducted on the mixed mangium wood (Acacia mangium) and rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) in 3:1 (w/w) proportion, respectively.  Such mixed TMP pulping was also done in the factor y.  The bonding between TMP pulp fiber during mat forming was assisted by the use of UF adhesive.  Prior to the MDF mat forming , was added to the resulting TMP pulp-fibers activated charcoal in  various amount, 2%, 4% and 6% based on fiber mass as well as based on UF adhesive mass. The activated charcoal was prepared by carbonizing candle nut shell into charcoal followed by activation process using phosphate solution.  Meanwhile the forming of MDF mat employed air-dr y process. As the control, MDF forming with UF adhesive was performed without addition of activated charcoal. It turned out that the activated charcoal-added MDF exhibited effective reduction in formaldehyde emission and significant improvement in physical and mechanical properties, i.e. lower thickness swelling , and greater MOR , MOE and internal bond, compared to the control MDF. The use of activated charcoal at 4% based on the adhesive mass seemed to be the optimum amount.  Physical and mechanical properties of the activated charcoal added MDF could mostly meet the JIS specification.
EFFECT OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL ADDITION ON FORMALDEHYDE EMISSION OF MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARD Darmawan, Saptadi; Sofyan, Kurnia; Pari, Gustan; Sugiyanto, Krisdianto
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 7, No 2 (2010): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (776.644 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2010.7.2.100-111

Abstract

The manufacturing of medium density fiberboard (MDF) using dry forming process for interior purpose requires extensive amount of thermo-setting urea formaldehyde (UF) adhesive. Unfortunately, this adhesive brings about formaldehyde emission from the resulting MDF, which was potentially harmful to human beings. The use of activated charcoal can be effective to reduce such emission. As the relevance, this research aimed to investigate the effect of activated charcoal addition to the MDF pulp on formaldehyde emission from the MDF. The fibers for the MDF-mat forming were the pulp procured from the MDF factory, resulting from the thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP) conducted on the mixed mangium wood (Acacia mangium) and rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) in 3:1 (w/w) proportion, respectively.  Such mixed TMP pulping was also done in the factor y.  The bonding between TMP pulp fiber during mat forming was assisted by the use of UF adhesive.  Prior to the MDF mat forming , was added to the resulting TMP pulp-fibers activated charcoal in  various amount, 2%, 4% and 6% based on fiber mass as well as based on UF adhesive mass. The activated charcoal was prepared by carbonizing candle nut shell into charcoal followed by activation process using phosphate solution.  Meanwhile the forming of MDF mat employed air-dr y process. As the control, MDF forming with UF adhesive was performed without addition of activated charcoal. It turned out that the activated charcoal-added MDF exhibited effective reduction in formaldehyde emission and significant improvement in physical and mechanical properties, i.e. lower thickness swelling , and greater MOR , MOE and internal bond, compared to the control MDF. The use of activated charcoal at 4% based on the adhesive mass seemed to be the optimum amount.  Physical and mechanical properties of the activated charcoal added MDF could mostly meet the JIS specification.
KOMPOSISI KIMIA KAYU Acacia mangium Willd DARI BEBERAPA TINGKAT UMUR HASIL TANAM ROTASI PERTAMA Siagian, Rena M; Darmawan, Saptadi; Saepuloh, Saepuloh
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 17, No 1 (1999): Buletin Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.1999.17.1.57–66

Abstract

Penggunaan kayu mangium (Acacia mangium Willd) sebagai  bahan baku pulp sudah  dikenal   baik. Untuk  memperoleh  hasil  yang  lebih optimal  maka perlu dilakukan penelitian  mengenai  sifat  dasarnya pada  beberapa  tingkat  umur.   Sifat dasar yang  diamati pada penelitian  ini meliputi berat jenis,  derajat keasaman  (pH) dan komposisi kimia kayu umur 6, 7, 10, 11 dan12  tahun hasil tanam rotasi I dari Sumatera Selatan.Hasil penelitian  menunjukkan  bahwa  bertambahnya  umur  kayu cenderung menaikkan  berat jenis kayu dan kadar pentosan  dengan nilai berkisar antara 0.47-0.56  dan 16.69%  - 17.84%.   Sedangkan untuk kadar selulosa (52.12% - 50.53%), kadar lignin  (29.81%   -  28.51%), kelarutan     dalam alkohol-benzena  (6. 77%  -4.38%),  kelarutan  dalam air dingin  (4.85% -3.44%)  dan derajat  keasaman  (6. 7 -5. 7)  cenderung turun.  Bertambahnya  umur  kayu  memberikan  nilai  yang  ber- fluktuatif  untuk  kelarutan   dalam  air panas  (4. 74%  -  5.50%),   kelarutan  dalam NaOH  (16.25% - 18.94%),  kadar  abu (0.31%  - 0.83%)  dan kadar silika (0.06%-0.46%). Kayu  mangium  sebagai   bahan  baku  pulp  pada   umur  6  dan  12  tahun  menghasilkan  komponen kimia lebih baik dari pada kayu umur 7, /0 dan 11 tahun. Tetapi apabila  ditinjau dari kandungan selulosa  dan daurnya maka  kayu umur 6 tahun adalah yang terbaik.