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THE CONTENT OF FATTY ACIDS IN INDONESIA’S FISH OIL

Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis Vol 6, No 1 (2014): Electronik Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis

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Abstract

Study of fatty acid content was conducted in six Indonesian fish oils taken from Surabaya, Sorong, Garut, Banyuwangi, and  fish oil standard. The acid and peroxide values were a main parameters which affecting the quality of the fish oil. These parameters were set using the method stated on the SNI No. 01-3555-1998. The oil containing omega-3 such as EPA and DHA is beneficial for health. The study of fatty acid content in six fish oils were analyzed by GCMS Shimadzu QP 2010 ULTRA with FID Detector. RTX-5 were used as a column (diphenyl dimethyl polysiloxane  as a solid buffer, size length 30 m, diameter 0,25 mm, and He as a gas mobile phase).  The results showed that acid values for oil 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 were 0.55%, 0.50%, 0.48%, 0.55%, 0.48%, and 0.58%, respectively. While the peroxide values were 5.67, 4.72, 4.45,5.01, 4.85, and 5.27 meq/kg, respectively. GCMS analysis showed that fish oil 1, 2, 3, and 4  very dominant containing squalene of  29.45%, 32.34%, 21.07%, and 43.49%, respectively. While oil 6 contained EPA of 8.97% and DHA 6.56%, and that was the highest compared with other oils. However, oil 6 also contained a trans fatty acids i.e., elaidic acid of 26.8% and trans-13-docosanoic acid of 0.9%. For comparison, natural oil 5 was rich of linoleic acid  (39.58%).  The GCMSs analysis results proved that the oil 6 made from lemuru had a big potency to be developed for an Indonesian fish oil export comodity. Keywords: fish oil, EPA, DHA, squalena, GCMS, acid value, peroxide value

StudiIn SilicoSenyawaTurunan8-Tersubtitusi-7-Methoxy-2h-Chromen-2-OneSebagaiPenghambatEnzim Telomerase

Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia Vol 10, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Adjustment of telomere length by telomerase is considered as a biological marker which determine the proliferation of cancer cells. The telomerase activity in cancer cells is potential to be targeted for cancer therapies. The aim of this study was QSAR studies to determine the descriptors that affect the anticancer activity of 8-substituted-7-methoxy-2H-chromen-2-one derivatives. The descriptors were calculated by using software MOE® 2009.10. to design new derivative compounds that have anticancer potency, to predict pharmacokinetic properties by using preADMET, and to predict tocixity by ADMET predictorTM and interaction predict to telomerase by using Autodock 4.2.6  The results showed QSAR equation was log IC50 = -1.358 (± 1.149) - 2.957 (± 1.019) × AM1_LUMO + 0.041 (± 0.011) × E_vdw + 2.367 (± 0.748) × glob + 0.487 (± 0.100) × log S. Fourteen of the new derivative compounds were designed based on QSAR equation revealed higher activity prediction than the lead compound and performed good absorption in the intestine. Compound (33) is predicted to have low permeability in Caco-2 cells and weakly bound to plasma proteins. Compound (50) predicted weakly bound to plasma proteins as well. Toxicity prediction showed that 9 derivatives compounds were predicted to have lower nearly equal toxicity to the toxicity of the lead compound. The study of the interaction of compounds with the receptor showed that derivatives (2), (4), (40) and (41) have the highest affinity to the receptor TERT with the binding free energy is −9.60 kcal / mol, −9.39 kcal / mol, −9.20 kcal / mol and -9.08 kcal / mol. Based on QSAR study, pharmacokinetic profile, toxicity, and the study of the interaction, four compounds have the potential to be develop as anticancer with telomerase inhibition.

Lactobacillus plantarum as Biopreservative Agent in Paneer for Dietary Food of Diabetic and Coronary Heart Disease Patients

Indonesian Journal of Clinical Pharmacy Vol 6, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Indonesian Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

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Abstract

Paneer is a food product that is obtained by heating milk followed by acid coagulation. It is known asa diet food that is recommended for diabetic and coronary heart disease patients. A relatively shortershelf life of paneer is considered to be a major hurdle in its production. The present preliminary studywas conducted to determine antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus plantarum against Eschericia coliand Bacillus cereus, to develop it as biopreservative agent in paneer before using it for dietary food ofdiabetic and coronary heart disease patients in next clinical study. The antibacterial activities were testedthrough Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC)using microdilution well method. Biopreservative activity in paneer was tested using total plate countmethod based on time and temperature variations. Result showed that Lactobacillus plantarum inhibitedBacillus cereus and Eschericia coli with MIC of 3125 and 1562.5 μg/mL whereas MBC was in a value of>6250 and >3125 μg/mL, respectively. As a biopreservative agent, addition of Lactobacillus plantarumto paneer showed no bacterial growth until 7 days in room temperature and 9th day in cold temperature. Itis concluded that Lactobacillus plantarum could be used as a natural biopreservative agent for extendingthe shelf life of paneer. The paneer with addition of Lactobacillus plantarum as biopreservative will thenbe consumed by diabetic patient and coronary heart patients in next clinical study.

THE CONTENT OF FATTY ACIDS IN INDONESIA’S FISH OIL

Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis Vol 6, No 1 (2014): Electronik Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (245.394 KB)

Abstract

Study of fatty acid content was conducted in six Indonesian fish oils taken from Surabaya, Sorong, Garut, Banyuwangi, and  fish oil standard. The acid and peroxide values were a main parameters which affecting the quality of the fish oil. These parameters were set using the method stated on the SNI No. 01-3555-1998. The oil containing omega-3 such as EPA and DHA is beneficial for health. The study of fatty acid content in six fish oils were analyzed by GCMS Shimadzu QP 2010 ULTRA with FID Detector. RTX-5 were used as a column (diphenyl dimethyl polysiloxane  as a solid buffer, size length 30 m, diameter 0,25 mm, and He as a gas mobile phase).  The results showed that acid values for oil 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 were 0.55%, 0.50%, 0.48%, 0.55%, 0.48%, and 0.58%, respectively. While the peroxide values were 5.67, 4.72, 4.45,5.01, 4.85, and 5.27 meq/kg, respectively. GCMS analysis showed that fish oil 1, 2, 3, and 4  very dominant containing squalene of  29.45%, 32.34%, 21.07%, and 43.49%, respectively. While oil 6 contained EPA of 8.97% and DHA 6.56%, and that was the highest compared with other oils. However, oil 6 also contained a trans fatty acids i.e., elaidic acid of 26.8% and trans-13-docosanoic acid of 0.9%. For comparison, natural oil 5 was rich of linoleic acid  (39.58%).  The GCMSs analysis results proved that the oil 6 made from lemuru had a big potency to be developed for an Indonesian fish oil export comodity. Keywords: fish oil, EPA, DHA, squalena, GCMS, acid value, peroxide value

Molecular Docking, Dynamics Simulation, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Examination of Clinically Isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Ursolic Acid: A Pentacyclic Triterpenes

Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Article in press
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to analyze the inhibitory action of ursolic acid (UA) as an antitubercular agent by computational docking studies and molecular dynamics simulations. The effect of UA on the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) was evaluated by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). UA was used as a ligand for molecular interaction and investigate its binding activities to a group of proteins involved in the growth of MTB and the biosynthesis of the cell wall. Computational docking analysis was performed by using autodock 4.2.6 based on scoring functions. UA binding was confirmed by 30 ns molecular dynamics simulation using gromacs 5.1.1. H37Rv sensitive strain and isoniazid-resistant strain were used in the SEM study. UA showed to have the optimum binding affinity to inhA (Two-trans-enoyl-ACP reductase enzyme involved in elongation of fatty acid) with the binding energy of -9.2 kcal/mol. The dynamic simulation showed that the UA-inhA complex relatively stable and found to establish hydrogen bond with Thr196 and Ile194. SEM analysis confirms that UA treatment in both sensitive strain and resistant strain affected the morphology cell wall of MTB. This result indicated that UA could be one of the potential ligands for the development of new antituberculosis drugs.

ISOLATE OF HETEROTROPHIC MICROALGAE AS A POTENTIAL SOURCE FOR DOCOHEXAENOIC ACID (DHA)

Marine Research in Indonesia Vol 43, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Oceanography - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)

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Abstract

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is one of essential fatty acids that are beneficial to health. Nowadays, the source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is mainly obtained from fish which are extracted into fish oil products. However, the fish oil products still have some drawbacks in term of purity, acceptable flavor for costumers, and also their not environmental friendly production process. As an alternative solution, heterotrophic microalgae can be used as a potential source for DHA due to their excellence compared to fish oil products. The aim of this study is to isolate the heterotropic microalgae that can produce DHA. The heterotrophic microalgae were isolated from mangrove fallen leaves (Rhizophora apiculata) by using direct planting method. The morphology of pure microalgae colony were observed through light microscope and subsequently fermented for 14 days. Fatty acids were extracted and methylated through direct transesterification method. Identification and quantification of DHA were conducted by using gas chromatography. The results were four isolates of heterotropic microalgae, namely MTKC1, MTKC2, MTKC3, and MTKC4. The extract of MTKC2 that only showed the content of DHA with value of 9.2 % w/w. Therefore MTKC2 is a potential source for DHA. The MTKC2 was further identified by using molecular biology method and confirmed as Thraustochytrium aureum.

EVALUASI FORMULA KRIM MINYAK BIJI DELIMA (PUNICA GRANATUM L.) DAN UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DENGAN METODE β-CAROTENE BLEACHING

Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol 3 No 2 (2015): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117

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Abstract

Minyak biji delima memiliki aktivitas antioksidan kuat, sehingga berpotensi untuk diformulasi menjadi sediaan antioksidan topikal. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi formula sediaan krim minyak biji delima dan menguji aktivitas antioksidan dari sediaan tersebut. Krim a/m diformulasi menggunakan emulgator Tween 80- Span 80. Evaluasi sediaan meliputi pemeriksaan pH dan viskositas sediaan yang disimpan selama 4 minggu pada suhu kamar, stabilitas fisik dengan metode Freeze Thaw sebanyak 4 siklus dimana 1 siklus terdiri dari 48 jam pada suhu 4°C dan 48 jam pada suhu 40°C. Potensi antioksidan diuji dengan metode β-Carotene Bleaching. Formula krim yang mengandung minyak biji delima 1% stabil secara fisik. Hasil uji efek antioksidan menunjukkan persen penghambatan minyak biji delima murni dan minyak biji delima dalam bentuk krim terhadap penurunan warna β-Carotene berturut-turut adalah 73,41% dan 52,80%. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa aktivitas antioksidan minyak biji delima dalam bentuk krim mengalami penurunan 0,3 kali.Kata kunci: krim, minyak biji delima, antioksidan, β-Carotene BleachingABSTRACTPomegranate seed oil has a potent antioxidant activity that is potential to be formulate into topical antioxidant dosage form. The purpose of this study is to formulate cream of pomegranate seed oil that physically stable, however have antioxidant activity. Cream w/o was formulated using Tween 80 - Span 80 as emulsifier. Evaluation of cream products includes determining pH and viscosity of the preparations stored for 4 weeks at room temperature, physical stability test by Freeze Thaw method which was carried out for 4 cycles in where 1 cycle consists of 48 hours at 4°C and 48 hours at 40°C. Antioxidant activity was tested by β-carotene bleaching method. The results of the research showed that all cream formulas containing pomegranate seed oil 1% were physically stable and can increase the comfortness in use on the skin. The antioxidant test results showed antioxidant activity of pure pomegranate seed oil and pomegranate seed oil as formulated in creams have antioxidant capacity with inhibition percentage of 73.41% and 52.80%, respectively. Based on these results it can be concluded that the antioxidant activity of pomegranate seed oil in cream decreased 0,3 times.Keywords: cream, pomegranate seed oil, antioxidant, β-Carotene Bleaching

ISOLATE OF HETEROTROPHIC MICROALGAE AS A POTENTIAL SOURCE FOR DOCOHEXAENOIC ACID (DHA)

Marine Research in Indonesia Vol 43 No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Oceanography - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2269.65 KB)

Abstract

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is one of essential fatty acids that are beneficial to health. Nowadays, the source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is mainly obtained from fish which are extracted into fish oil products. However, the fish oil products still have some drawbacks in term of purity, acceptable flavor for costumers, and also their not environmental friendly production process. As an alternative solution, heterotrophic microalgae can be used as a potential source for DHA due to their excellence compared to fish oil products. The aim of this study is to isolate the heterotropic microalgae that can produce DHA. The heterotrophic microalgae were isolated from mangrove fallen leaves (Rhizophora apiculata) by using direct planting method. The morphology of pure microalgae colony were observed through light microscope and subsequently fermented for 14 days. Fatty acids were extracted and methylated through direct transesterification method. Identification and quantification of DHA were conducted by using gas chromatography. The results were four isolates of heterotropic microalgae, namely MTKC1, MTKC2, MTKC3, and MTKC4. The extract of MTKC2 that only showed the content of DHA with value of 9.2 % w/w. Therefore MTKC2 is a potential source for DHA. The MTKC2 was further identified by using molecular biology method and confirmed as Thraustochytrium aureum.

Interaction Study, Synthesis and Characterization of Molecular Imprinted Polymer Using Functional Monomer Methacrylate Acid and Dimethylamylamine as Template Molecule

JURNAL ILMU KEFARMASIAN INDONESIA Vol 16 No 1 (2018): JIFI
Publisher : Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

The research related to the interaction study, synthesis and characterization of molecular imprinted polymer using dimethylamylamine (DMAA) as the template molecule and the functional monomer methacrylate acid has been conducted. Molecular Imprinted Polymer (MIP) is a separation method made by the molecule template in the polymer matrix followed by removing the template molecule by washing for giving the permanent framework groove. The MIP was made by mixing the DMAA as the template molecule, with the methacrylate acid as the functional monomer, and the ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the crosslinker with the ratio 1:6:20. Porogen solvents used were the chloroform and the initiator azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN). The crystal MIP and the NIP without the DMAA were characterized using Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR), and the result showed that there have been differences among the MIP, the NIP and the MIP after being extracted. The characterization using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) showed that the NIP as the comparison having flat morphology, while the MIP having irregular morphology and less pores. Then the MIP after being extracted has irregular, rough morphology and a lot of pores. The result reveals the interaction between the DMAA and the methacrylate acid that is the hydrogen bonded with the Gibbs free energy obtained is -5.434 j/mol. The imprinting factor of 2,353 is obtained. The highest desorption descending capacity is chloroform with the MIP 738% better. For the MIP and NIP methanol, it is found that the MIP is 123% better. Then the MIP which is desorbed by the chloroform is better 602% than the MIP resorbed by the methanol, and the ethyl acetate cannot desorb the DMAA.

Reseptor P2Y G-Protein Couple Receptors (GPCRs): Target Menarik Pengembangan Obat Baru

JURNAL FARMASI GALENIKA Vol 2 No 01 (2015): JURNAL FARMASI GALENIKA
Publisher : Sekolah Tinggi Farmasi Bandung

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Abstract

P2Y purinergik reseptor adalah bagian dari G-protein couple receptor (GPCRs), group reseptor yang merupakan target utama pada berbagai pengobatan. Hingga kini, delapan subtipe reseptor P2Y telahdiidentifikasi. Kelompok pertama dari P2Yadalah reseptor P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, dan P2Y11. Reseptor P2Yditemukan di berbagai lokasi di dalam tubuh seperti otak, limfosit, paru-paru, sel darah dan lain-lain. Salah satu reseptor yaitu reseptor P2Y12 memainkan peran utama dalam aktivasi trombosit. Reseptor ini dilaporkan untuk mengambil bagian dalam amplifikasi dan penyelesaian aktivasi platelet dan agregasi antagonis reseptor P2Y12 yang telah dikenal untuk pengobatan adalah clopidogrel dan ticlopidin. Berdasarkan lokasi dan peran P2Y reseptor dalam berbagai fungsi tubuh, dapat disimpulkan bahwa P2Y reseptor merupakan salah satu reseptor yang dapat dijadikan pengembangan obat secara rasional berdasarkan target.