Articles

ASSESSING ECOLOGICAL RESILIENCE OF INDONESIAN CORAL REEFS Bachtiar, Imam; Damar, Ario; ., Suharsono; Zamani, Neviaty P.
JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 14, No 3 (2011): Volume 14, Number 3, Year 2011
Publisher : JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

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Abstract

Ecological resilience is an important property of natural ecosystem to be understood in coral reef management. Resilience of Indonesian coral reefs was assessed using 2009 COREMAP data. The assessment used 698 data of line intercept transects collected from 15 districts and 4 marine physiographies. Resilience index used in the assessment was developed by the authors but will be published elsewhere. The results showed that coral reefs at western region had higher average resilience indices than eastern region, and Sunda Shelf reefs had higher resilience indices than coral reefs at Indian Ocean, Sulawesi-Flores, or Sahul Shelf. Four districts were found to have coral reefs with highest resilience indices, i.e. Bintan and Natuna (western region), and Wakatobi and Buton (eastern region). Raja Ampat had coral reefs with lower average resilience indices than that of Wakatobi. Uses of resilience index in coral reef management should be coupled with other information such as maximum depth of coral communities.  
Prediksi Sebaran Suhu dari Air Buangan Sistem Air Pendingin PT. Badak NGL di Perairan Bontang Menggunakan Model Numerik Kasman, Kasman; Nurjaya, I Wayan; Damar, Ario; Muchsin, Ismudi; Arifin, Zaenal
ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 15, No 4 (2010): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Tingginya suhu buangan air pendingin PT. Badak NGL yang dilepas ke Perairan Bontang menyebabkan terganggunya berbagai sumberdaya pesisir yang ada disekitarnya. Karena itu perlu diketahui pola sebaran suhu agar dampak yang mungkin timbul dapat diminimalkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memprediksi pola sebaran suhu dari buangan air pendingin PT. Badak NGL di Perairan Bontang, Kalimantan Timur. Prediksi dilakukan dengan menggunakan model hidrodinamika dan transpor suhu 3-D yang dimodifikasi dari model POM (Princeton Ocean Model). Gaya pembangkit yang digunakan dalam model adalah pasang surut, debit buangan air pendingin dan debit sungai. Pemilihan langkah waktu (t)=0,5 detik, dengan 118 grid (barat-timur) dan 187 grid (utara-selatan), ukuran grid Δx=Δy=30 m. Nilai awal : u=v=ζ=0, T0 = 28 °C dan S0 = 32 ‰. Verifikasi elevasi dan suhu antara hasil model dengan hasil pengukuran menunjukkan kesesuaian yang baik dengan nilai korelasi 0,97 dan Kesalahan Relatif Rata-rata (Mean Relative Error/MRE) 1,31% untuk verifikasi elevasi, korelasi 0,90 dan MRE 5,17% untuk verifikasi suhu permukaan pada saat bulan purnama serta korelasi 0,87 dan MRE 7,12% saat bulan perbani. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan perbedaan pola sebaran suhu permukaan paling ekstrim ditemukan pada saat purnama untuk kondisi cuplik pasang maksimum dan surut maksimum. Perbedaan terutama terlihat pada Stasiun 8 (Muara Kanal Pendingin) yakni 41 °C saat surut maksimum dan saat pasang maksimum (ΔT=6 °C). Adapun perbedaan suhu antara lapisan atas dan lapisan bawah yang cukup besar ditemukan di Stasiun C yakni sekitar 2,54 C saat  untuk skenario musim kemarau dan 2,32 C untuk skenario musim hujan Kata kunci : POM, buangan air pendingin, sebaran suhu, debit sungai, model numerik, Perairan Bontang High temperature of cooling water discharge of PT. Badak NGL that released to Bontang waters caused disturbances to the coastal resources in its surrounding. Therefore, it is urgent to understand the pattern of thermal dispersion in order to minimize the possible impacts occurred.  This research was aimed to predict the pattern of thermal dispersion from cooling water discharge of PT. Badak NGL in Bontang waters, East Kalimantan. Prediction was done using hydrodynamic model and 3-D thermal transport modified from POM (Princeton Ocean Model). Driving forces used in this model were tides, flows of cooling water discharge and rivers discharge.  Choice of time step (t)=0.5 second, with 118 grids (west-east) and 187 grids (north-south), grid size Δx=Δy=30 m. Initial value : u=v=ζ=0, T0 = 28 °C and S0 = 32 ‰. Verification of elevation and temperature between results of models and direct measurement showed a good suitability with correlation value was 0.97 and Mean Relative Error (MRE) 1.31% for elevation verification, correlation 0.90 MRE 5.17% and correlation 0.87 MRE 7.12% for thermal verification during spring and neap tides, repectively. Results simulation revealed the most extreem difference in pattern surface thermal dispersion that found during spring tide for sampling condition of maximum tide and ebb. Distinct difference was especially found at station 8 (mixing point) i.e. 41 °C during maximum ebb and 35 °C during maximum high tide. Whereas, significantly high thermal difference between upper layer and bottom layer was found at station C i.e. around 2,54 °C for dry season scenario and 2,32 °C for wet season scenario Key words: POM, cooling-water discharge, thermal dispersion, rivers discharge, numerical model, Bontang waters
ANALISIS KEBERLANJUTAN PENGELOLAAN EKOSISTEM TERUMBU KARANG DI KAWASAN KONSERVASI LAUT DAERAH BINTAN TIMUR KEPULAUAN RIAU Purbayanto, Ari; Budiharso, Sugeng; Damar, Ario
Jurnal Perikanan Dan kelautan Vol 17, No 01 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Perikanan Dan kelautan

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Abstract

Coral reef ecosystem management in Regional Marine Conservation Area(RMCA) Bintan Timur is still a sectoral and not based on the consideration ofmulti-sectoral and multi-dimensional, so that it can cause environmental damageand social problems. The objectives of this study are: (1) to analyze the index andsustainability status of coral reef management in RMCA Bintan Timur, and (2) toanalyze the key factors for sustainable management of coral reef ecosystems.Sustainability analysis conducted by the method of Multi Dimensional Scaling(MDS) approach with Rap-Insus COREMAG techniques (Rapid Appraisal-IndexSustainability of Coral Reef Management). Analysis of key factors ofsustainability management performed a prospective analysis of the sensitivityfactors (leverage factor) of the MDS and the factors from the analysis ofstakeholders needs. The results showed that the status of sustainability of coralreef management in RMCA Bintan Timur was quite sustainable with amultidimensional index of 55.02. There were ten key factors that influence to thesustainability, namely the condition of coral reefs, protected area, the publicrevenue, tourism employment, human resource availability, government policies,coordination among stakeholders, community compliance, environmental legalcounseling, and surveillance infrastructure.
Design on Watershed and Coastal Management Policy System: Case Study on Citarum’s Watershed and its Estuary West Java ., Edwarsyah; Kusumastanto, Tridoyo; Hardjomidjojo, Hartrisari; Damar, Ario
Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol 32, No 4 (2009): Forum Pascasarjana
Publisher : Forum Pasca Sarjana

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The objective of this research is to formulate a specific model of Citarum’s watershed and its coastal management policy.  The method applied in the research is the descriptive method or retrospective through a study case with an approach system.  The multidimensional systematic approach is applied to formulate policies, to develop scenario strategies involving several stakeholders and experts on coastal areas and regional and inter sectors.  The results of the research determine that the economical value relating with the aspects of pollution which in general involves replacement costs indicate impacts of pollution from public activities in the coastal stream in de facto costs Rp 31 billion/year.  The Index Value of a Sustainable Watershed and Coastal Management System (IkB-SIPPDAS) applied in the study area according to a multidimensional Rap-SIPPDAS method for upland, center and downstream area of the Citarum’s Watershed are 38.23; 38.27; and 33.59 respectively in a sustainability scale of     0-100, showing a non-sustainable status.  The analysis result for every dimension of development management indicates that the economical dimension for the upland, middle and coastal part of the Citarum Watershed contains the highest index rate, which amounts up to 88.29.  The index value is categorized ”good” or sustainable with the lowest value in ecology.  The results of the statistics indicates that the Rap-SIPPDAS method is effective enough for application as a method to evaluate the Watershed and Coastal Management System in a specific river stream or a rapid appraisal area.  The selected ideal design of the three scenarios for the watershed management policy and West Java’s Citarum coastal area is the progressive-optimistic scenario stressing the possible future condition to receive maximum support or in other words the scenario is based on the scientific way of thinking and being optimistic about the future.   Key words: watershed, coastal, scenario, system, management, pollutant, policy
Plancton Population Dynamics in Area Fishing Ground of Tiger Prawn Post Larvae and Milk Fish Fry on Coastal Water of Suppa Distric Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi Umar, Nur Asia; Kaswadji, Richardus F.; Damar, Ario; Muchsin, Ismudi; Nurjaya, I Wayan
Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol 32, No 2 (2009): Forum Pascasarjana
Publisher : Forum Pasca Sarjana

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This research to study relation between environment parameter, plankton abundance and primary productivity with abundance of tiger prawn post larvae and milk fish fry, calculates plankton predating rate speed by tiger prawn post larvae and milk fish fry and other larva and studies plankton population dynamics, tiger prawn post larvae and milk fish fry before, at the time and after peak season.  Result of research indicates that some environment parameters significant differs according to observation period and season.  Highest abundance of tiger prawn post larva, milk fish fry and other larva reaches to 29067, 7733 and 54400 ind/1000 m3. Highest grazing rate to population of phytoplankton and plankton (phytoplankton + zooplankton) found when predator consisted of tiger prawn post larva, milk fish fry and other larva with grazing rate up to 125 cells/liter/hour and 129 plankter /liter/hour respectively.  Highest predating rate to zooplankton population when predator consist of tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry and there is phytoplankton as their prey up to 12 individual/liter/hour.  The certain plankton species significant correlation and estimated as natural food of tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry that is some types of diatom and crustaceae from zooplankton.  Plankton population dynamics especially controlled by predator by tiger prawn post larva, milk fish fry and other larva, while influence of environment parameter is small relative. Abundance of each phytoplankton and zooplankton ranged from 583-28563 cells/liter and 22-3413 ind/liter.  Average abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton significant differs higher at peak season compare  before and after tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry season. Predator-prey relation between phytoplankton and zooplankton shows phase change which succession between phytoplankton controls to zooplankton phases with zooplankton control to phytoplankton.  Abundance of plankton influences abundance of population of tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry especially after peak season.  There is concordance of time between peak abundance of tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry and other larva with peak abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton.   Key words : population dynamics, predating, predating rate, predator, prey, phytoplankton, zooplankton, tiger prawn post larva, milk fish fry, other larva, Pinrang
Study of Mangrove Areas Characteristic and Suitability for Mangrove Ecotourism Activity in Togean Islands of Togean Islands National Park Laapo, Alimudin; Fahrudin, Achmad; Bengen, Dietriech G.; Damar, Ario
Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol 33, No 4 (2010): Forum Pascasarjana
Publisher : Forum Pasca Sarjana

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The mangrove area of Togean Islands have been used for marine ecotourism activities.  The increasing of anthropogenic activities affected to decreasing of mangrove area and mangrove tourism attractive.  This research aim to assess characteristic and suitability of mangrove forest area for mangrove ecotourism uses.  The data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and spatial analysis with geographic information system (GIS) approach.  The result showed that the correlation value of those four parameters was relatively higher in November than in July.  Those parameters were the component that forms the main axis in both month. The increasing of turbidity and decreasing of salinity in November rather than in July were correlated with rainy season.  Generally, mangrove area in Togean Islands was suitable with conditional categories to mangrove ecotourism uses.  Ecotourism has the most potential to meet these goals and it will be able to tackle most of the problems when GIS technology would be used as a tool to minimize the impact.   Keywords: area suitability, mangrove, ecotourism, Togean Islands
Studi Dinamika Ekosistem Perairan Di Teluk Lampung: Pemodelan Gabungan Hidrodinamika-Ekosistem Koropitan, Alan Frendy; Hadi, Safwan; Radjawane, Ivonne M.; Damar, Ario
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Perairan dan Perikanan Indonesia Vol 11, No 1 (2004): Juni 2004
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji dinamika ekosistem perairan di Teluk Lampung dengan menggunakan gabungan model hidrodinamika-ekosistem dengan pendekatan numerik. Secara umum, hasil simulasi pola arus residu M2 cenderung masuk dari mulut teluk sebelah barat, sebagian terus memasuki sampai kepala teluk dan sebagian keluar kembali dari mulut teluk bagian timur. Selain itu, terlihat pula adanya suatu eddy yang mengalir berlawanan arah jarum jam di sekitar kepala teluk. Pola penyebaran masing-masing kompartimen ekosistem hasil model memiliki kesamaan dengan hasil pengamatan di lapangan, serta konsisten dengan pola arus residu M2. Pengaruh suplai dari sungai, interaksi antara proses biologis seperti produktifitas primer, sekunder (pemangsaan), kematian alami plankton, serta proses dekomposisi oleh bakteri belum begitu berperan dalam neraca dan standing stock ekosistem di Teluk Lampung. Peranan suplai dari laut lebih dominan dibanding dengan proses-proses biokimiawi yang berinteraksi di dalam teluk. Hasil perhitungan tingkat efisiensi aliran energi dari proses dekomposisi dan produksi urine zooplankton ke produktifitas primer mengalami kehilangan sebesar 30.48 %, sementara dari produktifitas primer ke produktifitas sekunder (pemangsaan) mengalami penambahan 17.24 %.Kata kunci: dinamika ekosistem, Teluk Lampung, gabungan model hidrodinamika-ekosistem, arus residu M2.
A Short Review on the Recent Problem of Red Tide in Jakarta Bay: Effect of Red Tide on Fish and Human Wardiatno, Yusli; Damar, Ario; Sumartono, Bambang
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Perairan dan Perikanan Indonesia Vol 11, No 1 (2004): Juni 2004
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Red tide atau sering disebut blooming fitoplankton merupakan fenomena alam yang sering terjadi. Nampaknya frekuensi, intensitas dan distribusi blooming fitoplankton meningkat dalam 10 tahun belakangan ini. Red tide dapat didefinisikan sebagai suatu kondisi dimana tanaman sel satu berukuran kecil yang hidup di laut dan tumbuh dengan sangat cepat dan terakumulasi dalam suatu kumpulan yang mudah terlihat  di permukaan air laut. Kejadian red tide sangat terkait dengan eutrofikasi dan kondisi lingkungan yang mendukung, seperti kecukupan cahaya, kondisi suhu yang sesuai, dan masukan bahan organik dari daratan setelah hujan besar. Efek langsung red tide terhadap ikan sangat merusak insang, baik secara mekanis ataupun melalui pembentukan bahan kimia beracun, neurotoksin, hemolitik atau bahan penggumpal darah, yang dapat menyebabkan kerusakan fisiologi insang, organ utama (seperti hati), usus, sistem sirkuler atau pernapasan, ataupun mengganggu proses osmoregulasi. Sebaliknya, efek tidak langsung red tide adalah akibat penggunaan oksigen yang berlebihan untuk respirasi dan pembusukan kumpulan fitoplankton. Beberapa organisme penyebab red tide dapat membahayakan manusia apabila manusia makan hewan filter feeder (seperti ikan atau kerang) yang mengandung racun organisme red tide yang telah dimakan ikan atau kerang tersebut.Kata kunci: red tide, eutrofikasi, Teluk Jakarta.
PRODUKTIVITAS PRIMER FITOPLANKTON DAN KETERKAITANNYA DENGAN UNSUR HARA DAN CAHAYA DI PERAIRAN TELUK BANTEN ,, Alianto; M. Adiwilaga, Enan; Damar, Ario
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Perairan dan Perikanan Indonesia Vol 15, No 1 (2008): Juni 2008
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Pada ekosistem perairan, keberadaan cahaya dan unsur hara di kolom air merupakan faktor utama yang mengontrol laju produktivitas primer fitoplankton. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara produktivitas primer fitoplankton dengan keberadaan intensitas cahaya dan unsur hara di kolom perairan Teluk Banten. Pengukuran produktivitas primer dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode oksigen botol terang dan gelap. Pengambilan contoh air laut untuk pengukuran produktivitas primer dan unsur hara dilakukan pada dua stasiun dengan empat titik kedalaman. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas primer fitoplankton pada setiap kedalaman inkubasi berkisar dari 13.56-29.59 mg C/m3/jam di kedua stasiun pengamatan. Terdapat kecenderungan kolom perairan di lokasi penelitian termasuk massa airnya tercampur. Hal ini terlihat dari distribusi vertikal unsur hara yang homogen. Disamping itu, cahaya cenderung berkurang dengan bertambahnya kedalaman. Terdapat hubungan yang sangat erat antara cahaya yang ada di kolom air dengan produktivitas primer (82% dan 64%) dan sebaliknya, unsur hara dengan produktivitas primer berkorelasi lemah (berkisar antara 0.9%-16.5%). Cahaya lebih bersifat sebagai pembatas dibanding unsur hara bagi produktivitas primer.Kata kunci: produktivitas primer fitoplankton, cahaya, DIN (nitrogen anorganik terlarut), DIP (fosfat anorganikterlarut).
Komunitas fitoplankton di perairan Danau Laut Tawar Kabupaten Aceh Tengah, Provinsi Aceh N, Nurfadillah; Damar, Ario; M. Adiwilaga, Enan
DEPIK Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Perairan, Pesisir dan Perikanan Vol 1, No 2 (2012): August 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Marine and Fisheries, Syiah Kuala University

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Abstract

Abstract. The aims of the present study was to evaluate community structure and biomass of phytoplankton based on the depth stratification in the waters of Lake Laut Tawar. Sampling was conducted during March and April 2010. The results showed that 43 species of phytoplankton belonging to five classes were found in Lake Laut tawar. The most common class was Chlorophyceae with 20 genera, followed by Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) by 9 genera, Cyanophyceae (10 genera), Dinophyceae (2 genera), and Euglenophyceae (2 genera). The highest species composition was found at II with 15 m depth (24 genera), while the highest abundance of phytoplankton was occured at station with 10 depth (155600 cells/l), while the lowest abundance was obtained at 15 depth (12745 cells/l). Overall the phytoplankton population in Lake Laut Tawar was dominated by Bacillarophyceae. In addition, the diversity index of phytoplankton was in moderate level (2.34), while the evenness index was ranged from 0.43 to 0.87, indicate the distribution of the individuals of each species was varied, however there was no predominant species detected.Keywords. Phytoplankton, structure community, Laut Tawar Lake.
Co-Authors -, Paryono ., Febrizal Abd Saddam Mujib, Abd Saddam Abdul Haris Achmad Djaelani, Achmad Achmad Fahrudin Adi, Nyoman Darma Aditriawan, Reiza Maulana Aditya Bramana, Aditya Adriman, Adriman Agustinus M Samosir Akhmad Solihin Alan Frendy Koropitan Alianto , Alianto Alianto Alimudin Laapo Amrial, Yudhi Ari Purbayanto Asriansyah, Aries Ayu Andriani, Ayu Bambang Sumartono Batu, DTF Lumban Bengen, Dietiech G. Budy Wiryawan Charles P.H. Simanjuntak, Charles P.H. Cicik Kurniawati, Cicik DEDI SOEDHARMA Dewayani Sutrisno Dietriech G Bengen Dietriech G. Bengen Edwarsyah . Eka Syaputra, Dedy Enan M. Adiwilaga Enan M. Adiwilaga Enang Harris Ferdinan Yulianda Flandrianto Sih Palimirmo, Flandrianto Sih Fredinan Yulianda Hartrisari Hardjomidjojo Hawis Madduppa Hefni Effendi Heny Suseno I Wayan Nurjaya Idqan Fahmi Imam Bachtiar Imam Bahtiar, Imam Inul Adkha, Inul Ismudi Muchsin Ivonne M. Radjawane Kamal, M. Muklis Kasman Kasman Luky Adrianto M F Rahardjo M. Taufik M.F. Rahardjo, M.F. Majariana Krisanti Masykhur Abdul Kadir, Masykhur Abdul Mennofatria Boer Muarif, Muarif Neneng Marlian, Neneng Neviaty P Zamani Neviaty P. Zamani Nur Asia Umar Nurfadillah N Nurjaya, I.W. P . Zamani, Neviaty Pana, Otto Baka Paryono Paryono Paulus Boli Pertami, Nyoman Dati Rahmat Kurnia Reny Puspasari, Reny Richardus F. Kaswadji Rifki Aldi Ramadhani, Rifki Aldi Rilus Kinseng Rokhmin Dahuri Roni Hermawan, Roni Safwan Hadi Santoso Rahardjo, Santoso Setyo Budi Susilo Setyo Budi Susilo Setyo Budl Susilo, Setyo SIGID HARIYADI sigit winarno Singgih Afifa Putra Sugeng Budiharso Sugeng Budiharsono Suharsono . Suharsono _, Suharsono Suhery, Noveldesra Suryo Sukoraharjo, Sri Tridoyo Kusumastanto Wiadnyana, Ngurah Nyoman Yusli Wardiatno Zaenal Arifin