Shofa Chasani
Nefrologi-Hipertensi Division, Master Program of Biomedical Science, Medical Faculty of UNDIP

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FAKTOR RISIKO HIPERTENSI PADA MASYARAKAT DI DESA KABONGAN KIDUL, KABUPATEN REMBANG Kartikasari, Agnesia Nuarima; Chasani, Shofa; Ismail, Akhmad
MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA 2012:MMM VOLUME 1 NUMBER 1 YEAR 2012
Publisher : MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA

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Background: Hypertension is a public health problem for considering the high prevalence in Indonesia. Hypertension can lead to complications such as heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure. Hypertension is caused by the interaction of various risk factors.Objectives: For knowing the risk factors that influence hypertension on the people of Kabongan Kidul village, Rembang Regency, Central Java.Methods: This research type is analytic observational study with case control approach. The subjects in this study amounted to 106 respondents, consisting of 53 cases and 53 controls. The study was conducted in the village of Kabongan Kidul, Rembang regency in March 2012. Samples were taken by simple random sampling. Data were obtained through questionnaires and direct interviews and physical examinations of blood pressure, height, and weight measurement. Data analysis was carried out in stages include univariate analysis, bivariate analysis using Chi-square test, and multivariate analysis using multiple logistic regression test of Backward Stepwise method (Likelihood Ratio) on SPSS program.Results: The results of statistical tests indicate a risk factor for hypertension in the community of Kabongan Kidul village, Rembang Regency is the (p = 0,0026; OR = 11,340 and 95% CI = 1,346 – 95,553), family history (p = 0,000; OR = 14,378 and 95% CI = 4,027 – 51,332), smoking (p = 0,010; OR = 9,537 and 95% CI = 1,728 – 52,634), and obesity (p = 0,007; OR = 9,051 and 95% CI = 1,804 – 45,420), while the consumption of gender, salt consumption, fat consumption, and activity factor has no effect.Conclusion: The factors that proved to be a risk factor for hypertension were age, family history, smoking, and obesity, while the factors that are not proven as risk factors for hypertension are gender, salt consumption, fat consumption, and activity.Keywords: Hypertension, risk factor
PERBEDAAN KEJADIAN LEUKOSITURI ANTARA PENDERITA PENYAKIT GINJAL KRONIK STADIUM V DENGAN DIABETES MELITUS DAN TANPA DIABETES MELITUS Hapsari, Annisa Prasetyati; Chasani, Shofa; Ismail, Akhmad
MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA 2012:MMM VOLUME 1 NUMBER 1 YEAR 2012
Publisher : MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA

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Background: Leukocyturia is one sign of infection or inflammation of the urinary tract. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease that can lead to several abnormalities in the immune system which allows an increased risk of infections, one of them is urinary tract infection. DM can also cause damage to microvascular complications that occur in various tissues including kidney glomerular capillary. Damage on the glomerular capillary may trigger the inflammatory response.Aim: To analyze differences of leukocyturia among patients with CKD stage V with DM and without DM.Methods: This study is an observational analytic study with case control design. Study sample was patients with CKD stage V in the dr. Kariadi General Hospital of Semarang during July 2011 – November 2011. Sample data obtained from patient’s medical records. Number of 66 samples consisted of 33 cases samples and 33 control samples. The data was analyzed using Chi-Square test.Results: Based on results of the chi-square test obtained p value < 0.05 ( p = 0.001) and the Odds Ratio (OR) of 6.250.Conclusion: There is a significant difference of leukocyturia among patients with CKD stage V with DM and non DM. Patients with CKD stage V with a positive history of DM had a 6.25 times likely to positively had leukosituri compared to patients without a history of DM.Keywords: Leukocyturia, Chronic Kidney Disease, Diabetes Mellitus.
HUBUNGAN DISLIPIDEMIA DENGAN KADAR UREUM DAN KREATININ DARAH PADA PENDERITA NEFROPATI DIABETIK Wulandari, Anggun Desi; Chasani, Shofa; Ismail, Akhmad
MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA 2012:MMM VOLUME 1 NUMBER 1 YEAR 2012
Publisher : MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA

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Background: Diabetes Mellitus with Diabetic Nephropathy complications become one of the biggest causes of end stage renal disease in the world. The high levels of plasma lipid in people with diabetes play a role in the onset of atherosclerosis. It can lead to filtration process disturbances in glomerulus. Those renal function disorders were measured by Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR), in which the decrease in GFR is followed by the increase in levels of blood urea and creatinine.Objectives: Demonstrate the relationship between dyslipidemia with the level of blood urea and creatinine in patients with Diabetic Nephropathy.Methods: The sort of this study is observational analytic with cross sectional approach. The subjects in this study amounted to 155 patients of Diabetic Nephropathy in the Dr. Kariadi General Hospital in the year 2010-2011 aged more than 18 years old. Data was obtained from patient’s medical records. The data was then analyzed by Mann Whitney test which is found a significant relationship if the value of p <0.05.Results: The results of statistical tests indicated there is a significant relationship between hypertriglyceridemia with levels of blood urea in patients with Diabetic Nephropathy (p = 0.016), but found no significant relationship between hypertriglyceridemia with blood creatinine levels (p = 0.089). While the other variables, namely hypercholesterolemia, the elevated levels of LDL-cholesterol, and the decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol showed no significant relationship with levels of blood urea and creatinine.Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between hypertriglyceridemia and the levels of blood urea in patients with Diabetic nephropathy.Keywords: Dyslipidemia, Urea, Creatinine, Diabetic Nephropathy
KORELASI DERAJAT HIPERTENSI DENGAN STADIUM PENYAKIT GINJAL KRONIK DI RSUP DR. KARIADI SEMARANG PERIODE 2008-2012 Andrea, Gilang Yudhisti; Chasani, Shofa; Ismail, Akhmad
MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA Vol 2, No 1 (2013): MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA
Publisher : MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA

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Latar Belakang Prevalensi hipertensi terus meningkat sejalan dengan perubahan gaya hidup seperti merokok, inaktifitas fisik dan stres psikososial. Data World Health Organization (WHO), tahun 2000 menunjukkan sekitar 972 juta orang atau 26,4% penduduk diseluruh dunia menderita hipertensi. Hipertensi merupakan salah satu faktor resiko Penyakit Ginjal Kronik (PGK). PGK ditandai dengan penurunan laju filtrasi glomerulus karena penurunan fungsi nefron ginjal dan berlangsung >3 bulan. Diagnosis PGK saat ini tidak hanya disebabkan penurunan fungsi ginjal namun juga dapat diakibatkan kerusakan struktur anatomi ginjal, contohnya glomerulonefritis.Tujuan Menganalisis korelasi derajat hipertensi dengan stadium PGKMetode Merupakan penelitian analitik observasional dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Subjek penelitian adalah data rekam medik yang dikelompokkan menjadi 3 berdasarkan stadium PGK 3, 4 dan 5. Jumlah total sampel adalah 57 dengan 19 sampel per stadiumnya. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji korelasi Spearman dengan nilai signifikansi p<0,05.     Hasil Terdapat korelasi bermakna antara derajat hipertensi dengan stadium PGK ( p=0.005 ; r=0.367). Analisis untuk tiap derajat hipertensi didapatkan korelasi bermakna antara derajat hipertensi dengan PGK stadium III ( p=0.048 ; r=0.277) dan derajat hipertensi dengan PGK stadium V ( p=0.007 ; r=0.366), tetapi tidak didapatkan korelasi bermakna antara derajat hipertensi dengan PGK stadium IV (p=0.406 ; r=0.120). Simpulan Terdapat korelasi bermakna antara derajat hipertensi dengan PGK stadium III dan V.
PERBEDAAN PROFIL LIPID PADA PASIEN INFARK MIOKARD AKUT DAN PENYAKIT JANTUNG NON INFARK MIOKARD AKUT Beny S., Alexander; Chasani, Shofa; Santoso, Santoso
MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA Vol 2, No 1 (2013): MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA
Publisher : MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA

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Latar Belakang Penyakit jantung merupakan salah satu penyebab utama kematian di dunia. Salah satu faktor risiko terpenting terjadinya penyakit ini adalah diet tinggi lemak yang akan mempengaruhi profil lipid di dalam darah. Makanan sehari-hari orang Indonesia tidak sama dengan orang barat, hal ini mendorong berbagai penelitian untuk meneliti profil lipid pada pasien-pasien penyakit jantung di Indonesia.TujuanMenganalisis perbedaan profil lipid pada pasien infark miokard akut dan penyakit jantung non infark miokard akut di RSUP dr. Kariadi, Semarang.Metode Merupakan penelitian observasional analitik dengan pendekatan case control. 80 pasien yang dirawat inap di RSUP Dr. Kariadi periode 2008-2012, yang terdiri dari 40 kasus dan 40 kontrol, diambil secara simple random sampling, kemudian ditelusuri data catatan medik pasien. Analisis data dilakukan secara bertahap meliputi analisis univariat dan analisis bivariat menggunakan uji Chi-square.Hasil Tidak terdapat perbedaan proporsi nilai hiperkolesterolemia (p = 1,000; OR = 1,000 dan 95% CI = 0,293 – 3,412), LDL tinggi (p = 0,500; OR = 0,778 dan 95% CI = 0,193 – 3,137), HDL rendah (p = 1,000; OR = 1,000 dan 95% CI = 0,399 – 2,506), dan trigliserida tinggi (p = 0,499; OR = 0,630 dan 95% CI = 0,163 – 2,427) pada pasien infark miokard akut dibanding dengan penyakit jantung non infark miokard akut.Simpulan Tidak terdapat hubungan hiperkolesterolemia, LDL tinggi, HDL rendah, dan trigliserida tinggi dengan kejadian infark miokard akut maupun penyakit jantung non infark miokard akut.Kata kunci Profil lipid, infark miokard akut, kardiovaskuler, dislipidemia
FAKTOR-FAKTOR PENYEBAB PENYAKIT GINJAL KRONIK DI RSUP DR KARIADI SEMARANG PERIODE 2008-2012 Fakhruddin, Ahmad; Chasani, Shofa; Ismail, Akhmad
MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA Vol 2, No 1 (2013): MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA
Publisher : MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA

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Latar Belakang:Penyakit ginjal kronik (PGK) merupakan salah satu masalah utama kesehatan didunia. Menurut The Third National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES III) diperkirakan bahwa prevalensi penyakit ginjal kronik pada orang dewasa di Amerika Serikat mencapai 11% (19,2 juta) : 3,3 % (5,9 juta) pada stadium 1, 3% (5,3 juta) pada stadium 2, 4,3% (7,6 juta) pada stadium 3, 0,2% (400.000) pada stadium 4, dan 0,2% (300.000) pada stadium 5. Data tentang faktor penyebab PGK di indonesia, khususnya di semarang masih belum jelas.Tujuan:Mengetahui ada-tidaknya perbedaan faktor-faktor risiko penyebab PGK pada penderita PGK stadium 3, 4, dan 5Metode:Merupakan penelitian observasional dengan pendekatan cross sectional dilaksanakan pada bulan Maret sampai dengan Juli 2013 di RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang. 57 responden  yang datang di rawat inap RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang periode 2008-2012 dengan kriteria tertentu, dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok berdasarkan stadium PGK ( n= 19 untuk stadium 3, n= 19 untuk stadium 4, n= 19 untuk stadium 5). Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji beda Chi square.    Hasil:Tidak terdapat perbedaan proporsi bermakna diabetes melitus (p=0,354), hipertensi (p=0,755), obstruksi dan infeksi (p=0,338), dan penyakit polikistik ginjal (p=0,762) pada PGK stadium 3, 4, dan 5. Simpulan:Tidak terdapat perbedaan faktor-faktor risiko penyebab PGK pada penderita PGK stadium 3, 4, dan 5.Kata Kunci: Penyakit ginjal kronik (PGK), diabetes melitus, hipertensi, obstruksi dan infeksi, penyakit polikistik ginjal.
KORELASI LAMA DIABETES MELITUS TERHADAP KEJADIAN NEFROPATI DIABETIK : STUDI KASUS DI RUMAH SAKIT DOKTER KARIADI SEMARANG Pratama, Aulia Achmad Yudha; Chasani, Shofa; Santoso, Santoso
MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA Vol 2, No 1 (2013): MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA
Publisher : MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA

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Latar Belakang: Diabetes melitus (DM) merupakan penyakit ke-6 penyebab kematian di dunia yakni mencapai 1.125.000 penderita pada tahun 2005. Nefropati Diabetika (ND) adalah komplikasi DM pada ginjal yang dapat berakhir sebagai gagal ginjal. Biaya untuk menangani nefropati diabetik sangat besar, dan belum banyak penelitian tentang penyakit ini di Indonesia sebelumnya. Tujuan : Untuk mengidentifikasi seberapa besar korelasi antara kejadian ND dengan lama kejadian DM  pada pasien DM RS Dr Kariadi Semarang.Metode : Penelitian deskriptif analitik dengan  rancangan  cross sectional. Responden diambil dari data catatan medis pasien DM Rumah Sakit Dr Kariadi Semarang periode tahun 2008 sampai 2012. Data yang diambil adalah data onset DM, umur pasien, tekanan darah, dan riwayat DM keluarga. Analisa data menggunakan analisa deskriptif dan uji korelasi parsial, uji non parametrik Mann-Whitney, dan Uji Chi Square. Hasil : Uji chi square menunjukan  hubungan yang bermakna antara hipertensi dan kejadian ND (p = 0,031). Dengan menggunakan korelasi parsial menunjukkan  kekuatan hubungan antara onset DM dan kejadian ND adalah  lemah (r = 0,240),dan  bermakna (p = 0.027). Simpulan : Terdapat hubungan  yang bermakna dengan kekuatan hubungan lemah antara onset DM dan kejadian ND.Kata kunci : diabetes melitus, nefropati diabetik, onset DM, prevalensi
FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KEJADIAN ANEMIA PADA PEMAKAIAN ZIDOVUDIN PASIEN HIV/AIDS (Studi Kasus di RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang) Nurraga, Garda Widhi; Sofro, Muchlis Achsan Udji; Chasani, Shofa; Ngestiningsih, Dwi
JURNAL KEDOKTERAN DIPONEGORO Vol 4, No 4 (2015): MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA
Publisher : Jurusan Kedokteran Umum, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Diponegoro

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Background: The administration of Zidovudine (ZDV) has an important role in decreasing the number of mortality on HIV/AIDS patients. Nevertheless, Zidovudine is known to make a side effect of anaemia. The incidence of anaemia can be influenced by several factors, e.g. age, sex, duration of therapy, CD4 count, and ALT count.Aims: This research aims to determine factors influencing incidence of anaemia on HIV/AIDS patients with Zidovudine treatment in Dr. Kariadi General Hospital Semarang and see the correlation between those determinant factors to the incidence of anaemia.Methods: This research is an analytic observational with cohort-retrospective method used. There were 70 HIV/AIDS patients with Zidovudine, divided into two groups: 35 patients belonged to case group, while the other 35 patients belonged to control group. The data was taken from medical records and analyzed by Chi-square and Fischer test.Results: Age did not have any correlation to incidence of anaemia (p=0.075). Sex was a contributing factor to incidence of anaemia (p=0.027) in which female patients were more susceptible to anaemia. Duration of therapy was a contributing factor to incidence of anaemia (p=0.000) particularly patients with less than 12 months of therapy. CD4 count did not have any correlation to incidence of anaemia (p=0.055). ALT count did not have any correlation to incidence of anaemia (p=1.000).Conclusion: The administration of Zidovudine corresponds to the incidence of anaemia with sex and duration of therapy as the influencing factors on HIV/AIDS patients in Dr. Kariadi General Hospital Semarang.
KEJADIAN PENYAKIT KARDIOSEREBROVASKULAR PADA PENDERITA PENYAKIT GINJAL KRONIK STADIUM V DENGAN DIABETES MELITUS DAN TANPA DIABETES MELITUS Subagio, Stephani Widodo; Chasani, Shofa; Witjahjo, Bambang
MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA Vol 3, No 1 (2014): MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA
Publisher : Jurusan Kedokteran Umum, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Diponegoro

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Latar Belakang: Penyakit ginjal kronik merupakan salah satu penyakit kronik dengan prevalensi terbesar di dunia yang sebagian besar disebabkan oleh riwayat diabetes melitus. Komplikasi yang menjadi penyebab kematian utama adalah penyakit kardioserebrovaskular, yaitu gagal jantung kongestif, stroke, dan infark miokard akut. Komplikasi penyakit kardioserebrovaskular tersebut akan berbeda antara pasien penyakit ginjal kronik dengan diabetes dan tanpa diabetes melitus karena masing-masing sudah merupakan faktor risiko.Tujuan: Membuktikan diabetes melitus sebagai faktor risiko terjadinya penyakit kardioserebrovaskular pada penderita penyakit ginjal kronik stadium V. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskritif analitik dengan pendekatan case control. Sampel penelitian adalah penderita PGK stadium V di RSUP dr. Kariadi Semarang periode Januari 2008 – Desember 2013. Data sampel diperoleh dari rekam medis pasien. Jumlah sampel 70 terdiri dari 35 sampel kasus dan 35 sampel kontrol. Data di analisis dengan uji Fischer-Exact.Hasil: Dari uji Fischer-Exact didapatkan kejadian penyakit kardioserebrovaskular pada PGK stadium V: a). Infark miokard akut OR sebesar 7,1 (95% CI, 0,899-1,001), p = 0,002; b). Stroke OR sebesar 4,9 (95% CI, 0,899-1,001), p = 0,042; c). Gagal jantung kongestif OR sebesar 3,1 (95% CI, 0,899-1,001), p = 0,046. Simpulan: Penderita PGK stadium V dengan riwayat DM positif mempunyai kemungkinan lebih besar 7,1 kali terkena infark miokard akut; 4,9 kali terkena stroke; dan 3,1 kali terkena gagal jantung kongestif.
HUBUNGAN ANTARA PEMAKAIAN EFAVIRENZ DENGAN EFEK SAMPING NEUROPSIKIATRI PADA PASIEN HIV/AIDS Salsabila, Farah; Sofro, Muchlis Achsan Udji; Chasani, Shofa; Ngestiningsih, Dwi
JURNAL KEDOKTERAN DIPONEGORO Vol 4, No 4 (2015): MEDIA MEDIKA MUDA
Publisher : Jurusan Kedokteran Umum, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Diponegoro

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Background: HIV/AIDS has been a global problem. Antiretroviral therapy is currently an effective therapy for HIV/AIDS. Efavirenz is an antiretroviral agent which commonly cause neuropsychiatric adverse events.Aim: To investigate the association between efavirenz and neuropsychiatric adverse events.Methods: This cross-sectional study included 43 subjects (24 men and 19 women). Twenty subjects used efavirenz and twenty three subjects didn’t use efavirenz. Neuropsychiatric adverse events were assessed with SMMSE for cognitive impairment; DASS 21 for depression disorder, anxiety disorder, and stress disorder; PQ-16 for psychosis; and PSQI for sleep disturbance.Results: Neuropsychiatric adverse events were more common in patients using efavirenz. Fisher’s exact test between efavirenz and cognitive disturbance showed significant association (p= 0,039). The significant result was also showed between efavirenz and anxiety disorder (p= 0,017) as well as between efavirenz and psychosis (p= 0,017). Chi-square test between efavirenz and sleep disturbance showed significant association (p= 0,017). The association test between efavirenz and depression disorder along with association test between efavirenz and stress disorder showed no significant result.Conclusions: Efavirenz was significantly associated with cognitive impairment, anxiety, psychosis, and sleep disturbance. There was no significant association of efavirenz with depression disorder and stress disorder.