Ekowati Chasanah
Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pengolahan Produk dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan

Published : 60 Documents


JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 15, No 1 (2011): Volume 15, Number 1, Year 2011

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (612.616 KB)


Our previous study found that KLU 11.16, isolated from shrimp waste secreted chitinolytic enzymes. The crude enzyme was interesting since their chitooligosccharide was able to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria. In this study we report a purification and characterization of the chitosanase enzyme produced and the identification of the KLU 11.16. Purification of the enzyme was done two steps by ion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration. Two out of 4 peaks from Gel Filtration step, i.e. fraction 16 and 33 were capable of hydrolyzing 100% deacetylated chitosan, indicating that both fractions contained chitosanase enzyme. The enzyme from fraction 16 had approximate molecular weight of 98.3 kDa. The enzyme worked optimally at temperature of 300C, and pH 6. Addition of Ca2+, Fe2+, K+, Na+ ions in the form of Cl2 salt and detergent Triton X-100 increased the enzyme activity, while Co2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+ ions in the same concentration decreased the enzyme acitivity. Addition of EDTA and SDS significantly decreased the enzyme activity. Molecular based identification revealed that KLU 11.16 was 99% similar to Aeromonas media.

Characteristic of Silicatein-like Protein Sponge from Nias and Lombok Marine

Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol 31, No 2 (2008): Forum Pascasarjana
Publisher : Forum Pasca Sarjana

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (196.471 KB)


Silica, a polimerized silicon dioxide, is widely used as raw materials for food industries, such as food packaging, filter agent, biomarkers and biosensor for various analysis.  In biological sistem such as sponge, the formation of silica structure was directed by protein known as silicatein.  The aims of this research were to extract silicatein-like protein isolated from sponge live surrounding the Nias and Lombok seacost Indonesia and to study their activity to polymerize tetraethoxyorthosilicate (TEOS) in-vitro.  Protein in silica spicule was isolated by collecting silica spicule, soaked in HF/NH4F buffer (pH5.0) for dissolving silica and releasing this protein.  The protein was analysed by electrophoresis SDS-PAGE to estimate the molecular weight and the concentration was analyzed by Bradford method.  The highest yield of silica spicula was 58.5% of dry weight sponge that was isolated from sponge MT37.  By SDS-PAGE, the molecular weight of protein from N6 showed three bands of 32, 27, 23 kDa, while MT5 protein was 15.5 kDa, and MT37 protein was 18 kDa.  The highest polymerization activity was 144 µmol/ml TEOS occurs at 12 hours, showed by protein isolated from sponge MT37 of Lombok Marine.   Key words: sponge, silicatein like-protein, tetraethoxyorthosilicate

Nanopartikel Seng Oksida (ZnO) dari Biosintesis Ekstrak Rumput Laut Coklat Sargassum sp. dan Padina sp.

Jurnal Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 13, No 1 (2018): Juni 2018
Publisher : Balai Besar Riset Pengolahan Produk dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2676.167 KB)


AbstrakPemanfaatan rumput laut untuk disintesis secara biologi (biosintesis) menjadi nanopartikel logam telah banyak dilakukan sebagai alternatif produksi ramah lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan nanopartikel seng oksida (ZnO) melalui biosintesis ekstrak rumput laut coklat Sargassum sp. dan Padina sp. dengan menggunakan prekursor zink nitrat 10 mM pada variasi pH larutan 8-12. Analisis meliputi gugus fungsi, distribusi ukuran partikel, morfologi, dan kristalinitas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan gugus fungsi hidroksil dan sulfat polisakarida berperan dalam proses reduksi kation Zn2+ membentuk nanopartikel ZnO sedangkan protein untuk kestabilan nano-partikel. Nanopartikel ZnO dari biosintesis ekstrak Sargassum sp. dan Padina sp. masing-masing menghasilkan rata-rata ukuran partikel berkisar antara 1.396,53-3.090,50 dan 655,91-3.253,06 nm. Distribusi ukuran sudah homogen namun belum memenuhi besaran ukuran nanometer. Rata-rata ukuran partikel terkecil terdapat pada pH 10 dan 9. Kisaran % mass elemen Zn dan O nanopartikel ZnO biosintesis ekstrak Sargassum sp. yang mirip standar adalah pada pH 10 yaitu 95,98% dan 4,02% sedangkan dari ekstrak Padina sp. pada pH 9 dengan 94,67% dan 5,33%. Struktur kristalinitas menunjukkan ZnO biosintesis ekstrak Sargassum sp. pada pH  8-11 dan Padina sp. pada pH 9 hampir seluruhnya memiliki puncak dengan nilai sudut 2q yang hampir sama, dan setelah dikonfirmasi dengan program Match! 3 menunjukkan struktur kristal ZnO wurtzit berbentuk heksagonal. Perlakuan terbaik ZnO biosintesis dari ekstrak Sargassum sp. dan Padina sp. adalah pada kondisi pH 10 dan 9. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO) from Biosynthesis of  Sargassum sp. and Padina sp. Brown Seaweed ExtractAbstractBiosynthesis of metal nanoparticles using seaweed became an important area in the field of nanotechnology which has economic and eco-friendly benefits. This research aimed to obtain zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) through biosynthesis of extract brown seaweed  Sargassum sp. And Padina sp. using 10 mM zinc nitrate as precursor at various pH of 8-12. Analysis of ZnO NPs covered functional groups, particle size distribution, morphology, and crystallinity. The result showed that hydroxyl groups and sulfate polysaccharide played role in the formation of ZnO NPs while protein contributed on stabilizing of the nanoparticles. Analysis showed that the size of ZnO NPs biosynthesized Sargassum sp. extract was from 1,396.53 to 3,090.50 nm and 655.91 to 3,253.06 nm for Padina sp. The size qualification particle distribution was homogeneous but their size has not yet met for nanoparticles size standard. Average of the smallest particle size was found at pH 10 and 9 treatments. Distribution of Zn and O elements of ZnO biosynthesized  Sargassum sp. extract which was similar to the standard was at pH 10 with 95.98% and 4.02 of % mass, while that of Padina sp. extract at pH 9 with 94.67% and 5.33% respectively. The crystallity structure showed that ZnO biosynthesis of Sargassum sp. and Padina sp. extract performed at pH 8-11 and pH 9, respectively, had similar 2qangle peak. A hexagonal shape of ZnO wurtzite crystalline structure has formed and it confirmed by Match! program 3. The best treatment of ZnO biosynthesis process for Sargassum sp and Padina sp.so extract was at pH 10 and 9, respectively.


JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 8, No 2 (2005): Volume 8, Number 2, Year 2005

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (489.976 KB)


Metagenomics is a powerful cultivation-independent approach, which can be applied to gain access to the biocatalysts from uncultured marine microorganisms. Discovery of marine biocatalysts by this approach, in general, involves four main steps. First, a metagenomic library containing a pool of biocatalyst-encoding genes is constructed from a marine environment, which can be done by various methods, including cloning of enzymatically-digested DNA, uncut DNA, and PCR-amplified products. Second, the metagenomic library is screened for the genes of interest by employing the activity assay of expression product, in situ  hybridization, or Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Third, the obtained target genes, both functional and phylogenetic genes, are sequenced and analysed by using bioinformatic tools in order to gain information on the functional and structural properties as well as the microbial sources of the encoded biocatalysts. Finally, the target genes are expressed in suitable microbial hosts, thereby producing the corresponding recombinant biocatalysts. All existing methods in engineering of marine biocatalysts for the performance improvement can be classified into two main strategies: (i) rational design and (ii) directed evolution. Rational design, which may include the use of resctriction enzyme(s) and splicing by overlap extension (SOE), requires information on the biocatalyst`s structural and functional properties to alter specific amino acid(s). Whereas directed evolution, including error-prone PCR technique and gene shuffling, needs no such information.


JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 8, No 3 (2005): Volume 8, Number 3, Year 2005

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (227.735 KB)


Chitin is present in large quantities in the marine crustacean waste disposed by seafood processing industries, making it very desirable as the substrate for producing chitinase, a hydrolytic enzyme of considerable interest in many industrial and agricultural applications. In our work, crustacean waste powder and its combination with colloidal chitin at different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5%) were utilized to optimize the chitinase production by the bacterium, Bacillus sp. K29-14. The results showed that the chitinase production with the three different substrate concentrations was relatively constant in the range of 0.2 to 0.3 U/ml during 12 days cultivation, although there was a bit reduction after day 8. This activity profile seems to be similar to that of the protein content. Whereas the chitinase production on the media containing crustacean waste powder and its combination with colloidal chitin at the three concentrations showed that the highest activity (3.0 to 4.6 U/ml) was achieved on day 7 and 8. The specific chitinase activity with the waste powder at different concentrations of substrate (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) was increasing slowly during a nine-day cultivation. The optimal chitinase production (4.6 U/ml) was achieved with the combined substrate of 0.5% on day 8.

Analysis of Bacterial Community Associated with Aaptos sp. from Rote and Seribu Islands

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 7, No 1 (2013): March 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar


Aaptos sp. is a marine sponge that could produce bioactive compounds such as aaptamin, aaptosin, and isoaaptamin which have activities as antitumor, antimicrobial, and antiviral. Community of bacteria associated with the sponge might correlate with production of those bioactive compounds and be affected  by  water environment where the sponge grow. The presence of anthropogenic stressor such as pollutans might become a burden to the waters where the biota grown and could affect the microbial biodiversity in the sponge and its active metabolite produced. The objective of this research was to analyze bacterial community associated with Aaptos sp. from Rote Island and Seribu Islands, using T-RFLP method. The results showed that bacterial community associated with Aaptos sp. from both sampling sites shared 40.81% similarity in which they were dominated by the same bacteria class of Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria, α-proteobacteria, δ-proteobacteria, and γ–proteobacteria. The bacteria collected from Rote island  were more highly distributed and diverse than those from Seribu Islands. A total of 23 classes of microorganism were identified in Rote Island waters, while in Seribu Islands was 14 classes of microorganism. The presence of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in Aaptos sp., is allegedly involved in the production of secondary metabolites.


Widyariset Vol 15, No 3 (2012): Widyariset
Publisher : LIPI-Press

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (832.743 KB)


Bioactive compounds from biota on coral reef is potentially of plasma nutfah that has high economic value.Their existence was influenced by the microbes which associated with them and the environmental conditions. Theaim of the research was to analyze the correlation between the diversity of bacteria and secondary metabolitesNephthea spp. collected from Seribu Islands National Parks (TNKpS). The analysis of bacteria diversity performedby Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and secondary metabolites used High PerformanceLiquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results of study showed that the range of diversity index (H), richness(R), and evenness index (E) of bacteria were 1,47–0,88; 13–3; 0,84–0,43. And the for the secondary metabolitesthe range were 2,21–1,12; 20-5; 0,95–0,63. Further study showed that there was a significant correlation (R =0.96 at p< 0.01) between bacteria and secondary metabolites group richness. The area which high diversity ofbacteria and secondary metabolites were within central and southern TNKpS waters. This results were in line withthe best water quality in these areas.

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity of Crude and Fractionated Snakehead Fish (Channa striata) Fillet Extract

Squalen, Buletin Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 13, No 2 (2018): August 2018
Publisher : Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnol

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (617.636 KB)


The existence of endogenous bioactive protein or peptide with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity in snakehead fish fillet is promising to be investigated. The purposes of this research were to extract ACE inhibitory endogenous protein or peptide from snakehead fish fillet and to fractionate the active compounds using ultrafiltration. The extraction employed two solvents, i.e. aquadest and 50% ethanol. Fractionation was conducted using ultrafiltration membranes of 10,000; 5,000 and 3,000 Molecular Weight Cut Off  (MWCO) to separate the protein or peptide into the sizes of >10 kDa, 5-10 kDa, 3 -5 kDa and <3 kDa. The parameters observed were protein and peptide content, ACE inhibitory activity (in vitro) and also protein and peptide profiles. The result revealed that the snakehead fish fillet contained ACE inhibitory endogenous bioactive protein or peptide. The 50% ethanol was more effective in extracting peptide of <10 kDa than the aquadest. Yet, the aquadest was better in extracting higher molecular weight protein of >10 kDa than the 50% ethanol. The fraction of <3 kDa by aquadest had the highest ACE inhibitor activity per g protein (7.85% inhibition of ACE per g protein). Thus, the fraction of <3 kDa aquadest is the most promising option for further research and development of natural anti-hypertension compound. From the result, snakehead fish fillet was potential to be utilized as a functional food as well as functional ingredient to fight hypertension.

Fatty Acid Profile, Carotenoid Content, and In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Karimunjawa and Lampung Sea Cucumber

Squalen, Buletin Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 11, No 3 (2016): December 2016
Publisher : Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnol

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1039.624 KB)


Fatty acids and carotenoid has been known as an anticancer agent on both preventing and treating cancer disease. This study was conducted to analyze the fatty acid profile, carotenoid and in vitro anticancer activity of 12 sea cucumber harvested from Karimunjawa and Lampung waters. The aim of the study was to determin the potency of sea cucumbers as raw material for nutraceutical products. Fatty acid profile and carotenoid content were characterized by gas chromatography and spectrophotometry techniques, while in vitro anticancer activity was assessed by MTT assay against cervix (HeLa), breast (T47D and MCF-7) and colon (WiDR) cancer cells. Results of the study showed polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) dominated the composition of fatty acids in the samples from both locations. Holothuria sp. was detected to contain the highest amount of carotenoid. Furthermore, the highest in vitro anticancer activity was detected also in the sample of Holothuria sp. The activity of 30 ppm Holothuria sp. extract against HeLa cell was detected to be almost equal to the 5 ppm doxorubicin control. Concentration of 5 ppm Holothuria sp. extract also showed positive result in killing 50% of MCF-7 and T47D, but capable to 100% kill HeLa and WiDR cells. At concentration of 25 ppm, the extract was able to kill all the 4 cells tested. Statistical analysis showed the amount of carotenoid and two particular fatty acid compounds (docosadienoic and eicosapentaenoic acid) significantly (P<0.05) contributed to the cytotoxic activity that was found in the sea cucumber samples. Those compounds were found in highest concentration from Holothuria sp harvested from Lampung waters, thus being the most prospective raw material for nutraceutical or functional food ingredient with anticancer potency.

Development of enzymatically produced chitooligosaccharide from shrimp industrial waste: opportunity and challenge

Squalen, Buletin Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 5, No 2 (2010): August 2010
Publisher : Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnol

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (410.734 KB)


Since identified having better properties such as solubility in water and bioactivities comparedto its polymer form, chitooligosaccharide has obtained great attention either from researcher andindustries. Wide application of chitooligosaccharides, from pharmaceutical, food and agriculture,is very depending on the deacetylation degree and the size of oligosaccharide. Enzymaticproduction is more dependable in producing specific, safe and environmentally friendlychitooligosaccharide. Chitosanase is one of chitin degrading enzymes group, having importantrole in production of chitooligosaccharide. Shrimp and crustacean waste which are abundant inIndones ia are important raw material for chitin and its deriv ativ e produc ts inc ludingchitooligosacharide and as a source of chitin degrading enzymes including chitosanase. RCMFPPBhas a c ollec tion of potential c hitin degrading mic robes for produc ing func tionalchitooligosaccharides for food, pharmaceutical and biocontrol applications. There is a bigopportunity for Indonesia as chitooligosaccharide producer as we have relatively big amount ofraw material from shrimp and crustacea’s waste, and local enzyme. One of the problem is thelegality of chitooligosaccharide for food and pharmaceutical products has not been available yet.Another non food application such as biocontrol can be developed first since this product does notneed strict regulation as for food.