Slamet Budijanto
Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor

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Journal : Jurnal Agritech

Optimasi Proses dan Formula pada Pengolahan Mi Sagu Kering (Metroxylon sagu) Engelen, Adnan; Sugiyono, Sugiyono; Budijanto, Slamet
Agritech Vol 35, No 4 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9319

Abstract

The aim of this research was to optimize the processing of dried sago noodle. Sago noodle was made through a process using twin screw extruder with the addition of GMS (Glycerol Monostearate) and ISP (Isolated Soybean Protein). Process optimation was performed with RSM (response surface methodology) using three process variables, i.e. extruder temperature (65-80oC), GMS concentration (0-5%), and ISP concentration (0-10%). The optimum process condition was temperature of 80oC, GMS of 4.5%, and ISP of 3.7%. The optimum condition produced dried noodle having a hardness of 2499.62 gf, stickiness of 235.12 gf, elongation of 168.96% and cooking loss of 6.23%.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan melakukan optimasi proses pada pembuatan mi sagu untuk menghasilkan mi sagu dengan karakteristik fisik yang baik. Mi sagu dihasilkan melalui optimasi proses menggunakan twin screw extruder dan penambahan glycerol monostearate (GMS), serta isolated soybean protein (ISP). Optimasi proses dilakukan menggunakan Response Surface Methodology (RSM) dengan tiga variabel proses yaitu: suhu ekstruder (65-80oC), konsentrasi GMS (0-5%), dan ISP (0-10%). Kondisi proses optimum diperoleh pada suhu 80oC, GMS (4,5%), dan ISP (3,7%). Kondisi optimum menghasilkan mi yang memiliki kekerasan 2499,62 gf, kelengketan 235,12gf, elongasi 168,96% dan cooking loss 6,23%.
Karakteristik Sensori dan Fisiko-Kimia Beras Analog Sorghum dengan Penambahan Rempah Campuran Rasyid, Maya Indra; Yuliana, Nancy Dewi; Budijanto, Slamet
Agritech Vol 36, No 4 (2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.16762

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to obtain the formula of sorghum rice analogue by mixed spices addition with acceptable sensory and physico-chemical characteristics.  The selection of sorghum rice analogue formula was tested by using hedonic test with 70 untrained panelists. The addition of mixed spices powder was as follows: 30 % onion, 20 % garlic, 10 % bay leaves, 20 % ginger and 20 % lemongrass. Those mixed spices powder were added to the sorghum rice analogue at percentage of 0.25 %, 0,5 %, 1 %, 2 %, 3 % and 0 % (control)  from total dough weight. The sorghum rice analogue was made using extrusion technology (a twin screw extruder). The overall sensory evaluation result showed that the addition of spice mixed had significant effect (p ≤ 0.05) on the characteristics of sorghum rice analogue. The panelists accepted the sorghum rice analogue with 1% mixed spice. The preferred formulation was the addition of 1% mixed spice which contain of  9.56 % moisture, 0.72 % ash, 0.53 % fat, 6.22 % protein, 92.53 % carbohydrate, 26.48 % amyloseand 6,67 % dietary fiber. Sorghum rice analogue enriched by spices is a potential as a rich fiber source.ABSTRAKTujuan penelitian adalah mendapatkan formula beras analog berbahan dasar sorgum dengan penambahan rempah campuran yang dapat diterima secara sensori. Pemilihan formula dilakukan dengan uji hedonik menggunakan 70 orang panelis tidak terlatih. Rempah yang ditambahkan berupa bubuk rempah campuran yang terdiri atas bawang merah 30%, bawang putih 20 %, daun salam 10 %, jahe 20 % dan sereh 20 %. Penambahan bubuk rempah campuran untuk pembuatan beras analog sorghum berturut-turut 0,25 %, 0,5 %, 1 %, 2 %, 3 % dan kontrol (tanpa rempah) dari total berat adonan diluar air. Beras analog sorghum dibuat dengan teknologi ekstrusi menggunakan ekstruder ulir ganda. Hasil uji sensori secara keseluruhan menunjukkan bahwa penambahan rempah campuran berpengaruh nyata (p <0,05) terhadap nasi beras analog yang dihasilkan. Panelis menyukai formula beras analog sorghum dengan penambahan 1 % rempah campuran. Beras analog sorghum dengan penambahan 1% rempah campuran memiliki kadar air 9,56 %, abu 0,72 %, lemak 0,53 %, protein 6,22 %, karbohidrat 92,53 %, amilosa 26,48 % dan serat pangan 6,67 %. Beras analog sorgum yang diperkaya dengan rempah campuran memiliki potensi sebagai pangan kaya serat.
Formulasi Mi Kering Sagu dengan Substitusi Tepung Kacang Hijau Yuliani, Hilka; Yuliana, Nancy Dewi; Budijanto, Slamet
Agritech Vol 35, No 4 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9322

Abstract

Starch Noodles (SN) are produced from purified starch or combined flour from various plant sources. Sago starch is one of indigenous Indonesian flours that can be used for making SN. The physical characteristics that greatly affect the quality of rehydrated SN are cooking loss, elongation, hardness and adhesiveness/stickiness. Starch noodles have low of cooking loss but high hardness value, so it is less preferred. The purpose of this study was to obtain the optimum formulation of noodles made of sago with mung bean flour substitution. Formula optimization was done by using Mixture Design (DX7) with sago starch and mung bean flour as variables (80-100% and 0-20%; respectively). Mung bean flour substitution reduced hardness, adhesiveness and elongation of sago noodles, yet it increased the cooking loss. The best formulation based on physic-chemical characterization was SN with substitution of 4,7% mung bean flour. This sago noodles had 1996,03 gf hardness, -19,2 gf adhesiveness, 214,35% elongation and 10,82% cooking loss. Sensory test results for the most optimum formulation showed that the SN was not significantly different with those of commercial wheat noodle.ABSTRAKMi pati merupakan mi yang dibuat dari pati dan atau kombinasi tepung dari bahan non terigu. Bahan baku non-terigu indigenous Indonesia yang dapat digunakan untuk membuat mi pati adalah sagu. Karakteristik fisik yang sangat mempengaruhi kualitas mi setelah direhidrasi adalah cooking loss, elongasi, kekerasan dan kelengketan. Mi yang dibuat dari bahan dasar pati memiliki cooking loss yang rendah namun kekerasan yang tinggi, sehingga kurang disukai. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendapatkan formulasi optimum dari mi berbahan dasar sagu dengan substitusi tepung kacang hijau, sehingga dapat dihasilkan mi yang baik secara fisik dan diterima secara organoleptik. Optimasi formulasi dilakukan menggunakan Mixture Design (DX7) dengan variabel berupa persentase pati sagu (80-100%) dan tepung kacang hijau (0-20%). Substitusi tepung kacang hijau dapat menurunkan kekerasan, kelengketan, dan elongasi mi sagu, namun meningkatkan cooking loss. Produk optimum mi sagu diperoleh dengan substitusi tepung kacang hijau 4,7%. Pada kondisi ini mi sagu memiliki karakteristik kekerasan 1996,03 gf, skor kelengketan -19,2 gf, skor elongasi 214,35% dan skor cooking loss 10,82%. Uji sensori terhadap mi sagu formula optimum menunjukkan bahwa mi sagu yang dibuat secara keseluruhan tidak berbeda nyata dengan mi kering terigu komersial.
Sifat Fisikokimia Tepung dari 10 Genotipe Ubi Kayu (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Hasil Pemuliaan Rahmiati, Tengku Mia; Purwanto, Yohanes Aris; Budijanto, Slamet; Khumaida, Nurul
Agritech Vol 36, No 4 (2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.16771

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to characterize and evaluate the physicochemical properties of 10 cassava breeding genotypes developed by cassava crop improvement of (Institut Pertanian Bogor) IPB research group. The physicochemical characterization was performed by measuring water content, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate, pasta (pasting properties), starch total, amylose content, and whiteness. The results showed that each genotype has different chemical content and gelatinization properties. The highest water content (11.48 ± 0.12 %) was found in genotype V4D0 (variant genotype Malang 4), ash (1.83 ± 0.02 %) in V5D2 (1) (A variant of genotype Malang 4-1), fat (1.62 ± 0.93 %) and protein (4.73 ± 0.19 %) in V3D1 (1) (variant UJ 5-1). Genotype V1D1-1(1) (A variant of genotype Ratim-1) has the highest amylose (23.33 ± 0.04 %) and the lowest ones (13.13 ± 0.48 %) was found in genotype V2D1-1(3). Genotype V2D0 has the highest total starch (88.67 %) and the lowest (74.3%) was obtained in V5D2 (1). The highest whiteness value was measured in genotype V1D0 i.e. 93.13 %. For pasting properties testing, it was measured that genotype V2D1-1 (3) had the lowest peak viscosity i.e 4,006 cP and the high of end of viscosity occurred 2,592 cP in genotype V4D2-1 (2) (A variant of genotype Adira 4-1), were correlated with high amylose content owned flour is 22.03 ± 0.25%. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkarakterisasi dan mengevaluasi sifat fisikokimia 10 genotipe ubi kayu hasil pemuliaan team crop improvement ubi kayu Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB). Karakterisasi fisikokimia dilakukan dengan cara melakukan analisis kadar air, abu, protein, lemak, karbohidrat, pasta (pasting properties), total pati, kadar amilosa, dan derajat putih. Dari hasil karakterisasi diperoleh bahwa setiap genotipe ubi kayu memiliki kandungan kimia dan sifat gelatinisasi yang berbeda-beda. Kadar air tertinggi dimiliki genotipe V4D0  (Genotipe Malang 4) 11,48 ± 0,12 % , kadar abu dan lemak tertinggi adalah genotipe (V5D2 (1) (Varian dari genotipe Malang 4-1) yaitu 1,83 % ± 0,02 dan 1,62 ± 0,93 % serta kadar protein tertinggi adalah V3D1 (1) (Varian UJ 5-1) 4,73 ± 0,19 %. Genotipe V1D1-1 (1) (Varian dari genotipe Jame-1) memiliki kadar amilosa tertinggi yaitu 23,33 ± 0,04 % sedangkan yang terendah dihasilkan oleh genotipe V2D1-1 (3) (Varian dari genotipe Ratim-1) yaitu 13,13 ± 0,48 %. Genotipe V2D1-1 (3) (Varian genotipe Ratim-1)  memiliki viskositas puncak terendah yaitu 4.006 cP berkorelasi positif dengan kandungan amilosa paling rendah yang dimilikinya. Viskositas akhir yang tinggi terjadi pada genotipe V4D2-1(2) (Varian genotipe Adira 4-1) yaitu 2.592 cP yang berkorelasi dengan tingginya kandungan amilosa yang dimiliki tepung tersebut yaitu 22,03 ± 0,25 %.
Karakterisasi Kimia dan Efek Hipoglikemik Beras Analog Berbahan Dasar Jagung, Sorgum, dan Sagu Aren Budijanto, Slamet; Andri, Yanica Ivory; Faridah, Didah Nur; Noviasari, Santi
Agritech Vol 37, No 4 (2017)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.10383

Abstract

Rice analogue is an alternative food similar to rice which is made from other sources of carbohydrate apart from rice. This research was aimed to determine the glycemic index (GI) value and chemical characteristic (total phenolics content and dietary fiber) of rice analogues made from: (1) corn, sorghum, and arenga starch (rice analogue A): (2) corn and arenga starch (rice analogue B). GI was tested in human blood samples and was determined by the comparison of curve area between food sample (analogues rice) and standard (25 g glucose) which was equivalent to 25 g of carbohydrates. The GI values of Rice analogue A and B were 47,09 and 52,31 respectively. Both were considered as low GI foods. The low GI values were due to the phenolic compounds and dietary fiber contained in the rice analoguesAnalogue rice was an alternative food similar to rice which is made from carbohydrate sources beside of paddy. This research were aimed to determine the glycemic index (GI) value and to quantify chemical characterization (total phenolics content and dietary fiber) of analogues rice made from 1) corn, sorghum, and arenga starch (analogue rice A) and 2) corn and arenga starch (analogue rice B). GI was tested by human blood samples and determined by area under the curve for test food (analogues rice) which is equivalent to 25 grams of carbohydrates and area under the curve for the reference food (25 grams of glucose) compared. Analogue rice A has 47.09 GI value, whilst analogue rice B has 52.31 GI value. Both were grouped into low GI food. A low GI value was due to the phenols compounds and dietary fiber contained in the analogues rice. ABSTRAKBeras analog merupakan pangan alternatif mirip beras yang dibuat dari sumber karbohidrat selain padi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan nilai indeks glikemik (IG) dan karakterisasi kimia (total fenolik dan serat pangan) pada beras analog berbahan baku: (1) jagung, sorgum, dan sagu aren (beras analog A); (2) jagung dan sagu aren (beras analog B). Pengujian IG menggunakan sampel darah manusia dan ditentukan dengan membandingkan luas area kurva antara sampel pangan (beras analog) dan standar (25 g glukosa) yang setara dengan 25 g karbohidrat. Beras analog A memiliki nilai IG sebesar 47,09, sedangkan beras analog B memiliki IG sebesar 52,31. Kedua beras analog termasuk dalam kategori pangan IG rendah. Rendahnya nilai IG dikarenakan adanya komponen fenol dan serat pangan yang terkandung pada beras analog.
Optimasi Formula dan Struktur Mikroskopik Pasta Bebas Gluten Berbahan Dasar Puree Ubi Jalar Ungu dan Tepung Kacang Hijau Mulyawanti, Ira; Budijanto, Slamet; Yasni, Sedarnawati
Agritech Vol 36, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.10678

Abstract

The aim of this study was to optimize gluten free pasta formula made from purple sweet potato puree and mung bean flour. Aplication of a mixture design allowed to find the optimal composition to achieve the desirable characteristic. The results showed that the optimal formula was mixture of 45.25% purple sweet potato puree and 51.75% mung bean flour. The characteristics of the chosen formula were springiness of 2.29 mm, 0.38 cohesiveness, cooking loss 17.62%,333.48 ͼHue, Ie   20.59%, and 42.42 mg/L anthocyanin content. Microscopic structure showed that cooked pasta with purple sweet potato puree composition below 50% in the formula had a solid texture appearance.ABSTRAKPenelitian bertujuan untuk mengoptimasi formula pasta bebas gluten berbahan dasar puree ubi jalar ungu dan tepung kacang hijau. Aplikasi mixture design dalam optimasi formula dapat menghasilkan formula yang optimal dengan karakteristik produk sesuai dengan yang diinginkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komposisi optimal puree ubi jalar ungu dengan tepung kacang hijau dalam formula adalah 45,25% puree ubi jalar ungu dan 51,75% tepung kacang hijau. Pada komposisi tersebut dihasilkan pasta ubi jalar ungu dengan karakteristik yaitu kekenyalan 2,29 mm, cohesiveness 0,38, KKP 17,62%, warna 333,48, Ie   20,59%, dan kandungan antosianin 42,42 mg/L. Dari segi mikroskopik, pasta ubi jalar ungu matang dengan rasio puree ubi jalar ungu dengan formula di bawah 50% sudah menunjukkan adanya struktur yang kompak.
Teknik Gelatinisasi Tepung Beras untuk Menurunkan Penyerapan Minyak Selama Penggorengan Minyak Terendam Florentina, Florentina; Syamsir, Elvira; Hunaefi, Dase; Budijanto, Slamet
Agritech Vol 36, No 4 (2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.16760

Abstract

Pregelatinized rice flour is one of ingredients that can reduce oil uptake. Gelatinization can be processed by drum drying, extrusion, and steaming. The aim of this research was to know the effect of gelatinization rice flour by drum drying, extrusion, and cooking rice on water holding capacity, degree of gelatinization, and oil uptake. Oil uptake was analyzed by using food model that substituted with 50 % pregelatinized flour. Results indicated that degree of gelatinization and water holding capacity of pregelatinized flour by drum drying was higher than extrusion and cooking rice. The highest reducing oil uptake of product was produced using pregelatinized flour by drum dryer was 33.70 % while by extruder which was 13.32 % and rice cooker was 10.09 %ABSTRAKTepung beras pragelatinisasi merupakan salah satu ingredien yang dapat mengurangi penyerapan minyak. Proses gelatinisasi dapat dilakukan dengan metode pengeringan drum, ekstrusi, dan pengukusan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh teknik gelatinisasi tepung beras dengan pengeringan drum, ekstrusi, dan pemasakan nasi terhadap daya ikat air, derajat gelatinisasi dan penyerapan minyak. Penyerapan minyak dianalisis dengan menggunakan model pangan yang telah disubtitusi 50 % tepung pragelatinisasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa derajat gelatinisasi dan daya ikat air pada tepung pragelatinisasi dari pengeringan drum lebih tinggi daripada proses ekstrusi dan pemasakan nasi. Penurunan penyerapan minyak tertinggi dihasilkan pada produk dengan penggunaan tepung pragelatinisasi pengeringan drum yaitu 33,70 %, sedangkan ekstruder sebesar 13,32 % dan pemasak nasi sebesar 10,09 %.