Wiratni Budhijanto
Laboratorium Teknik Pangan dan Bioproses Departemen Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika 2, Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia

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The Effect of the Addition of Active Digester Effluent for Start-up Accelerator in Anaerobic Digestion of Soybean Curd Industry Waste Water (Basic Research for Biogas Power Generation) Wresta, Arini; Budhijanto, Wiratni
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power and Vehicular Technology Vol 3, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Research Centre for Electrical Power and Mechatronics, Indonesian Istitutes of Sciences

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (253.556 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/j.mev.2012.v3.81-86

Abstract

Biogas production from soybean curd industry waste water was studied in laboratory scale to improve the application of anaerobic digestion process. The problem with the soybean curd waste water was the fact that it does not sufficiently contain anaerobic microorganisms required in biogas production. Therefore, it is necessary to add a well-developed population of anaerobic microorganisms to accelerate the start-up of the anerobic digestion. This research was aimed to verify the influence of the addition of active digester effluent into the soybean curd waste water batches in an anaerobic digestion process. Batch experiments were done in two digesters. The first digester was only fed with soybean curd waste water while the second digester was fed with soybean curd waste water and active digester effluent from a digester processing cow manure which was very rich in anaerobic microorganism consortium. The results indicated that soybean curd industry waste water did not contain methanogenic bacteria but there existed some acidogenic bacteria. The addition of active digester effluent accelerated the anaerobic digestion start-up and directed the process pathway towards methanogenic process so that more methane was obtained. The high methane content obtained (more than 64% volume) was very potential for power generation. The capacity of soybean curd industry must be as high as 697.13 kg soybean per day to generate the electric energy of 8.4 kWh.
Pengaruh Penambahan Zeolit Alam Termodifikasi sebagai Media Imobilisasi Bakteri terhadap Dekompisisi Material Organik secara Anaerob Mellyanawaty, Melly; Purnomo, Chandra Wahyu; Budhijanto, Wiratni
Jurnal Rekayasa Proses Vol 11, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Departemen Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (401.027 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jrekpros.26353

Abstract

This study aims to determine the effect of modified natural zeolite as microbial immobilization medium for anaerobic decomposition of organic materials. The modification was Fe2+ impregnation into the ring-shaped zeolite. Three different concentrations of Fe2+ solution were used to impregnate the zeolite, i.e. 10 mg/L, 100 mg/L and 2000 mg/L. The wet impregnation process was conducted. Four variations of Fe2+ concentration deposited into zeolite were prepared, i.e. 0 mgFe2+/gZeo (as control), 0.0016 mgFe2+/gZeo, 0.0156 mgFe2+/gZeo and 0.3125 mgFe2+/gZeo. The modified zeolite was added to the batch anaerobic reactor, which filled with the volume ratio of liquid substrate and zeolite of 1:1 for all variations of media. Distillery spent wash was used as the substrate in this study. The soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand (sCOD) value of the substrate was homogenized at 10000 mg/L. Effluent digester of cow manure bio digester was added as inoculum. The volume ratio of distillery spent wash to the inoculum was 2:1. The anaerobic process was conducted for 28 days.The performance of four media in the anaerobic digestion of distillation spent wash was measured in terms of sCOD, total solid (TS), and volatile solid (VS). The comparison among media was more accurately and conclusively represented by sCOD value. The visual analysis of sCOD trend during 28 days indicated that zeolite with 0.0156 mgFe/gZeo resulted in the highest sCOD removal of 66.73%. Meanwhile, zeolite with 0.3125 mgFe/gZeo increased the production of biogas by the highest percentage of 43% to be compared to control. Generally speaking, the addition of Fe2+ into zeolit led to higher removal of sCOD and produced more biogas than control.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan zeolit alam termodifikasi sebagai media imobilisasi terhadap dekomposisi material organik pada proses anaerobic digestion. Modifikasi yang dilakukan adalah dengan cara mengimpregnasi ion besi(Fe2+)ke dalam zeolit yang telah dibentuk menjadi cincin Raschig. Impregnasi yang dilakukan adalah impregnasi basah. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan 3 variasi konsentrasi larutan Fe2+ yaitu 10 mg/L; 100 mg/L dan 2000 mg/L. Dari hasil impregnasi zeolit menggunakan ketiga konsentrasi tersebut diperoleh kadar Fe2+ yang terdeposit ke dalam zeolit berturut-turut: 0,0016 mgFe2+/gZeo; 0,0156 mgFe2+/gZeo; 0,3125 mgFe2+/gZeo dan 0 mgFe2+/gZeo digunakan sebagai kontrol. Zeolit termodifikasi Fe2+ kemudian ditambahkan ke dalam reaktor anaerobik yang dijalankan secara batch. Perbandingan volume media zeolit dan cairan adalah 1:1. Substrat yang digunakan berupa campuran limbah distillery spent wash dengan konsentrasi soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand (sCOD) 10.000 mg/L dan keluaran dari digester aktif kotoran sapi sebagai inokulum. Perbandingan volume distillery spent wash terhadap inokulum sebesar 2:1. Proses anaerobik dijalankan selama 28 hari. Jika dibandingkan dengan data Total Solid (TS) dan Volatile Solid (VS), hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa data analisis sCOD memberikan data yang lebih akurat dan konklusif untuk mengukur perubahan material organik dalam proses peruraian anaerobik menggunakan media imobilisasi. Dari keempat variasi kadar Fe2+ yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini, Fe2+ dengan kadar 0,0156 mgFe/gZeo memberikan efisiensi penurunan material organik (sCOD) tertinggi yaitu 66,73%. Sedangkan Fe2+ dengan kadar 0,3125 mgFe/gZeo mampu meningkatkan produksi biogas sebesar 43%. Namun secara keseluruhan proses peruraian anaerobik yang menggunakan zeolit termodifikasi Fe2+ menghasilkan biogas lebih banyak daripada kontrol (zeolit tanpa Fe2+).
The Effect of the Addition of Active Digester Effluent for Start-up Accelerator in Anaerobic Digestion of Soybean Curd Industry Waste Water (Basic Research for Biogas Power Generation) Wresta, Arini; Budhijanto, Wiratni
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology Vol 3, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Research Centre for Electrical Power and Mechatronics, Indonesian Istitutes of Sciences

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (253.556 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/j.mev.2012.v3.81-86

Abstract

Biogas production from soybean curd industry waste water was studied in laboratory scale to improve the application of anaerobic digestion process. The problem with the soybean curd waste water was the fact that it does not sufficiently contain anaerobic microorganisms required in biogas production. Therefore, it is necessary to add a well-developed population of anaerobic microorganisms to accelerate the start-up of the anerobic digestion. This research was aimed to verify the influence of the addition of active digester effluent into the soybean curd waste water batches in an anaerobic digestion process. Batch experiments were done in two digesters. The first digester was only fed with soybean curd waste water while the second digester was fed with soybean curd waste water and active digester effluent from a digester processing cow manure which was very rich in anaerobic microorganism consortium. The results indicated that soybean curd industry waste water did not contain methanogenic bacteria but there existed some acidogenic bacteria. The addition of active digester effluent accelerated the anaerobic digestion start-up and directed the process pathway towards methanogenic process so that more methane was obtained. The high methane content obtained (more than 64% volume) was very potential for power generation. The capacity of soybean curd industry must be as high as 697.13 kg soybean per day to generate the electric energy of 8.4 kWh.
Evaluasi Waktu Start Up pada Proses Peruraian Stillage secara Anaerobik Menggunakan Reaktor Fixed Bed dengan Zeolit sebagai Media Imobilisasi Ivontianti, Wivina Diah; Budhijanto, Wiratni; Syamsiah, Siti
Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia "Kejuangan" 2016: Prosiding SNTKK 2016
Publisher : Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia "Kejuangan"

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Stillage was a waste containing high organic load and thus potentially as substrate anaerobic decomposition. However the complexity of the compounds contained therein has caused the decomposition process was slow.The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of substrate concentration to performance and the start up time required in fixed bed reactor with zeolite as immobilization media for stillage decomposition. The evaluation of the fixed bed reactor performance was executed by comparing experimental data and simulation result from the mathematical modelling as the standard under ideal condition for anaerobic stillage decomposition that has been compiled. The start up phase was conducted in the circulated batch system in two cycles with different substrate concentrations. Based on the evaluation, the first cycle with  the substrate concentration of 11.900 mg sCOD/L required 7-10 days to start up. If the first cycle had been conducted in more than 10 days, the condition was not optimum and it led to the death of microorganism. In the second cycle start-up phase with concentration  of the substrate of 17.600 mg/L sCOD in the reactor resulted in the failure of the system due to organic shock loading. From this study, it is obtained the  substrate with low concentration, 10.000 mg/L was good to start up.
Evaluasi Waktu Start Up pada Proses Peruraian Limbah Stillage secara Anaerobik Menggunakan Reaktor Fluidized Bed Kontinyu dengan Zeolit sebagai Media Imobilisasi Widhyasih, Kunthi; Budhijanto, Wiratni; Purnomo, Chandra W
Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia "Kejuangan" 2016: Prosiding SNTKK 2016
Publisher : Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia "Kejuangan"

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Stillage is wastewater from the ethanol industry. Organic matter content in the stillage is quite high, so it can damage to the environment if disposed of directly into the environment. Stillage has great potential to produce biogas that can be converted into energy by anaerobic treatment process. One of the anaeobic digestion methods is the bacterial cell immobilization technique. One of the  reactor types using cell immobilization technique is Anaerobic Fluidizied Bed Reactor (AFBR). This study uses a set of AFBR reactor containing zeolite media with particle diameters of 0.5 - 0.8 mm and operated at a fluidization level (FL) 20% - 40% of the total effective volume of the reactor. This work studied the effect initial organic concentrations and time dring start up process on decomposition of stillage using AFBR. Scope of this work was evaluating AFBR performance  by comparing the matematical model simulation result with experimental data. The simulation results were used as standard, that described AFBR performance under ideal conditions. This esperiment was conducted for 57 days in two cycles with varied sCOD concentrations and was done in batch recirculation process. The experiment showed that initial organic concentration was affected start up process.  On high organic concentration, start up process failed, but the maximum concentrations limits have not  been determined yet. Experiment showed that charging  50.000 mg sCOD/L to the reactor have made the system failed due the organic shock loading and inhibiton by VFA. Optimum time of start up was determined in first cycle, with initial organic concentration 10.000 mg sCOD/L. Optimum time of start up is 7 until 10 days. If start up process was longer than 10 days, bacteria entered the decay phase due insufficiency of substrat. AFBR performance evaluation using mathematical approaches produced more objective and more accurate result, although there were several factor not evaluated in the mathematical model such as the inhibition effect. These results could be used as a reference for reactor performance optimization especially in addressing the problem of inhibition
Penguraian Limbah Organik secara Aerobik dengan Aerasi Menggunakan Microbubble Generator dalam Kolam dengan Imobilisasi Bakteri Shalindry, Riysan Octy; Rochmadi, ; Budhijanto, Wiratni
Jurnal Rekayasa Proses Vol 9, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Departemen Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (490.563 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jrekpros.31035

Abstract

The abundance utilization of the water in life can lead to decrease water quality in the earth. To resolve these problems an efficient alternative waste treatment is needed. This research studied the aerobic wastewater treatment using the microbubble generator (MBG) type of porous pipe and orifice as an oxygen supply (aerator) to treat artificial waste in pond of 3m x 3m x 1m dimension. Attached culture growth using pumice as biofilm media was applied. The main focus of this research was the influence of the aeration intensity variation of MBG as the result of liquid flow rate (QL) and air flow rate (QG) combination upon the decrease of organic content measured as sCOD (soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand). The value of QG was varied at 0.0150; 0.0300; and 0.0450 m3/h while QL value was varied at 12, 14, and 16 m3/h. The data obtained were evaluated based on oxygen mass transfer performance represented by the value of kL. The value of kL was used as a reference in determining the best combination of QG and QL for reducing sCOD in aerobic wastewater treatment. From the results of the research, the best combination of QG and QL for aerobic waste treatment was at QG 0.0300 m3/h and QL 14 m3/h (at 0.0450 QG m3/h). Although the research was still exploratory, the obtained trends and numbers were very useful for optimizing the MBG performance. Keywords: aerobic waste treatment, microbubble, microbubble aeration, microbubble generator, biofilm, attached growth Penelitian ini mempelajari pengolahan air limbah secara aerobik menggunakan Microbubble Generator (MBG) tipe porous pipe dan orifice sebagai alat suplai oksigen (aerator) untuk mengolah limbah artifisial pada kolam berukuran 3m x 3m x 1m. Aerasi diuji coba dengan bakteri pengurai berupa biakan melekat (attached culture) pada batu apung berukuran diameter 2-4 cm. Fokus utama dari penelitian ini adalah pengaruh variasi kombinasi kecepatan aliran cairan (QL) dan kecepatan aliran udara (QG) pada MBG terhadap penurunan kadar bahan organik yang dinyatakan sebagai nilai sCOD (soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand). Nilai QG divariasikan pada 0,0150; 0,0300 dan 0,0450 m3/jam sedangkan untuk nilai QL pada 12, 14 dan 16 m3/jam. Data yang diperoleh pada penelitian dievaluasi menggunakan konstanta transfer massa (kL). Nilai kL digunakan sebagai acuan dalam menentukan kombinasi QG dan QL terbaik dalam penurunan konsentrasi sCOD pada limbah aerobik. Dari hasil penelitian ini nilai kL yang relatif baik dan stabil diperoleh pada kombinasi QG 0,030 m3/jam (untuk QL 16 m3/jam) dan QL 16 (pada QG 0,045 m3/jam). Walaupun penelitian ini masih bersifat eksploratif, trend dan konstanta yang diperoleh sangat berharga untuk mengoptimasi kinerja MBG. Kata kunci: Pengolahan limbah aerobik, microbubble, aerasi microbubble, microbubble generator (MBG), biofilm, pertumbuhan melekat
Evaluasi Kehandalan Reaktor Biogas Skala Rumah Tangga di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta dengan Metode Analisis Fault Tree Lestari, Ning Puji; Syamsiah, Siti; Sarto, Sarto; Budhijanto, Wiratni
Jurnal Rekayasa Proses Vol 10, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Departemen Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (523.53 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jrekpros.34421

Abstract

Biogas technology is one of the solutions for improving sanitation, environment, economy and energy conservation especially for smallholder farmers who are applying mixed crop and livestock farming. Indonesia Domestic Biogas Programme (BIRU) has been implemented in DIY since 2009. However, the household digesters that operate effectively only accounts for less than 50% of the total existing digesters in 2017. These problems should be identified and analyzed for more effective implementation and efficient operation of small-sized biogas system in the future. This research applied fault tree analysis (FTA) method to identify failures and evaluated their effects on the operation of small-sized biogas based on processes, physical component, and human factor point of view. Fourty-one sets of BIRU biogas were selected and sampled using stratified purposive random sampling method. Nineteen minimal cut set and three subsystems were defined, which included process failures, infrastructure failures, and human errors. The fault probabilities of the three subsystems were found to be 0.79; 0.59; and 0.96, respectively. It implied that human error gave the highest probability of errors, followed by process failure, while the physical structure of the reactor had been sufficiently well controlled. This study suggested that careful selection on prospective users should be conducted prior to installation, to ensure the motivation of the users in maintaining the reactor in good conditions. Besides, trainings and assistance system are also required to improve the skills of the user to maintain the performance of their reactor.ABSTRAKTeknologi biogas merupakan salah satu solusi untuk menyelesaikan masalah energi, sanitasi, lingkungan, dan ekonomi bagi masyarakat daerah pedesaan yang menerapkan sistem pertanian terpadu. Program pembangunan biogas telah banyak dilakukan di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta salah satunya melalui program Biogas Rumah (BIRU) dengan tingkat keberhasilan program yang belum memuaskan dengan angka keberhasilan di bawah 50%. Evaluasi kehandalan sistem biogas BIRU dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode fault tree analysis (FTA). Metode ini mencakup seluruh aspek yang mempengaruhi beroperasinya sebuah sistem biogas baik dari segi proses, komponen fisik (infrastruktur), maupun faktor manusia. Sebanyak 41 unit biogas yang mengalami kegagalan diteliti setelah dipilih dengan metode stratified purposive random sampling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa metode FTA cocok digunakan sebagai metode evaluasi kehandalan sehingga faktor penyebab kegagalan dan nilai probabilitas setiap faktor dapat diketahui. Dengan metode FTA, diperoleh hasil bahwa penyebab kegagalan sistem biogas berupa 19 minimal cut set yang dapat dikelompokkan dalam subsistem kegagalan proses, kegagalan komponen (infrastruktur), dan human errors dengan nilai probabilitas kegagalan masing-masing 0,79; 0,59; dan 0,96. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa kemungkinan terbesar kegagalan proses disebabkan oleh faktor manusia, kemudian disusul oleh faktor proses, sementara faktor komponen fisik reaktor sudah cukup baik kualitasnya. Studi ini menunjukkan bahwa untuk aplikasi teknologi biogas skala rumah tangga, seleksi calon pengguna harus dilakukan dengan teliti untuk menjamin motivasi calon. Selain itu, diperlukan pelatihan dan pendampingan untuk mempersiapkan calon pengguna agar mampu memelihara keberlanjutan teknologi biogas tersebut.
Pengaruh Kadar Air Umpan dan Rasio C/N pada Produksi Biogas dari Sampah Organik Pasar Zuliyana, ; Wirawan, Sang Kompiang; Budhijanto, Wiratni ; Cahyono, Rochim Bakti
Jurnal Rekayasa Proses Vol 9, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Departemen Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (488.276 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jrekpros.24526

Abstract

Nowadays, Indonesia is facing serious problem related to the rapid generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) and dependence on fossil energy. Converting organic content of MSW into biogas through biological process by mean of anaerobic digester is one of promising proposals to solve the MSW problem. In order to optimize biogas production, this research studies the effect of Total Solid (TS) content and ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) within organic fraction of MSW as raw material for biogas production. The organic fraction of MSW consists of vegetables and fruits waste which originated from traditional market. The experiments using various TS concentrations (10%, 15% and 20%) were conducted in batch reactors. The results showed that TS content of MSW raw material had significant effects on the total volume and CH4 concentration of biogas production. High water content in MSW raw material enhanced the hydrolysis of organic fraction as well as avoided the excessive Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) concentration which posed the risk of inhibition on the anaerobic process. Based on the results, the TS concentration of 10-15% in the organic MSW would offer an optimum yield of biogas production. In order to examine the effect of C/N ratio, the organic MSW was modified using ZA fertilizer (36, 30, 20 and 10 C/N ratios). The C/N ratios of 20-30 produced high amount biogas and CH4 concentration compared to others. The C/N ratio should be maintained at the optimum value to prevent the accumulation of free ammonia which could cause problems in the anaerobic process. Based on the results, the biogas production from organic MSW would yield the optimum biogas amount and CH4 concentration when the TS concentration and C/N ratio were 10-15% and 20-30, respectively. This outcome would give recommendation on the water addition to the raw organic fraction of MSW and C/N modification when converting the organic fraction of MSW to biogas. Keywords: biogas, C/N ratio, municipal solid waste, total solid. Permasalahan sampah dan ketergantungan akan energi fosil mendorong pemanfaatan sampah organik menjadi biogas. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mempelajari pengaruh konsentrasi Total Solid (TS) dan rasio C/N dari sampah kota sebagai bahan baku produksi biogas. Sampah kota berupa sayuran dan buah yang merupakan fraksi organik yang diperoleh dari pasar tradisional dan selanjutnya produksi biogas dilakukan dalam reaktor batch. Konsentrasi TS bahan baku divariasikan menjadi tiga variasi nilai TS yaitu 20%, 15% dan 10%. Konsentrasi TS pada bahan baku digester berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap jumlah akumulatif biogas yang dihasilkan dan kadar CH4. Diperlukan air dengan jumlah yang optimum untuk mempercepat proses hidrolisis sekaligus mencegah konsentrasi Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) terlalu tinggi yang beresiko inhibitor dalam sistem anaerob. Pada penelitian ini, untuk jenis sampah sayur/buah, nilai TS yang relatif baik adalah antara 10-15%. Modifikasi nilai rasio karbon terhadap nitrogen (C/N) dilakukan pada bahan baku dengan kadar TS optimum dimana nilai rasio C/N dimodifikasi menjadi 36 (rasio C/N orisinal TS optimum), 30, 20 dan 10. C/N ratio yang lebih rendah daripada nilai orisinalnya dicapai dengan penambahan pupuk ZA. Dalam penelitian ini, rasio C/N antara 20-30 memberikan hasil yang relatif paling baik dibandingkan nilai rasio C/N yang lain. Perlu dijaga agar nilai rasio C/N tidak terlalu rendah yang menyebabkan kinerja sistem anaerob justru lebih buruk. karena akumulasi ammonia bebas yang justru merupakan inhibitor. Berdasarkan hasil yang diperoleh, produksi biogas dari sampah buah dan sayur menunjukkan hasil yang optimum saat kisaran konsentrasi TS 10-15% dan rasio C/N 20-30. Hal ini memberikan rekomendasi jumlah penambahan air dan perlu tidaknya koreksi rasio C/N pada umpan bahan baku saat operasi skala industri. Kata kunci: biogas, rasio C/N, sampah kota, total solid.
Evaluasi Efek Pre-treatment Ultrasonik pada Proses Hidrolisis Enzimatis Ampas Tahu Hapsari, Farlina ; Prasetyo,, Imam ; Budhijanto, Wiratni
Jurnal Rekayasa Proses Vol 9, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Departemen Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (419.962 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jrekpros.31036

Abstract

Utilization of biomass as alternative energy source is one of the attempts to reduce the dependence on petroleum based energy which is currently still used as the primary energy source. Tofu solid waste is one of the potential biomass sources that have not been fully utilized. Tofu solid waste was mostly comprised of complex molecular structures composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Various techniques of pretreatments have been studied to change the physical structure and chemical properties of the biomass to improve its digestibility in enzymatic hydrolysis process. This research studied the effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on tofu solid waste prior to the enzymatic hydrolysis to maximize the conversion of the cellulose into glucose. Ultrasonic pretreatment was conducted by using a water bath equipped with ultrasonic equipment (sonicator) run at the wave frequency of 20 kHz and power of 5 kW. Ultrasonic pretreatment with variations of time (10, 20 and 30 minutes) and temperatures (60 °C, 80 °C, 100 °C) were carried out. Following the pretreatment, hydrolysis tests were conducted on pretreated samples using cellulase enzymes in 100 ml batch reactor at 45 oC and pH 5. Samples were taken every 1 hour for 6 hours of the reaction and glucose concentration in every sample was measured. The highest cellulosic conversion in enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained on the biomass which was pretreated with ultrasonic for 20 minutes. Keywords: tofu solid waste, enzymatic hydrolysis, pretreatment, ultrasonic Pemanfaatan biomassa sebagai sumber energi alternatif merupakan salah satu usaha untuk mengurangi ketergantungan terhadap penggunaan energi minyak bumi yang saat ini masih dipandang sebagai sumber energi utama. Ampas tahu adalah salah satu biomassa yang belum termanfaatkan secara maksimal. Ampas tahu merupakan salah satu biomassa yang memiliki struktur molekul yang kompleks, yang terdiri atas selulosa, hemiselulosa dan lignin. Telah banyak publikasi tentang berbagai teknik pretreatment untuk mengubah struktur fisik dan kimia dari biomassa untuk meningkatkan konversi selulosa pada proses hidrolisis enzimatis. Penelitian ini mempelajari pengaruh pretreatment ultrasonik pada ampas tahu sebelum hidrolisis enzimatis. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan waterbath yang dilengkapi alat ultrasonik (sonikator) dengan frekuensi 20 kHz dan power 5 kW. Dalam penelitian ini dipelajari pretreatment ultrasonik dengan variasi waktu (10, 20 dan 30 menit) dan suhu (60°C, 80°C, 100°C). Ampas tahu yang sudah mengalami pretreatment ultrasonik, selanjutnya dihidrolisis dengan menggunakan enzim selulase dalam reaktor batch dengan volume 100 ml pada suhu 45oC dan pH 5. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan setiap 1 jam selama 6 jam reaksi untuk dianalisis kadar glukosa. Konversi tertinggi pada hidrolisis enzimatis diperoleh pada bahan biomassa dengan pretreatment ultrasonik selama 20 menit. Kata kunci: ampas tahu, hidrolisis enzimatis, pretreatment, ultrasonik
Penguraian Limbah Organik secara Aerobik dengan Aerasi Menggunakan Microbubble Generator dalam Kolam dengan Imobilisasi Bakteri Shalindry, Riysan Octy; Rochmadi, ; Budhijanto, Wiratni
Jurnal Rekayasa Proses Vol 9, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Departemen Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jrekpros.31035

Abstract

The abundance utilization of the water in life can lead to decrease water quality in the earth. To resolve these problems an efficient alternative waste treatment is needed. This research studied the aerobic wastewater treatment using the microbubble generator (MBG) type of porous pipe and orifice as an oxygen supply (aerator) to treat artificial waste in pond of 3m x 3m x 1m dimension. Attached culture growth using pumice as biofilm media was applied. The main focus of this research was the influence of the aeration intensity variation of MBG as the result of liquid flow rate (QL) and air flow rate (QG) combination upon the decrease of organic content measured as sCOD (soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand). The value of QG was varied at 0.0150; 0.0300; and 0.0450 m3/h while QL value was varied at 12, 14, and 16 m3/h. The data obtained were evaluated based on oxygen mass transfer performance represented by the value of kL. The value of kL was used as a reference in determining the best combination of QG and QL for reducing sCOD in aerobic wastewater treatment. From the results of the research, the best combination of QG and QL for aerobic waste treatment was at QG 0.0300 m3/h and QL 14 m3/h (at 0.0450 QG m3/h). Although the research was still exploratory, the obtained trends and numbers were very useful for optimizing the MBG performance. Keywords: aerobic waste treatment, microbubble, microbubble aeration, microbubble generator, biofilm, attached growth Penelitian ini mempelajari pengolahan air limbah secara aerobik menggunakan Microbubble Generator (MBG) tipe porous pipe dan orifice sebagai alat suplai oksigen (aerator) untuk mengolah limbah artifisial pada kolam berukuran 3m x 3m x 1m. Aerasi diuji coba dengan bakteri pengurai berupa biakan melekat (attached culture) pada batu apung berukuran diameter 2-4 cm. Fokus utama dari penelitian ini adalah pengaruh variasi kombinasi kecepatan aliran cairan (QL) dan kecepatan aliran udara (QG) pada MBG terhadap penurunan kadar bahan organik yang dinyatakan sebagai nilai sCOD (soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand). Nilai QG divariasikan pada 0,0150; 0,0300 dan 0,0450 m3/jam sedangkan untuk nilai QL pada 12, 14 dan 16 m3/jam. Data yang diperoleh pada penelitian dievaluasi menggunakan konstanta transfer massa (kL). Nilai kL digunakan sebagai acuan dalam menentukan kombinasi QG dan QL terbaik dalam penurunan konsentrasi sCOD pada limbah aerobik. Dari hasil penelitian ini nilai kL yang relatif baik dan stabil diperoleh pada kombinasi QG 0,030 m3/jam (untuk QL 16 m3/jam) dan QL 16 (pada QG 0,045 m3/jam). Walaupun penelitian ini masih bersifat eksploratif, trend dan konstanta yang diperoleh sangat berharga untuk mengoptimasi kinerja MBG. Kata kunci: Pengolahan limbah aerobik, microbubble, aerasi microbubble, microbubble generator (MBG), biofilm, pertumbuhan melekat