Departemen Proteksi Tanaman, Fakultas Pertanian IPB Jl. Kamper, Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor 16680, Jawa Barat. Telp. 08121105362

Published : 51 Documents

Diversity of Pollinator Insects in Relation to Seed Set of Mustard (Brassica rapa L.: Cruciferae)

HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 14, No 4 (2007): December 2007
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Pollinators provide key services to both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Agricultural productivity depends, in part, on pollinator populations from adjacent seminatural habitats. Here we analysed the diversity of pollinator insects and its effect to seed set of mustard (Brassica rapa) planted in agricultural ecosystem near the Gunung Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java. At least 19 species of insects pollinated the mustard, and three species, i.e. Apis cerana, Ceratina sp., and Apis dorsata showed a high abundance. The higher abundance and species richness of pollinators occurred at 08.30-10.30 am and the diversity was related to the number of flowering plants. Insect pollinations increased the number of pods, seeds per pod, seed weights per plant, and seed germination. Key words: diversity, pollinator insects, social bees, solitary bees, seed set, Brassica rapa

Ants in Tropical Urban Habitats: The Myrmecofauna in a Densely Populated Area of Bogor, West Java, Indonesia

HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 15, No 2 (2008): June 2008
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Ants are the most abundant animals in tropical habitats and have been widely studied in natural and semi-natural tropical systems. However, species in urban tropical habitats remain poorly studied, despite their abundance and potentially important roles in urban ecosystems and pest dynamics. We investigated the ant fauna of Bogor and its surroundings to contribute to the characterization of the myrmecofauna of one of Southeast Asia’s most densely populated regions. Ants were collected both by hand collection and from honey baits in the most common habitats: garbage dumps, households, and home gardens. In total, 94 species were recorded, over two thirds of which occurred in home gardens, which underlines the importance of vegetated habitats for urban planning to support complex ant assemblages. Twelve sampled species are well-known as tramp species that occur primarily in human-dominated landscapes. The two tramp species Anoplolepis gracilipes and Paratrechina longicornis dominated ant assemblages in all locations and most habitat types. The assemblages of tramp species were affected by habitat type, whereas that of non tramp species were not. Forty-five species were also recorded in the Bogor Botanical Garden and five species are also known to be common in cacao agroforests. Hence, research in urban tropical habitats can increase our knowledge of the occurrence of ant species, allowing us to better assess the biodiversity and conservation potential of semi-natural habitats. Key words: ants, tramp species, invasive species, biotic homogenization, urban habitats

Conservation of Agroecosystem through Utilization of Parasitoid Diversity: Lesson for Promoting Sustainable Agriculture and Ecosystem Health

HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 15, No 4 (2008): December 2008
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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For many years, agricultural intensification and exploitation has resulted in biodiversity loss and threaten ecosystem functioning. Developing strategies to bridge human needs and ecosystem health for harmonization of ecosystem is a major concern for ecologist and agriculturist. The lack of information on species diversity of natural enemies and how to utilize them with integration of habitat management that can renovate ecological process was the main obstacle. Parasitoids, a group of natural enemies, play a very important role in regulating insect pest population. During the last ten years, we have been working on exploration of parasitoid species richness, how to use it to restore ecosystem functions, and identifying key factors influencing host-parasitoid interaction. Here, we propose a model of habitat management that is capable of maintaining agricultural biodiversity and ecosystem functions. We present data on parasitoid species richness and distribution in Java and Sumatera, their population structure and its impact toward biological control, relationship between habitat complexes and parasitoid community, spatial and temporal dynamic of parasitoid diversity, and food web in agricultural landscape. Implications of our findings toward conservation of agroecosystem are discussed. Key words: conservation, agroecosystem, parasitoid, diversity, ecosystem health

Functional Group of Spiders in Cultivated Landscape Dominated by Paddy Fields in West Java, Indonesia

HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 16, No 1 (2009): March 2009
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Distribution of spiders in all colonized environments is limited by biotic and abiotic factors requiring adaptations with respect to, for example microhabitat choice and hunting behavior. These two factors were frequently used to group spiders into functional groups. In this study our objectives were to (i) group of genera of spiders into functional group based on their microhabitat specificity, hunting behavior, and daily activity; and (ii) compare the number and composition of functional group of spider at each habitat type and period of paddy growth. The study was conducted at a landscape dominated by paddy fields in Cianjur Watershed for a period of 9 months. Four different habitat types (paddy, vegetable, non-crop, and mixed garden), were sampled using five trapping techniques (pitfall traps, farmcop suction, sweep netting, yellow-pan traps, and sticky traps). The Unweighted Pair-Group Average and the Euclidean Distances were used to generate dendrogram of functional group of spider. We found 14 functional groups of spider at genus level. The number of functional group of spider at four habitat types was differing, but the composition was similar, because all habitats were closed to each other. Habitat structure diversity and disturbance level influenced the number of functional group of spider. Different architecture of vegetation and availability of differ prey during paddy growth, causing the composition of functional group of spider in each period of paddy growth was changed, although its number was unchanged. Key words: spiders, functional group, agricultural landscape, Cianjur Watershed

Spatial Analysis of Agricultural Landscape and Hymenoptera Biodiversity at Cianjur Watershed

HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 13, No 4 (2006): December 2006
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Hymenoptera is one of the four largest insect order (the other three are Coleoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera). There are curerently over 115 000 described Hymenoptera species. It is clear that Hymenoptera is one of the major components of insect biodiversity. However, Hymenoptera biodiversity is affected by ecology, environment, and ecosystem management. In an agricultural areas, the spatial structure, habitat diversity, and habitat composition may vary from cleared landscapes to structurally rich landscape. Thus, it is very likely that such large-scale spatial patterns (landscape effects) may influence local biodiversity and ecological functions. Therefore, the objective of this research were to study diversity and configuration elements of agricultural landscapes at Cianjur Watershed with geographical information sytems (GIS) and its influence on Hymenoptera biodiversity. The structural differences between agricultural landscapes of Nyalindung, Gasol, and Selajambe were characterized by patch analyst with ArcView 3.2 of digital land use data. Results indicated that class of land uses of Cianjur Watershed landscape were housing, mixed gardens, talun and rice, vegetable, and corn fields. Landscape structure influenced the biodiversity of Hymenoptera. Species richness and the species diversity were higher in Nyalindung landscape compare to Gasol and Selajambe landscape. Key words: diversity, Hymenoptera, landscape, watershed, GIS

Encapsulation and Hemocyte Numbers in Crocidolomia pavonana and Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera) Attacked by Parasitoid Eriborus argenteopilosus Cameron (Hymenoptera)

HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 16, No 4 (2009): December 2009
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Eriborus argenteopilosus is the most important parasitoid attacking cabbage pest Crocidolomia pavonana in Indonesia.  Previous studies proved that parasitoid encapsulation was found to be an important factor limiting the effectiveness of the parasitoid in controlling pest population in the field. Since 1998, we have conducted series studies to investigate encapsulation mechanism developed by hosts against parasitoid, responses of parasitoid toward encapsulation ability and to determine factors that may help parasitoid avoid encapsulation. Parasitoid responses were examined on two different hosts C. pavonana and Spodoptera litura. Our findings showed that parasitization level was found to be high both on C. pavonana and S. litura. Encapsulation occurred to be high in all larva stages of C. pavonana, in contrast encapsulation was recorded very low in all larvae stages of S. litura. We recorded that encapsulation in the larval body of C. pavonana was completed in 72 hours and mostly occurred in higher larval stage. Melanization was only recorded in encapsulated parasitoid inside larva body of C. pavonana, not in S. litura. We recorded that encapsulation increased blood cell number of both larvae C. pavonana and S. litura. Encapsulation may affect development of immature parasitoid. Weight of S. litura’s pupae containing encapsulated parasitoid was found to be lower in S. litura, but not in C. pavonana. Our investigation also proved that superparasitism may help parasitoid avoid encapsulation.                   Key words: parasitoid, encapsulation, melanization, blood cell number, superparasitism

Dinamika Populasi Kompleks Parasitoid Telur Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) Pada Ekosistem Kapas Monokultur dan Kapas Tumpangsari dengan Jagung

Jurnal Pengendalian Hayati Vol 1, No 2 (2008)
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Jember

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Eggs of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on its host plants could beparasitized by some species of parasitoids, especially of the genus Trichogrammatoidea andTrichogramma. This research was aimed to study the population dynamics of egg parasitoids of H.armigera on unsprayed fields of cotton monoculture and intercropped with maize. The plot size ofeach field was 19 m x 20 m, with five replicates. We collected H. armigera eggs from both fieldsperiodically since 23 days after planting (dap) to 100 dap. The eggs were collected on 9 sample units(size of sample unit: 1 m2) in 7-days interval. The number of collected and parasitized eggs wasrecorded and the emerged parasitoids were identified to species level. The result showed that thefluctuation pattern of H. armigera egg population was not different on cotton monoculture and cottonintercropped with maize. The parasitoid population was relatively high during the flowering phase ofcotton and maize. The parasitoids of H. armigera eggs found in cotton monoculture and cottonintercropped with maize were T’toidea armigera, T’toidea guamensis, T’toidea bactrae bactrae,T’toidea bactrae fumata, T. chilonis and T. chilotraeae . The dominant species on early season untilthe flowering phase of the plants was T’toidea armigera, while on the latter phase of the plantphenology was T. chilotraeae. Implication of this population dynamics and the succession of theparasitoids in biological control are discussed.

Pengaruh Suhu terhadap Perkembangan Pradewasa Parasitoid Eriborus argenteopilosus Cameron (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

Jurnal Natur Indonesia Vol 13, No 03 (2011)
Publisher : Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat Universitas Riau

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Temperature effect on development time of the preadult parasitoid Eriborus argenteopilosus Cameron(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) were studied to know development time, degree days and survival rate.Crocidolomia pavonana (Fabricius)(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae was exposed to E. argenteopilosus female andreared at four different temperatures i.e 160C, 200C, 250C and 300C. Data were analyzed using anova and linearregression to calculate degree day. At 200C E. argenteopilosus showed the highest degree day and survival rate(18.67 %), while at 300C nothing adult parasitoid emergenced. Degree day to development time of parasitoid attemperature 200C i.e fase egg-adult: 300.05; egg-pupae 173.35; pupae-adult 171.

Teknik perbanyakan massal parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae (Pang et Wang) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) dengan kotak plastik

Jurnal Entomologi Indonesia Vol 9, No 1 (2012): April
Publisher : Perhimpunan Entomologi Indonesia

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Anagrus nilaparvatae (Pang et Wang) is an egg-parasitoid of rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål). The objective of this study was to develop a mass-rearing technique of A. nilaparvatae. Mass-rearing was done using a plastic box (14 cm × 18.5 cm × 18.5 cm, made of plastic-mica, the upper side equipped with a 10 cm test tube), placed on a tray with rice seedlings containing an estimated of 11,130 eggs of N. lugens. About 355 adult parasitoids were successfully released per box when each box was infested with 50 parasitoids. The number of parasitoids produced were reduced to 164 adults when the infestation was made at 100 parasitoids per box. The emergence of parasitoids started around 07:00 am until 04:00 pm with the highest rate (36.2%) occured at 10:00 am. One plastic box cost only Rp10.000,-; thus the estimate cost to produce one parasitoid using this tecnique was Rp60,- These findings suggest that the plastik box is a simple and inexpensive technique for mass-rearing of A. nilaparvatae.

Agresi intraspesifik dan waktu penemuan makanan pada semut invasif Anoplolepis gracilipes di Kebun Raya Bogor

Jurnal Entomologi Indonesia Vol 13, No 2 (2016): July
Publisher : Perhimpunan Entomologi Indonesia

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We studied the distribution of the Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Bogor Botanical Garden (BBG). Biological invasions by A. gracilipes can negatively impact other species. Individual nests of this ant can form supercolonies within which aggression is absent, intraspecific aggression occurs between workers from different supercolonies. The aim of this research was to study aggression between and resource discovery of different A. gracilipes supercolonies in BBG. Intraspecific aggression was calculated as three different aggression indices obtained by performing intercolonial arena encounters. Resource discovery was measured as time until honey baits in known distances to colony entrances were discovered. In 2013, we encountered five spatially distinct nest clusters of A. gracilipes in BBG, which cover ca. 25% of its area. Aggression tests showed that workers from KRB 1 were significantly more aggressive towards each other. The absence of intercolonial aggression between three of five nest clusters suggested that they actually belong to the same supercolony. On average, A. gracilipes needed less than 1 hour to find the food on bait plate in 20 m distance. We found 3 supercolonies of A. gracilipes which derived from 5 spatially distinct cluster of nests in BBG.