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IL-1β Genetic Polimorphism in Menopause Women as Periodontal Disease Risk Factor Tanjaya, Justine; Auerkari, Elza Ibrahim
Journal of Dentistry Indonesia Vol 18, No 1 (2011): April
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia

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Abstract

Periodontal disease is a disease with multifactorial etiology that can occur in postmenopausal women. Objective: This research aims to know the description of the genetic polymorphism of IL-1β in postmenopausal women in Indonesia as a risk factor for periodontal disease. Methods: This study is a descriptive study on 55 biological stored amples. Sample’s extracted DNA was analysed for polymorphisms IL-1β+3954 using PCR-RFLP method with Taqα1 restriction enzyme digests then the result was electroforized. Research results were analyzed using chi square test. Results: The genotype CC frequency was 85.7%, CT 14.3%, and TT was absent in normal people. CC 86.5%, CT 8.3%, and TT did not exist in people who have periodontal disease. Conclusion: Genetic polymorphisms IL-1β in Indonesia’s postmenopausal women is not a risk factor for periodontal diseaseDOI: 10.14693/jdi.v18i1.52
Dental Forensics: Bitemark Analysis Auerkari, Elza Ibrahim
Journal of Dentistry Indonesia Vol 15, No 2 (2008): August
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia

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Abstract

Forensic odontology (dental forensics) can provide useful evidence in both criminal and civil cases, and therefore remains a part of the wider discipline of forensic science. As an example from the toolbox of forensic odontology, the practice and experience on bitemark analysis is reviewed here in brief. The principle of using visible bitemarks in crime victims or in other objects as evidence is fundamentally based on the observation that the detailed pattern of dental imprints tend to be practically unique for each individual. Therefore, finding such an imprint as a bitemark can bear a strong testimony that it was produced by the individual that has the matching dental pattern. However, the comparison of the observed bitemark and the suspected set of teeth will necessarily require human interpretation, and this is not infallible. Both technical challenges in the bitemarks and human errors in the interpretation are possible. To minimise such errors and to maximise the value of bitemark analysis, dedicated procedures and protocols have been developed, and the personnel taking care of the analysis need to be properly trained. In principle the action within the discipline should be conducted as in evidence-based dentristy, i.e. accepted procedures should have known error rates. Because of the involvement of human interpretation, even personal performance statistics may be required from legal expert statements. The requirements have been introduced largely due to cases where false convictions based on bitemark analysishave been overturned after DNA analysis.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i2.76
TUMOR SUPPRESSING FUNCTIONS OF p16INK4a - A REVIEW Auerkari, Elza Ibrahim; Suwelo, Ismu Suharsono; Tjarta, Achmad; Rahardjo, T. W.; Eto, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Masa-Aki
Journal of Dentistry Indonesia Vol 10, No 2 (2003): AUGUST
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia

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Abstract

DNA damage can have particularly severe carcinogenic influence if it incapacitates the cellular machinery normally protecting the cell from the effects of genomic damage. The protective functions involve not only DNA repair and apoptosis (programmed cell death), but also regulation of the cell cycle and proliferation. Therefore, carcinogenesis can be promoted by inactivating or altering key regulatory proteins like p16INK4a which has the capability to arrest the cell cycle in the  G1 phase and prevent inappropriate proliferation. Functionl cyclin- dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p16INK4a binds to Cdk-4 and Cdk-6 thereby preventing Cdk-cyclin complexes from promoting phosphorylation of pRb and releasing the transcription factor E2F needed for the cell cycle to proceed to the S phase. Arrest in G1 accounts for a minority of arresting cells after DNA damage, the majority of arrests taking place in G1 without recognized p16INK4a contribution. However, inactivating alterations of p16INK4a are common in cancers, possibly because of additional functions of p16INK4a in senescence and inhibition of the spreading and migration of cancer cells. Since oncogenic initiation is insufficient for growing significant tumors without spreading and angiogenesis, this could partly expain why inactivated p16INK4a is frequently exhibited in clinical tumors in spite of apparently less exclusive role in cell cycle arrest.On the other hand, multiple oncogenic events are usually necessary to develop cancer and generally both pRb and p53 pathways are impaired in tumors. This suggests that growth regulation in G1 and therefore also its key molecular components including p16INK4a are important in carcinogenesis.
CELLULAR RESPONSES TO DNA DAMAGE AND ONCOGENESIS BY THE p53 AND pRb/E2F PATHWAYS Auerkari, Elza Ibrahim; Suwelo, Ismu Suharsono; Tjarta, Achmad; Cornain, Santoso; Rahardjo, T. W.; Eto, K.; Ikeda, M.A.
Journal of Dentistry Indonesia Vol 10, No 2 (2003): AUGUST
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia

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Abstract

Cellular responses to stress including DNA damage, show multiple options involving the mechanisms of growth arrest. DNA repair and programmed cell death or apoptosis. Failures in these mechanisms can result in oncogenesis or accelerated senescence. Much of the response is coordinated by p53, a nuclear phosphoprotein with a central role in the defences against physical, chemical and pathogenic agents which challenge the DNA integrity. The p53 pathways for mobilising the cellular defences are linked to the pRB/E2D pathways regulating the cell cycle progression. This paper aims to review the current understanding on the networks and main molecular machinery of these processes. In addition, the implications on cellular decision making for the defences as well as revolutionary aspects of these mechanisms are discussed in brief.
TUMOR SUPPRESSION IN ONCOGENESIS OF ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA Auerkari, Elza Ibrahim; Tjahyani, Agoeng; Djaya, Widurini
Journal of Dentistry Indonesia Vol 7, No 1 (2000)
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia

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Abstract

Oral cancer is relatively uncommon in the industrialized world but accounts for about 5% of all cancer deaths worldwide, and up to 40% of all malignancies in South and South-East Asia. The present paper aims to review the role and signifivance of tumor suppressor genes in the genetic and molecular pathways to oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is the most common form of oral cancer and frequently associated with poor prognosis. The high incidence of SCC in betel quid users is due to the severe chemical insult resulting in multiple alterations of oncogenes and tumor suppressing genes. Of the latter, SCC in betel quid users is more often associated with alterations in P16 and pRb (typically at least 60% of the cases) than in p53 (typically less than 20%). However, in most parts of the world SCC is mostly attributed to smoked tobacco and alcohol, which inflict a synergistic effect when used in combination. The characteristic prevalent alterations are common (50 to 100%) in the tumor suppressor gene p53. Potential applications of the genes, corresponding expressed proteins and related other markers are discussed in brief. 
Pengaruh Pasta Gigi mengandung Xylitol terhadap Pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans Serotipe E (In Vitro) Resti, Resti; Auerkari, Elza Ibrahim; Sarwono, A. T.
Journal of Dentistry Indonesia Vol 15, No 1 (2008): April
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia

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Abstract

Streptococcus mutans serotype E is a major bacterium causing caries, and widely present in dental plaque. Dentifrices containing xylitol have been shown to inhibit the growth of these mutans streptococci. The aim of the study was to identify the influence of dentifrice containing xylitol on S. mutans serotype E (in vitro). The 1:1 solution of dentifrice containing xylitol was diluted to the test concentrations of 100%, 10%, 1%, 0.1%, 0.01%, and 0.001%, in addition to positive and negative control groups. These solutions were examined in S. mutans serotype E test cultures by the diffusion method. The resulting inhibition zone was 2.16 mm at a concentration of 10%, and 3.0 mm at a concentration of 100%. Zero zone size was found at all other test concentrations, and a significant (Spearman) negative correlation was indicated between the concentration of dentifrice and the growth of mutans streptococci (p<0.05). The MIC was not been identified, but MBC was 10%. In conclusion, the dentifrice containing xylitol can significantly inhibit the growth of S. mutans serotype E at least at dentrifice concentrations of 5-10%.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i1.79
The Distribution of Mutans Streptococci in Plaque on the margin of Amalgam, on the Enamel, and on the Surface of Amalgam Restoration Mangundjaja, Soeherwin; Muthalib, Abdul; Djais, Ariadna; Auerkari, Elza Ibrahim
Journal of Dentistry Indonesia Vol 5, No 3 (1998): December
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia

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Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of distribution of mutans streptococci on the margin of amalgam restoration, compared with that on the enamel and on the surface of restoration. It is assumed that the level of distribution of mutans streptococci on the margin will be able to influence the presence of secondary caries. In this study the first molars of 20 patients were treated with amalgam restoration. The mutans streptococci was measured as the percentage of total CFU count in the plaque. The results showed a mean count of 108.8 (SD= 55.2) of mutans streptococci in the margin; 97.7 (SD=63.5) on the enamel; and 61.4 (SD=32.4) on the surface of amalgam restoration. It seems that the level of mutans streptococci on the margin is higher than those on the enamel (p=0.006) as well as higher than those on the surface of (p=0.031). It is suggested that elevated level of mutans streptococci on the margin can indicate risk to secondary caries.
PCR-SSCP Analysis and DNA Sequencing as an Important Method for Detecting Mutation of INGI gene in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas Auerkari, Elza Ibrahim; Gunduz, Mehmet; Ouchida, Mamoru
Journal of Dentistry Indonesia Vol 8, No 2 (2001): August
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia

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Abstract

Tumor specific mutation of the candidate tumor suppressor gene INGI ws demonstrated using PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing analysis. The mutant sample showed an amino acid change from aspangine (AAC) to serine (AGC) at codon 214 in the INGI gene from the DNA of head and neck cancer cells. The result proved that PCS (polymerase chain reaction) - SSCP (single-stranded conformation polymorphism) analysis can effectively detect both wild and mutant types of the gene from tissue samples. Moreover, the nucelotide change can be determined by sequencing the mutant product. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the importance of SSCP and DNA sequencing in identifying nuclotide substitution in human head and neck carcinomas.
The Cloning of the Human Tumor Supressor Gene INGI: DNA Cloning into Plasmid Vector and DNA Analysis by Restriction Enzymes Auerkari, Elza Ibrahim; Ouchida, Mamoru; Gunduz, Mehmet
Journal of Dentistry Indonesia Vol 8, No 1 (2001): April
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia

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Abstract

DNA cloning is one of the most important techniques In the field of molecular biology, with a critical role in analyzing the structure and function of genes and their adjacent regulatory regions. DNA cloning is helpful in learning fundamental molecular biological techniques, since DNA cloning involves a series of them, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA ligation, bacterial transformation, bacterial culture, plasmid DNA extraction, DNA digestion with restriction enzymes and agarose gel electrophoresis. In this paper the cloning of the human tumor suppressor gene INGI has been used to illustrate the methodology. The gene was amplified by PCR, cloned into a TA-cloning vectore, and restriction enzyme mapping was used to distinguish the sense INGI construct from the antisense INGI construct.
Pemanfaatan Ruga Palatal untuk Identifikasi Forensik Chairani, Shanty; Auerkari, Elza Ibrahim
Journal of Dentistry Indonesia Vol 15, No 3 (2008): December
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia

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Abstract

Human identification is very important in forensic field. Analysis of teeth and other components in oral cavity can make a significant contribution in the process. Palatal rugae, which is one of the components in oral cavity, have a promising prospect in helping identification process because of its individualistic pattern. In special case whereas victim was burnt and the jaw was edentulous, which identification methods using analysis of finger print and tooth examination was not possible, analysis of palatal rugae would be very helpful in identification process. This paper will discuss application of palatal rugae analysis in forensic identification, the benefits and the limitations. Several challenges in the future so that the usage of analysis of palatal rugae becoming wider and more optimal, will also be discussed.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i3.35palatal