Ketut Artawa
Program S2 Linguistik Program Pascasarjana Universitas Udayana

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SERIAL VERB CONSTRUCTION IN BALINESE (SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC ANALYSIS) Mas Indrawati, Ni Luh; Artawa, Ketut; Putra Yadnya, Ida Bagus; Sedeng, I Nyoman
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol. 6. Januari 2012 No. 1
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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Serial verb construction (SVC) is a construction where more than one verbs occur in a clause without any overt markers of  subordinator or coordinator. SVC is a common fenomenon in isolative languages which lack morphological markers for sintactic processes.  However, in the use of Balinese, which is  rich in morphological markers, SVC are common fenomena.  This research attempts to analyse the typological characteristics of SVC in Balinese, to describe the types of SVC in Balinese viewed from the structure of events which forms the SVC, to analyse the constituent merging strategies in clauses containing SVC. This research applies decriptive-qualitative approach, by combining analitic and introspective methods. The data source of this research was 50 short story texts taken from Sastra slot in “Bali Orti”, weekly newspaper of Bali Post, completed with spoken texts, obtained by applying direct observation technique. The data was descriptively and analitically analysed by using the deductive-inductive-deductive approach. The theories applied in analysing SVC in Balinese were: tipological, semantic cognitive, and sintactic theories. The result shows that typologically, SVCs in Balinese had three characteristics that is: phonetic, morphosyntactic, and semantic characteristics. Viewed from the integration of events in Balinese SVCs, it could be proved that SVCs in Balinese express a single macro-event and could be classified into two  types, they were: component SVC and narative SVC. Syntactically SVCs in Balinese were biclausal constructions, some were monoclausal, and successive clauses.
NOMINAL MARKING SYSTEM OF BAHASA MANGGARAI AND ITS INTERRELATION TO NAMING SYSTEM OF ENTITIES: A CULTURAL LINGUISTIC STUDY Erom, Kletus; Mbete, Aron Meko; Artawa, Ketut; Putra Yadnya, Ida Bagus
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol. 4. Januari 2010 No. 1
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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This study analyzes the cultural imagery of the Manggaraian SpeechCommunities (MSC) in “Nominal Marking System (NMS) of Bahasa Manggaraiand Its Interrelation with Naming Systems of Entity (NSE): A CulturalLinguistic Study”. The result of the analysis is useful for both the academic worldand the life of the society, especially the MSC.The study conducted in Manggarai Regency, Flores, East Nusa TenggaraProvince, is qualitative. The data were obtained through observation, elicitation,interview, documentation study, listening, and note taking. For this reason, a numberof questions were prepared in a written form. The data obtained were analyzedthrough steps of selection, listing, translation, and interpretation of the formallinguistic meaning and cultural imagery of the MSC. The result of the data analysisis informally reported and verbally described.To analyze the data, the Cultural Linguistic Theory was applied andsupported by the structural and the dynamic theories. To know the chance and toinspire the study, a number of previous studies were reviewed. To easily understand,direct, and limit the discussion of the study, a number of basic concepts weredefined.Syntactically and semantically, there are four kinds of nominal markers(NMs) of BM. NMs in the forms of personal pronouns (PP): hau ‘you SG’, hia/hi‘he/she’, meu ‘you-PLUR’, and ise ‘they’ mark proper nouns (PN) as theSubject/Agent or Object/Patient in a clause bearing the meaning of subject or objectposition of a clause and not common nouns (CN). NMs in the forms of de/ di/ disemark the noun (CN/pronoun or PN) as the possessor of the possessed noun in aclause bearing the meaning of possession. NMs in the forms of le/ li/ lise mark thenoun (CN/pronoun or PN) as the agent diathesis of an action targeted to a noun asthe patient diathesis in a clause bearing the meaning of addition or the target/localityof an action. And NMs in the forms of ge/ gi/ gise mark the noun (CN/pronoun orPN) added to another noun or become the target/locality of an action taking place ina clause bearing the meaning of addition or the target/locality of an action.Beside the four meanings above, NMS of BM also bears a number of themeanings, as stated in the following. The meaning of kinship intimacy is marked bythe PN marking the kinship names. The meanings of individual and grouprepresentations are revealed by the singular PN itself simultaneously by the plural PN. The meaning of priority to a majority group is revealed by the morpheme of theSubject Pronominal Copy fused in one of clause functions (Predicator, Object, andAdverb). The meaning of group of representation is revealed by plural markers onthe singular PN representing other PN that is physically absent from a clause.The NMS of BM has its own phonological and graphological characteristics.Phonology deals with the pronunciation and graphology with the writing of the NMand the noun marked in a clause.The four NMs are grouped into two on the basis of the noun marked, i.e.Common Nominal Markers (CNM), covering de, le, and ge and Proper NominalMarkers (PNM), covering NM in the forms of PP, PNM of possessive di/ dise, PNMof agent diathesis li/ lise, and PNM of combined/targeted gi/ gise. The four PNMsare also grouped into two based on the number of the proper noun (PN) marked, i.ethe singular PNM: hau, hia/ hi, di, li, gi, and the plural PNM: meu, ise, dise, lise,gise.Other linguistic facts in BM seem to appear, such as the common syntacticpattern of BM: Predicator (V) – Object/Patient (N) – Subject/Agent (N), SubjectPronominal Copy, Possessive Pronominal Copy, and nominal repetitions meaningplural in BM are not found.The NSE is given to entities humans, domestic animals: dogs and horses,static objects made by human: cleave and whip, and objects of natural environment:rocks, trees, water sources, and wild animals. The MSC has four kinds of names, i.e.Manggaraian Names (MN), Catholic/Christian Names, Kinship Term Names, andPseudonyms. The interrelation between the NMS and the NSE bears a number ofcultural imageries: differentiation, animacy, honorific, solidarity, identity, prestige,democracy, and work. Initial consonant, especially in proper names, is consideredimpolite, cruel, strong, energetic, while initial vowels polite or gentle.The NMS of BM has undergone significant changed. The change has onlyoccurred on the lexicons, such as changing from BM to BI, even English. The NSEof the MSC has changed significantly. The MN has changed its phonologicalcharacteristics, the number of unit names, the tendency of the children’s namesfollowing their fathers’ names, the decrease in assonance practice in proper namesand some pseudonyms, naming of dogs is not only based on the colour of their fur,the declination of the practice of naming a cleave and a whip, and the PN of theobjects of the natural environment.
STRUCTURE AND GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION OF LEO LANGUAGE Yudha, I Ketut; Artawa, Ketut; Meko Mbete, Aron; Sri Satywawati, Made
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol. 5. Juli 2011 No. 2
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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Lio language is a language spoken in Central Flores. Having limited morphological process in general and affixation process involving verbs (head marking) and nouns (dependent marking) in particular, it is classified into an isolating language. The studies exploring the languages spoken in the eastern part of Indonesia using Lexical Functional Grammar and the theory of typology are highly limited. In addition, Lio language is merely an isolating one and does not have cross referencing. It is this which inspired the writer to conduct research in syntax. This study aims at investigating the canonic structure, the types of verbs used as predicates, the grammatical function, the alternate of clausal structure, the mapping and the pivotance in Lio language. The results of analysis show that the clauses in Lio language can be divided into basic clauses with verbal and nonverbal predicates. The  predicates of the verbal clauses are classified into simple, serial, and causative.  The serial verbal constructions are distinguished based on the semantic features of the verbal components forming the serial verbal constructions. These types can be observed from the nature of the relationships among the components forming the serial verbal constructions. A serial verbal construction is made up of more than one verbs and behaves as a simple predicate. There is no dependence marker among the components forming the serial verb.  The causative structure also forms monoclause and biclause. The functional mapping uses the features [+/-r] and [+/-o], the argument uses the features [-r] and [-o] which are mapped to  SUBJ, [-r] and [+o] are mapped to OBJ, [+r] and [+o] are mapped to OBJ2 or OBJ? and [+r] and [-o] are mapped to OBL (Oblique). Lio language has GF SUBJ and OBJ as the nuclear GF (nuclear grammatical function), and OBL, COMP, and ADJ as the nonnuclear grammatical functions. The SUBJ appears before the verb (preverbal position) and the OBJ appears after the verb (postverbal position). Based on how the constituents are ordered, Lio language is an SVO and VOS language. Typologically, it is classified into an ergative as well as accusative language. It is classified into an ergative language as the argument of the unmarked transitive verbal P is similarly  treated to the intransitive simple argument depending on how the constituents are ordered. The limitation of Lio language is that P and S can be relativised and modified by the emphatic marker. The only P and S which function as pivots allow the noun which coreferences in both the coordinate and subordinate clauses to disappear.
BENTUK, FUNGSI, DAN MAKNA PRAGMATIK TUTURAN PEMANDU WISATA DI DAERAH PARIWISATA BADUNG DAN DENPASAR, BALI Budiarsa, Made; Artawa, Ketut; Sedeng, Nyoman; Putra, Ketut ; Kristianto, Yohanes; Sukaja , Rai
Linguistika Vol 17, No 01
Publisher : Universitas Udayana

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This explorative and descriptive qualitative research aim at analyzing form, function, and meaning of verbal expressions of tour guides in Badung, Denpasar, and other places of interest in Bali. The data are in the form of dialogs containing socio-pragmatic and cultural backgrounds. The findings show that the forms of verbal expressions are mostly direct expressions (direct speech acts) and the functions are dominantly as expressive function. The pragmatic meaning of the expressions is locutionary meanings as lexicons which build the expressions themselves. Scale of politeness show that tour guide’s verbal expressions are mainly polite. Slang or dialect is used by tour guides for being personally closed to the tourists. Cultural factors frequently influence how the tour guides use their languages. And through language which is used as a means of communication, there are also cultural contacts between tour guides and tourists.
Aplicative Construction in Lamalera Dialect of Lamaholot Language Demon, Yosef; Pastika, I Wayan; Artawa, Ketut; Udayana, I Nyoman
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol 11 No 2 (2017): eJL-July
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24843/eJL.2017.v11.i02.p05

Abstract

The applicative construction is limited as (i) the creation of a new argument of inner objects and (ii) the advancement of a peripheral constituent (locative, instrumental, benefactive, and source) occupying the position of the core argument (object). Thus, applicative constructs include the creation of new objects and the advancement of peripheral arguments occupying the core argument.   Each language has a strategy in getting around the applicative construction. Agglutinative languages for example, deal with morphological applicative construction. Unlike Lamalera dialect of Lamaholot language(LDLL) which is not an agglutinative language. Lamalera dialect of Lamaholot language has a morphophonogical strategy such as sound alternation or internal modification and syntactic strategy of word order. Both LDLL applicative construction strategies will be presented in this article.
MIDDLE DIATHESIS IN OLD JAVANESE LANGUAGE Ratna Erawati, Ni Ketut; Artawa, Ketut; Pastika, I Wayan; Sri Satyawati, Made
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol. 8. Juli 2014 No.2
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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Abstract Old Javanese Langusage (OJL) is the language of the archipelago which developed rapidly in the IX-XV centuries. The language has so many alternation verbs in the predicate of the clause structure. Therefore, the problem of the present study is interesting to explore. The term refers to the opinion proposed by Shibatani(1998) and Artawa (2003).Diathesis associated with middle in OJL was found to have three types, namely, the middle diathesis morphological, middle lexical, and middle perifrastic.
PROMOTION OF NON-SUBJECT NOUN PHRASE TO SUBJECT IN CLAUSE OF SABU LANGUAGE, SABU RAIJUA REGENCY, EAST NUSA TENGGARA PROVINCE Sukendra, I Nyoman; Artawa, Ketut; Mbete, Aron Meko; Kardana, I Nyoman
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol. 7. Juli 2013 No. 2
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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This study is a descriptive-qualitative one exploring the relation of non subject THAT was promoted to the slot of subject. From the syntactic point of view, two informants were considered adequate in the present study. The reason was that the Sabu language ‘Bahasa Sabu (hereinafter referred to as BS), as a langue, was homogenous in nature. The data needed were collected through observation and interview. The words, phrases, clauses and sentences focused on the topic of the study were note taken. In addition, the data were also collected by recording the speeches made by the BS speakers and the informants using a tape recorder and an electronic recorder. In this manner, it was possible to obtain as many data as possible. From the analysis, it was found that the clausal construction in BS could promote the non subject NP to the subject as the original subject could not be deleted. The other finding was that the promotion of the non-subject NP could be promoted to the slot of subject in the transitive and intransitive clauses. The clausal construction which could allow the promotion of the non-subject NP to the clausal construction was the clausal construction which had semantic roles as the MOTION, AFFECT, and CORPOREAL verbs. The clausal construction which could not allow the non-subject NP to be promoted to the subject was the instrumental clausal construction whose verb was realized by the verb hernabi ‘tutup’ [close].
THE VALENCY CHANGE STRATEGY OF ADJECTIVES IN INDONESIAN Umiyati, Mirsa; Artawa, Ketut; Putra Yadnya, Ida Bagus; Suparwa, I Nyoman
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol. 8. Januari 2014 No. 1
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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Makalah ini menerangkan tentang variasi kategori kelas kata yang bisa mengikat satu argument. Kemampuan mengikat satu argument yang sangat identik dengan verba intransitive menyebabkan  kategori lain yang mempunyai kemampuan sama dikatakan berfungsi sebagai predikat intransitif (intransitive predicate) dalam konteks pembahasan transitivitas. Kategori lain yang bisa mengisi lot tersebut adalah adjektiva, nomina dan preposisi. Analisis LFG mampu menerangkan perbedaan dan cara menentukan suatu kata sebagai predikat dalam suatu konstruksi kalimat atau tidak sebagai predikat. Bagaimana variasi dari masing-masing kategori tersebut dalam kalimat?. Paper ini akan mengulas dengan detail perihal tersebut.
10.24843 Lexical Time Words in Balinese and Japanese Language: A Typological Approach Widya Purnawati, Ketut; Artawa, Ketut; Sri Satyawati, Made; Shiohara, Asako
e-Journal of Linguistics Vol 12 No 2 (2018): eJL-July
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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This research is a study of intralingual typology in the form of a contrastive study of temporal lexicon in Balinese and Japanese language. The main theory used in this study was the theory of canonical time periods proposed by Haspelmath (1997) and the classification of lexical time words proposed by Dixon (2010). The result of data analysis showed that both Balinese and Japanese have  a rich variation in lexical items. Japanese is rich in vocabulary relating to qualitative time periods, especially the vocabulary that related to the seasons and day parts. Balinese is rich in vocabulary related to the name of calendar unit because Balinese uses not only the Christian year as the Japanese people, but also uses the Saka year which has a complex system and procedure for calculating the time
STRATEGIES APPLIED IN ENGLISH INTO INDONESIAN TRANSLATION OF PRISON SLANG WORDS IN “THE SHAWSHANK REDEMPTION” MOVIE SUBTITLING Pratama, Agus Darma Yoga; Artawa, Ketut; Putra Yadnya, Ida Bagus; Sri Satyawati, Made
e-Journal of Linguistics 2016: Vol. 10 No. 2 July
Publisher : Doctoral Studies Program of Linguistics of Udayana University Postgraduate Program

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The rapid advancement of technology and the presence of Internet have a tremendous impact on translation industry. There are various types of translation domains, one among which is subtitling. This study deals with: 1) strategies applied in the English into Indonesian translation of prison slang words in “The Shawshank Redemption” movie subtitling using the theory on translation strategies proposed by Gottlieb (1992); and 2) the most frequent strategy and type of translation (literal to idiomatic translation) of the prison slang words using the theory on translation typologies proposed by Larson (1984). There are 12 prison slang words found in the movie and used as data in this study. Some of the prison slang words appear more than one time, but there are only 24 sentences and phrases containing prison slang words used as data in this study. Among the data, the most frequent translation strategies used are the ‘transfer’ strategy, followed by three occurrences of ‘condensation’ strategy and two deletions. Most of the translations are idiomatic translations. Some are literal translations yet they do not really distort the meaning intended in the prison slang words concerned. In conclusion, translating prison slang words is not an easy job. The subtitler must do adequate research to understand which meaning is intended by the author with the help of visual images, gestures and tones used by the actors in the movie.