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CA2+ INTRASELULER TERLIBAT DALAM MEKANISME PEMBUKAAN STOMATA AKIBAT PENGARUH AUXIN PHARMAWATI, MADE; DEFIANI, MADE RIA; ARPIWI, Ni LUH
Jurnal Biologi Vol XII, No 1
Publisher : Jurnal Biologi

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Abstract

Research was done to elucidate the role of Ca2+ intracellular in stomatal movement induced by auxin. Two types of auxin (IAA and NAA) increased stomatal opening and the increase was concentration dependent. The addition of EGTA, Ruthenium red and Procaine as the modulator of Ca2+ concentration , inhibited stomatal opening induced by auxin. EGTA and procaine significantly inhibited somatal opening at 100 uM and 1 mM. Ruthenium red worked at lower concentrations which were 10 uM, 50 uM and 100 uM on LAA-induced stomatal opening, while on NAA-induced stomatal opening, Ruthenium red had an effect at 10 uM, 50 uM, 100 uM dan 1 mM. It is suggested that Ca2+ involves in stomatal opening induced by LAA and NAA as signaling agent.
PENGARUH KONSENTRASI GIBERELIN TERHADAP PRODUKSI BIBIT KENTANG (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L. CV. GRANOLA) UKURAN M (31 - 60 GRAM) Arpiwi, Ni Luh
Jurnal Biologi Vol XI, No 1
Publisher : Jurnal Biologi

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Abstract

The aim of the research was to increase the production of seed potato size 31 - 60 grams by applying gibberellic acid (GA3). Seeds that passed their dormancy period were dipped in gibberellic acid solutions (10, 15 and 20 mg/L) for 15 minutes a day before planting. Control seeds were dipped in water. Seeds were then air dried for 24 hours. Seeds were planted in plots with length, width and height of 150 x 100 x 30 cm respectively with planting space 20 cm and planting depth 15 cm. The design was randomized block with four replications. The results showed that gibberellic acid enhanced shoot emergence. Gibberellic acid increased stem number, tuber number and yield per plant. Tuber number and yield of size M (31 ? 60 g) increased, whereas tuber number and yield of size LL decreased drastically. The optimum concentration of gibberellin for these increases was 15 mg/L. Plant height was not influenced by gibberellic acid.
PHENOLOGY, POLLINATION AND SEED PRODUCTION OF Millettia pinnata IN KUNUNURRA, NORTHERN WESTERN AUSTRALIA Arpiwi, Ni Luh; Yan, Guijun; Barbour, Elizabeth L; Plummer, Julie A
Jurnal Biologi Vol 18, No 1 (2014): Jurnal Biologi
Publisher : Jurnal Biologi

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Abstract

Millettia pinnata L. Panigrahi atau Pongamia pinnata L. Piere adalah tumbuhan legum yang menghasilkan biji dengan kandungan minyak yang cocok untuk biodiesel. Fenologi dan polinasi pada tanaman ini dipantau dan dimanipulasi untuk meningkatkan pembentukan biji dan hasil panen. Musim berbunga di Kununurra berlangsung selama satu bulan dari awal Oktober dan pembungaan terjadi tidak bersamaan baik pada satu tanaman maupun di antara tanaman yang berbeda. Dua spesies lebah lokal sebagai polinator, Megachile sp., dan Nomia sp., memiliki tingkat kunjungan yang sangat rendah (6-13 kunjungan) dengan puncak waktu kunjungan dari jam 9.00 sampai jam 10.00 dan periode aktivitas mencari makan yang pendek (dari jam 6.00 sampai 12.00). Hal ini mungkin terjadi karena sedikitnya volume nektar yang dihasilkan (1.0 ± 0.04 ?l) dan tingginya temperatur di Kununurra. Viabilitas polen yang tinggi (85 ± 3%) menurun tajam menjadi 10 ± 3% dengan penyimpanan selama satu tahun pada suhu 4oC, tetapi hanya sedikit menurun menjadi 62 ± 3% pada suhu penyimpanan -20oC dan -80oC. Kunjungan lebah madu (Apis mellifera) meningkatkan hasil panen biji dari 296 menjadi 4.981 g/pohon, tetapi hasil panen ini masih rendah dan sangat bervariasi.
Selection of High Oil Yielding Trees of Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi, Vegetative Propagation and Growth in the Field Arpiwi, Ni Luh; Sutha Negara, I Made; Simpen, I Nengah
Journal of Tropical Life Science Vol 7, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Life Science

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.11594/jtls.07.03.11

Abstract

Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi is a potential legume tree that produces seed oil for biodiesel feedstock. The initial step for raising a large-scale plantation of the species is selection of high oil yielding trees from the natural habitat. This is followed by vegetative propagation of the selected trees and then testing the growth of the clone in the field.  The aim of the present study was to select high-oil yielding trees of M. pinnata, to propagate the selected trees by budding and to evaluate the survival and growth of budded plants in the field. Pods were collected from 30 trees in Lovina Beach, Buleleng Regency, Bali. Oil was extracted from seeds using soxhlet with hexane as a solvent.  The high oil yielding trees were propagated by budding using root stocks grown from M. pinnata seeds.  Scions were taken from young branches of selected trees. Incision was made on rootstock and the same size of cut was made on a scion containing a single bud.  The scion was inserted to the incision of rootstock then closed tightly using plastic strips.   The plastic was removed when the scion grew into a little green shoot. One month after plastic removal, the scion union grew into a single shoot and then the budded plants were removed to polybags. Budded plants were planted in the field of Bukit Jimbaran, Badung Regency, Bali with 4 × 4 spacing. Results showed all budded plants successfully grow new shoots. Two months after planting the survival of budded plants was 100%. Plant height increased by 22.13 cm, stem diameter increased by 2.43 mm and the number of compound leaf increased by 2.08.  It can be concluded that four high oil yielding trees were selected from Lovina Beach and successfully propagated by budding. Survival of budded plants was 100% with vigorous growth.
KARAKTERISTIK DAN ANALISIS HUBUNGAN KEKERABATAN MALAPARI (Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre) SEBAGAI TANAMAN PENGHASIL MINYAK DI DUA AKSESI Febritasari, Ferliana; Arpiwi, Ni Luh; Wahyuni, I Gusti Ayu Sugi
Metamorfosa: Journal of Biological Sciences Vol 3 No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Prodi Magister Ilmu Biologi, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Udayana

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24843/metamorfosa.2016.v03.i02.p03

Abstract

Malapari (Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre) is an oil-producing plant which has the potential for biodiesel feedstock. This becomes a reason that Malapari plants need to be developed and cultivated. Malapari grow naturally in lowland forests on calcareous soils, rocks on the beach, along the edge of the mangroves and along stream and river tides. This study aims to determine the characteristics of Malapari and relationship between the two accessions grown in North Bali (Pemaron, Uma Anyar, Kalisada, Pengulon, Sumber Kelampok) and East Java (Alas Purwo National Park and Baluran National Park) based on morphological characters and oil content. The research was conducted in July-November 2015. The method used in this research was observation of morphological characters as well as the analysis of the oil content of seeds. Relationship among trees that grow in the two accessions was analyzed using Minitab Vis 14. Results showed that there were differences in morphological characteristics, namely the leaves, flowers, fruits, pod and seeds dimension and oil content.  Analysis of relationships among trees at similarity level above 80% classified them into 3 major groups, namely group I Malapari from Uma Anyar village with similarity level of 59,51%, group II Malapari from  Pengulon village with  similarity level of 80,16% and group III  Malapari from  Alas Purwo National Park and 32 other trees from various villages  having similarity level of 84,53%.
KANDUNGAN MINYAK, HUBUNGAN KEKERABATAN DAN POTENSI BIODIESEL DARI KEPUH (Serculia foetida L.) DI KABUPATEN BADUNG, KOTA DENPASAR DAN ROTE (NTT) Ndolu, Midel Delfi Wehelmina; Arpiwi, Ni Luh; Suriani, Ni Luh
Metamorfosa: Journal of Biological Sciences Vol 5 No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Prodi Magister Ilmu Biologi, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Udayana

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24843/metamorfosa.2018.v05.i01.p11

Abstract

Kepuh (Sterculia foetida L.) is non-food plant produces seed oil that can be used as  a biodiesel feedstock. This study aims to determine the characteristics of seeds, oil content, kinship relationship and quality of biodiesel from Sterculia foetidas seed in Badung, Denpasar and Rote. The research was conducted on December 2016 - May 2017. The method used was observation of seed characteristics, analyzing oil content and biodiesel quality from oil Sterculia foetida’s. The highest oil content was obtained from Badung regency and Denpasar  that was Monang-Maning 1 =  41.13%, while the lowest of Rote in Oemasi was 14.80%. The kinship relationship between seed characteristics and oil content formed 2 groups with a similarity index of 93.5%. The quality of biodiesel in Badung and Denpasar with  acid number of 0.34 mg-KOH/ g and Rote that was 0.44 mg-KOH/g, iodine number in Badung and Denpasar were 44.41 and Rote was 48.53. Saponification number in Badung and Denpasar were 187.93 and Rote was 194.94, cetane number in Badung and Denpasar were 64.02 and Rote was 61,92. Water content in Badung, Denpasar and Rote was 0,2 respectively, and viscosity in Badung and Denpasar were 12.23 cSt and Rote  was 9.22 cSt. The quality of biodiesel obtained mostly fulfilled the provisions of SNI 2015, except viscosity.
KARAKTERISTIK BUAH, BIJI DAN KANDUNGAN MINYAK DARI TANAMAN NON PANGAN DI PULAU SERANGAN BALI Ramdhoani, .; Arpiwi, Ni Luh; Darmadi, A.A. Ketut
Metamorfosa: Journal of Biological Sciences Vol 5 No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Prodi Magister Ilmu Biologi, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Udayana

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24843/metamorfosa.2018.v05.i01.p08

Abstract

Various efforts to diversify energy needs to be done to overcome the scarcity of fuel in Indonesia. One of the energy diversification efforts is through the provision of usable energy fuels such as biodiesel that can be produced from vegetable oils. The aim of this research is to measure oil content of seeds from Serangan Island, South of Bali.The oil is used as biodiesel raw material.The method of this research was observation by walking around the island while collecting ripens fruits of non-food plant species. Fruits were dried and seeds were taken out. Dimension of fruit and seeds including length, breadth, and thickness were measured. Oil was extracted from seeds using soxhlet method with hexane as a solvent. Oil content was expressed as percentage of dry weight. Results showed that fruit and seed dimensions vary greatly. Oil content of seeds from highest to lowest, namely ketapang (Terminalia catappa) 27,06 %, kupu-kupu (Bauhinia purpurea L.) 25,30 %, asam londo (Pithecellobium dulce) 20,43 %, kembang merak (Cesalphinia pulcherima) 15,03 %, jarak kaliki (Riccinus communis) 14,23 %, lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala) 13,86 %, tanjung (Mimusops elengi) 13,83 %, gorek (Cesalpinia bonducella)11 %, flamboyan (Delonix regia)10,93 %, sawo kecik (Manilkara kauki) 10,10 %.
Bioetanol dari Kulit Pisang (Musa paradisiaca L.) dengan Sakarifikasi dan Fermentasi Serentak Muksin, I Ketut; Arpiwi, Ni Luh
Metamorfosa: Journal of Biological Sciences Vol 6 No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Prodi Magister Ilmu Biologi, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Udayana

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24843/metamorfosa.2019.v06.i01.p17

Abstract

Bioethanol is one of the energy alternatives which environmentally friendly and sustainable. This research employed Completely Randomized Design with Factorial. There were two treatments, namely without pretreatment and with pretreatment and these were factorized with three levels of urea, namely 0, 1 and 2% with three replications. Finely dry ground banana peel samples were pretreated with NaOH 6% w/v. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed in 60 mL fermenter.  Sample (4% w/v) was placed in a fermenter and the following ingredients were added: 0.06 g KH2PO4, 0.06 g MgSO4 and citrate buffer with pH 5. Fermenter was enclosed and autoclaved at 121oC for 15 minutes and then cooled down at room temperature. Enzyme cellulose (6% w/v) and inoculum of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10% v/v) were added into the fermenter. The mixture was incubated at 30oC for 9 days, and every day 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th was measured for reducing sugar content, pH and bioethanol content. Bioethanol content of the distillate was measured using picnometer.  Data was analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) with Minitab 17 software. If there was significant (P<0.05) analysis continued with Tukey Pairwise comparison to find the difference among treatments. Results showed that treatment (without pretreatment and with pretreatment of NaOH 6% b/v) combined with levels of urea gave significant effect on reducing sugar and bioethanol content in all observations. Combination of without pretreatment and urea level at 1% and 2% resulted in the highest bioethanol content of 4,91% v/v.Bioethanol is one of the energy alternatives which environmentally friendly and sustainable. This research employed Completely Randomized Design with Factorial. There were two treatments, namely without pretreatment and with pretreatment and these were factorized with three levels of urea, namely 0, 1 and 2% with three replications. Finely dry ground banana peel samples were pretreated with NaOH 6% w/v. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed in 60 mL fermenter.  Sample (4% w/v) was placed in a fermenter and the following ingredients were added: 0.06 g KH2PO4, 0.06 g MgSO4 and citrate buffer with pH 5. Fermenter was enclosed and autoclaved at 121oC for 15 minutes and then cooled down at room temperature. Enzyme cellulose (6% w/v) and inoculum of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10% v/v) were added into the fermenter. The mixture was incubated at 30oC for 9 days, and every day 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th was measured for reducing sugar content, pH and bioethanol content. Bioethanol content of the distillate was measured using picnometer.  Data was analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) with Minitab 17 software. If there was significant (P<0.05) analysis continued with Tukey Pairwise comparison to find the difference among treatments. Results showed that treatment (without pretreatment and with pretreatment of NaOH 6% b/v) combined with levels of urea gave significant effect on reducing sugar and bioethanol content in all observations. Combination of without pretreatment and urea level at 1% and 2% resulted in the highest bioethanol content of 4,91% v/v.
UJI DAYA HAMBAT Streptomyces roseoflavus AL2 TERHADAP Xanthomonas sp. PENYEBAB PENYAKIT HAWAR DAUN BAKTERI (HDB) PADA TANAMAN PADI (Oryza sativa L.) Nellawati, Ni Luh Cipta Ayumi; Kawuri, Retno; Arpiwi, Ni Luh
Metamorfosa: Journal of Biological Sciences Vol 3 No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Prodi Magister Ilmu Biologi, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Udayana

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24843/metamorfosa.2016.v03.i01.p01

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of Streptomyces in inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria causing bacterial leaf blight (BLB) in vitro and identify the most likely type of Streptomyces that inhibits the growth of pathogens in the HDB. Bacterium Xanthomonas sp. used in this study were isolated from sick rice plants in Ayunan Village, Badung, Bali while Streptomyces isolates were isolated from the rhizosphere of reed plants (AL2), lily (LL1 and LL2), Aloe Vera (AV) and Elephant Grass (RG) from 3 different locations, namely PT. Alove Gianyar, Bedugul Botanical Garden and Buruan Village, Gianyar. Test results of antagonist test using dual culture method at the PCA medium showed that Streptomyces sp. AL2 has the most percentage of inhibition compared with other Streptomyces sp. isolates against pathogenic bacteria., namely 17.8 mm. The results of identification using the book Guide to the Classification and Identification of the Actinomycetes and Their Antibiotics (Waksman and Lechevalier, 1973) showed that the Streptomyces sp. AL2 is Streptomyces roseoflavus. The results provide an early indication that the filtrate of Streptomyces AL2. has the potential to be developed as a biocontrol of biological bactericide.
REDUCINGSUGAR CONTENTAND VITAMINE C IN BANANA (Musa paradisiaca forma typica)AFTER CURING BY ETHREL AND PLANT LEAVES Harta Diani Pande, Ni Putu; Ria Defiani, Made; Arpiwi, Ni Luh
SIMBIOSIS Vol 5 No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Jurusan Biologi Universitas Udayana

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24843/JSIMBIOSIS.2017.v05.i02.p06

Abstract

panjang menyebabkan ketersediaan pisang nangka terbatas. Pemeraman baik secara alami maupun kimiawi dapat dilakukan dantingkat kematangan pisang ditentukan melalui penampakan morfologi dan analisis kimiawi. unEksplorasi dilakukan denganpemanfaatan daun gamal, daun kakao, daun pisang dan etilen serta lama waktu pemeraman terhadap tingkatkematanganbuah,kandungan vitamin C dan kadar gula tereduksi. Metode Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 2 faktor, yaitulama pemeraman dengan 3 perlakuan yaitu L1 (pemeraman selama 3 hari), L2 (pemeraman selama 6 hari) dan L3 (pemeraman selama9 hari) dan cara pemeraman yang digunakan yaitu C0 (kontrol), C1 (pemeraman dengan etilen 0,5%), C2 (Pemeraman dengan daunpisang), C3 (pemeraman dengan daun gamal) dan C4 (pemeraman dengan daun kakao) digunakan dalam penelitian. Masing ? masingkombinasi perlakuan diulang 4 kali dengan 3 unit percobaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan cara pemeraman menggunakan daunkakao dan etilen 0,5% mempengaruhi kematangan buah pisang nangka. Etilen 0,5% dapat meningkatkan skor tingkat kematanganbuah dan vitamin C. Daun kakao berpengaruh pada peningkatan skor kematangan buah, kadar gula tereduksi dan kandungan vitaminC. Semakin lama pemeraman dapat meningkatkan skor pematangan buah pisang nangka dan meningkatkan kadar gula tereduksi.Kata kunci : Pisang nangka, etilen, daun kakao, daun pisang, daun gamal