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Nirzalin Armia
Prodi Sosiologi Universitas Malikussaleh, Lhokseumawe, Indonesia

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TEUNGKU DAYAH DAN KEKUASAAN PANOPTIK Armia, Nirzalin
Substantia Vol 16, No 1 (2014)
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Abstract

This study examines the teungku dayah and panoptic power. It explores two main questions that firstly what serves as the basic for the Acehnese society obedience towards the teungku dayah? What power model that the tengku dayah apply so the people total obedience is honestly expressed whether in front and behind them. Theoretically, this study refers to power relation and hermeneutic theory that are introduced by Michel Foucault. The data of this study are collected through observation, in-depth interview and text studies. By closely study some dayahs (traditional Islamic boarding school) in north Aceh district, this study finds that teungku dayah could be determinant figure in Acehnese society. It is because not only they are religiously knowledgeable persons that are justified by religious norms, it is also influenced by three other resources: sacred (keuramat), blessed (beureukat) and accursed (temeureuka). As the sacred figure, Acehnese believe that teungku dayah could mediate God’s blessings to them. Against or defy to them could cause accurses. The belief of  being accursed if one is defiant toward the Tengku, grants the total obedience toward the Tengku. These three concepts are crafted in people minds, hearts, and emotion so as if they are always being watched by the teungku any time and any place. Perhaps Cross Circuit Television (CCTV) best represents this condition in latest surveillance technology. Thus, these sources grant teungku dayah the panoptical power that is nonviolent, persuasive, absent, remote, total and comprehensive.
Kekerasan Atas Nama Aliran Sesat: Studi Tentang Mobilisasi Isu Sesat Dalam Kontestasi Elit Gampoeng Armia, Nirzalin; Nazaruddin, Muhammad; Fuadi, Fuadi
Substantia Vol 17, No 1 (2015)
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Abstract: Misguided and misleading is the "magic" world that led to the emergence of a mass solidarity to destroy a group that have different religious understanding among people. However, the mass movement against a deviant group was is not actually based on the religious movement to defense of the purity of religious motives. In reality, the mobilization of certain groups motivated and based on protecting of various interests, such as political, economic and cultural image. Based on the study case conducted  in Gampoeng (village) Jambo In the District Plimbang Bireuen,  it demonstrate the complex reality and aspcts behind the violence in the name of religion against groups considered deviant. This qualitative study found that mass anarchism action against groups accused Tengku Aiyub deviant in Gampoeng Jambo In Bireuen not motivated by misguided thinking. This reality prompted by suspicion village government elite towards Tengku Aiyub.  His  critical attitude towards the management of funds threatened the village elite. While, Tengku Aiyub fame as a  martial arts teacher led to   decreasing the number of pupils among other teachers.  Beside, the lack of the ability of government officials to cease and desist early, causing mass anarchism action against Tengku Aiyub and led him and his followers died.  Abstrak: Sesat dan menyesatkan merupakan kata-kata “sakti” yang melatarbelakangi lahirnya soliditas massa untuk membumi-hanguskan suatu kelompok yang dipandang memiliki pemahaman keagamaan berbeda. Namun, gerakan massa yang tersusupi oleh isu kelompok sesat ini tidaklah murni gerakan yang didasari oleh motif pembelaan terhadap kemurnian agama. Realitasnya, mereka bergerak karena mobilisasi kelompok tertentu untuk melindungi kepentingan-kepentingan politik, ekonomi dan citra kulturalnya. Berdasarkan kasus di Gampoeng (desa) Jambo Dalam Kecamatan Plimbang Kabupaten Bireuen, studi  ini hendak menunjukkan realitas kompleks  dibalik terjadinya aksi kekerasan atas nama agama terhadap kelompok yang dituduh  sesat. Penelitian kualitatif ini menemukan bahwa aksi anarkhisme massa terhadap kelompok Teungku Aiyub yang dituduh sesat di gampoeng Jambo Dalam Bireuen  tidak dilatarbelakangi oleh ajaran sesat itu sendiri. Realitas ini dipicu oleh kegelisahan elite pemerintahan gampoeng dan para jagoan silat tradisional terhadap Teungku Aiyub. Sikap kritisnya terhadap pengelolaan dana gampoeng membuat elite gampoeng terancam. Sementara, kemasyhuran Teungku Aiyub sebagai jagoan pedang membuat para guru silat kesulitan menambah jumlah murid. Lemahnya kemampuan cegah dan tangkal dini dari aparatur pemerintahan membuka jalan terhadap terjadinya aksi anarkhisme massa hingga Teungku Aiyub dan beberapa pengikutnya wafat.Keywords: konflik, keagamaan, aliran sesat.