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Journal : METANA

Peningkatan Produksi Garam Beryodium Melalui Aplikasi Alat Pencetak Garam Secara Mekanik

METANA Edisi Khusus Februari 2011
Publisher : METANA

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Abstract

The salt moulder groups "Muji Rahayu" have a mission for drummed up salt moulders by are very limited, by process technology conventionally. The result of production is salt_powder  which is a gunny_pack then on sale at the prince of low. If it is soled in salt_moulder, the price will increase. Salt moulder form of Instrumentation which it is has incereased quality and sale at the prince salt iodized consumption. However, at the employe moulder machine which is continue, the machine has trouble because it is always related to salt which have a character is corrosive. Therefore, it needs to have a salt_moulder which is simple and easy to be operated by salt-farmer moreover the price is cheap. The salt moulder will work by mechanic and aplication style. Because of the caracter of salt which corrosive, so the contraction which related to salt is made by stainless steel. By the expectation it be able to increase the income of salt_farmers. Keywords : iodized salt, salt moulder

EKSTRAKSI EUGENOL DARI MINYAK DAUN CENGKEH DENGAN PELARUT NaOH DAN n-HEKSAN

METANA Volume 3 Nomor 1 Juli 2006
Publisher : METANA

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Abstract

Abstract   Clove oil represent other side result from clove plantation. Clove leaf oil used permanent upon which to make isolateband derivative in many industry. In this research analyse concentration influence and ratio of solvent – bait to yielded product rendemen. In a proses insulation of eugenol used process high rise liquid extraction. As a raw material is leaf clove oil, NaOH and n-heksan used as a solvent. In extraction with NaOH will be yielded Na eugenolat, so that have be eliminated the content of Natrium by using HCl 2 N. Later then its result be reextracted by using n-hexan. So that obtained pure eugenol and with randemen which is more. Ever greater of used solvent volume and concentration, hence eugenol which is extract will progressively mount.   Key Word : eugenol, extraction

REKAYASA BIOKONVERSI LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI PANGAN MENJADI PLASTIK BIODEGRADABLE DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN LUMPUR AKTIF

METANA Volume 5 Nomor 2 Desember 2007
Publisher : METANA

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Abstract

Abstract Plastics waste has a negative effect on our environment. one effort to solve a  problem exerted in plastic waste is by making a degradable plastic material. Polihidroksialkanoat (PHA) is one of biodegradable plastic material which is include in the polyester group. PHA can be completely degraded and has  similar properties. with conventional plastic. The usage of liquid food industry waste is a good alternative for the production of PHA, since liquid waste of food industry comprise of organics substance such as C, H, O, N and  S. The production of Polihidroksialkanoat (PHA) from liquid waste of flour industry, wasconducted in a of sequencing batch reactor (SBR).The objectives  of this research are to study the effect of batch time in one cycle of sequencing batch reactor(SBR), to compare between short and ordinary cycle in SBR system to PHA accumulation and kind of PHA, to study optimum condition of producing PHA. The first experimen was done In time of less than 12 hours by using filling time  variable and ratio of duration of Aerob and anaerob process. The constand conditions were ambient temperature and neutral pH (at the begining). The results shows that at running with time ratio of aerob:anaerob was 6:3 hours and a  same duration of  feeding, the highest average PHA content was got at the run when filling step is in six hours anaerob with aerob breaking time. The feeding duration  also influence the PHA formation. the short feeding duration yielded the highest average PHA content. An average PHA 0.1838 g/gsel was yielded at two hours feeding duration   Key Words :biodegradable:plastic:waste    

PENGARUH LAMA PENYULINGAN TERHADAP RENDEMEN MINYAK JERUK PURUT MENGGUNAKAN DISTILASI VAKUM

METANA Vol 7, No 01 (2011): Volume 7, No. 01 Juli 2011
Publisher : METANA

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Abstract

ABSTRAK Negara kita termasuk negara penghasil minyak jeruk purut dan minyak ini juga merupakan komoditi yang menghasilkan devisa negara. Oleh karena itu pada tahun-tahun terakhir ini, minyak jeruk purut mendapat perhatian yang cukup besar dari pemerintah Indonesia.  namun ketersediaan bahan baku secara berkelanjutan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pasar masih mengalami hambatan. Oleh sebab itu budidaya tanaman secara intensif diperlukan untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut, baik secara kuantitas maupun kualitas. Untuk itu, digunakan destilasi vakum dalam meningkatkan kualitas minyak sereh wangi. Keunggulan dari destilasi vakum tidak mengakibatkan dekomposisi komponen minyak atsiri sehingga mutu rendemen yang dihasilkan akan lebih baik. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan proses penyulingan yang menggunakan bahan baku daun jeruk purut dan pelarut aquadest. Proses distilasi menggunakan jenis distilasi vakum dengan variabel yang berpengaruh adalah waktu (2, 3 dan 4 jam). Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan hasil yang maksimal pada penyulingan 3 jam dengan variabel bahan baku dan pelarut 1:4. Analisa produk dari minyak jeruk yang didapatkan adalah sebagai berikut pH 5, densitas 0,86 gr/ml, viscositas 0,31 Cp, indeks bias 1,46, volume minyak jeruk 11 ml, angka asam 2,805 mg-KOH/gr dan angka penyabunan 61,71 mg-KOH/gr. Dari penelitian dapat disimpulkan lama waktu penyulingan akan berpengaruh terhadap jumlah minyak jeruk purut yang dihasilkan dan dapat berpengaruh juga pada komposisi dari minyak jeruk purut. Kata kunci : minyak jeruk purut, distilasi vakum dan pelarut aquadest.   ABSTRACT Our country including kaffir lime oil producing countries and oil is also a commodity that generates foreign exchange. Therefore, in recent years, the kaffir lime oil received considerable attention from the government of Indonesia. but the continuous availability of raw materials to meet the needs of the market is still experiencing barriers. Therefore, intensive cultivation is needed to resolve the issue, both in quantity and quality. To that end, vacuum distillation is used in improving the quality of scented citronella oil. The advantages of vacuum distillation does not result in decomposition of volatile oil components so that the quality of the resulting yield will be better. In this study the distillation process that uses raw materials lime leaves and the solvent distilled water. Distillation process using this type of vacuum distillation with an influential variable is the time (2, 3 and 4 hours). From the research results obtained maximum results in 3 hours with a variable refinery feedstock and solvent 1:4. Analysis of orange oil products obtained are as follows pH 5, the density of 0.86 g / ml, 0.31 Cp viscosity, refractive index 1.46, the volume of kaffir lime oil 11 ml, 2.805 mg-KOH/gr acid number and saponification number mg-KOH/gr 61.71. From the research we can conclude a long time refining oil will affect the amount of lime produced and may also affect the composition of kaffir lime oil. Key words: kaffir lime oil, vacuum distillation and solvent distilled water.

FORMULASI MIKROENKAPSUL OLEORESIN KAYUMANIS (Cinnamon burmanni) DAN CENGKEH (Caryophillus aromaticus Linn)

METANA Vol 8, No 01 (2012): Juli
Publisher : METANA

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Abstract

Product development spices such as cinnamon and cloves in the form of oleoresin microcapsules cinnamon and cloves that can be used as a natural preservative because of its potential as an antioxidant and antimicrobial as well as a flavoring agent (agent taste) in food products. In this research, formulation of microcapsules to obtain microcapsules pleoresin cloves and cinnamon. Optimal extraction results obtained at 50 ° C, pressure of 350 bar, the efficiency of clove and cinnamon bark amounted to 17.24% and 1.16% of khromatography Cinnamaldehye analysis of cinnamon was 96.7%, moderate levels of eugenol clove 72, 08%. Terstabil emulsion composition with a ratio of lecithin; gum arabic; malto dextrin and CMC (10; 90, 10, 10), emulsion terstabil microcapsules made ​​with two formulas, formula A with clove oleoresin composition is more dominant, and the composition of formula B with composition oleoresin microcapsules cinnamon bark is more dominant, the results for the microencapsulation formula A 8 (1:4) was 85.98% and B8 formula (4:1) 89.13%. Key word : oleoresin clove, cinnamon-microencapsulated

PEMODELAN DAN SIMULASI PROSES PENGERINGAN CHIPS MOCAF

METANA Vol 8, No 02 (2012): Volume 8 No.02 Desember 2012
Publisher : METANA

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Abstract

This study was to propose the use of a simple heat and mass transfer based model to predict the evolutions of the moisture content and temperature of cassava chip undergoing superheated steam drying (SSD). Cassava chip has been chosen as the product to be simulated because of its various uses in the food especially as modified cassava flour (mocaf). Recently, superheated steam drying (SSD) has received much attention as an alternative drying technique for heat-sensitive biomaterials. There are a very limited number of works that report attempts to model this drying process, although there are a number of works that report studies of this drying technique experimentally. The results showed that the drying of the product is affected by the drying steam temperature and the product characteristics. The model was found to be able to predict the heat and mass transfer behavior. Keywords: Cassava chip, mocaf, superheated steam drying

PEMODELAN DAN SIMULASI PROSES PENGERINGAN CHIPS MOCAF

METANA Vol 8, No 02 (2012): Volume 8 No.02 Desember 2012
Publisher : METANA

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Abstract

This study was to propose the use of a simple heat and mass transfer based model to predict the evolutions of the moisture content and temperature of cassava chip undergoing superheated steam drying (SSD). Cassava chip has been chosen as the product to be simulated because of its various uses in the food especially as modified cassava flour (mocaf). Recently, superheated steam drying (SSD) has received much attention as an alternative drying technique for heat-sensitive biomaterials. There are a very limited number of works that report attempts to model this drying process, although there are a number of works that report studies of this drying technique experimentally. The results showed that the drying of the product is affected by the drying steam temperature and the product characteristics. The model was found to be able to predict the heat and mass transfer behavior. Keywords: Cassava chip, mocaf, superheated steam drying

IbM KELOMPOK PRODUSEN SUSU SEGAR MENJADI PENGANEKARAGAMANMAKANAN OLAHAN SEBAGAI PENUNJANG MAKANAN FUNGSIONAL

METANA Vol 10, No 02: Desember 2014
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Abstact Program objectives IbM: fresh dairy products utilizing rejected KUD, into a product pasteurized milk, sour milk, caramel milk, milk crackers milk and ice creams. These objectives require the application of production technology pasteurized milk, sour milk, caramel milk, milk crackers and milk ice creams by using a multipurpose fermenter, granulator, packaging and machinery production of dairy ice creams. Results of diversification of products will be marketed to shops, places selling makaunan and supermarkets around the site partners, as well as to the surrounding tourist areas.              The method that will be used by the implementation team is joint partneridentify the problems faced by partners , implement educationdiversification and extension dairy products , designing and applyingtechnology pengenekaraman fresh dairy products , training and socialization as wellmonitoring and evaluation of the results of activities. The implementation team together with a group of farmersfresh milk producer training , practice ( pilot ) and socializationapplication of a multipurpose fermenter , granulator , packaging and machine ice creams to fresh milk diversify into other products such as milk pasteurized , sour milk , caramel milk , crackers dairy milk and ice creams . On finally the implementation team together with partners to test marketing results diversification of dairy products to the sales centers in local souvenir Another such Salatiga , Boyolali until Surakarta , as well as tourist spots around like Keteb pass , Kopeng            Evaluation activities are divided into 3 stages: initial evaluation , evaluation process and the final evaluation . Initial evaluation in the form of pre-test to determine the level knowledge and abilities of the participants about the materials science and technology will transferred. Evaluation process in the form of presence of the participants to see seriousness of the participants in the follow counseling and training . Evaluation the final addition in the form of post-test and evaluation of product sales , for determine the increase of knowledge and ability of the material extension and demonstration plots , are also evaluated what percentage of farmers who want to apply delivered technology implementation team , as well as what percentage of the number of products diversification results that have been sold . Keywords : diversification of dairy products segar- fermentor multigunagranulator- packaging - machine ice creams milk productionAbstrak  Tujuan Program IbM : memanfaatkan produk susu segar yang ditolak KUD, menjadi produk susu pasteurisasi, susu asam, karamel susu,kerupuk susu serta es kream susu. Tujuan tersebut membutuhkan aplikasi teknologi produksi susu pasteurisasi, susu asam, karamel susu, kerupuk susu serta es kream susu dengan menggunakan fermentor multiguna, granulator,pengemas serta mesin produksi es kream susu. Hasil penganekaragaman produk akan dipasarkan ke toko-toko, tempat-tempat penjualan makaunan maupun swalayan disekitar lokasi mitra, maupun ke daerah wisata disekitarnya. 23 Metode yang akan dipakai oleh tim pelaksana adalah bersama mitra mengidentifikasi permasalahan yang dihadapi mitra, melaksanakan pendidikan dan penyuluhan penganekaragaman produk susu, merancang dan mengaplikasikan teknologi pengenekaraman produk susu segar, pelatihan dan sosialisasi serta memantau dan evaluasi hasil kegiatan. Tim pelaksana bersama kelompok peternak penghasil susu segar melakukan pelatihan, praktek (percontohan) dan sosialisasi pengaplikasian fermentor multiguna, granulator, pengemas serta mesin pembuat es kream untuk menganekaragamkan susu segar menjadi produklain seperti susuAbstrak  Tujuan Program IbM : memanfaatkan produk susu segar yang ditolak KUD, menjadi produk susu pasteurisasi, susu asam, karamel susu,kerupuk susu serta es kream susu. Tujuan tersebut membutuhkan aplikasi teknologi produksi susu pasteurisasi, susu asam, karamel susu, kerupuk susu serta es kream susu dengan menggunakan fermentor multiguna, granulator,pengemas serta mesin produksi es kream susu. Hasil penganekaragaman produk akan dipasarkan ke toko-toko, tempat-tempat penjualan makaunan maupun swalayan disekitar lokasi mitra, maupun ke daerah wisata disekitarnya. Metode yang akan dipakai oleh tim pelaksana adalah bersama mitra mengidentifikasi permasalahan yang dihadapi mitra, melaksanakan pendidikan dan penyuluhan penganekaragaman produk susu, merancang dan mengaplikasikan teknologi pengenekaraman produk susu segar, pelatihan dan sosialisasi serta memantau dan evaluasi hasil kegiatan. Tim pelaksana bersama kelompok peternak penghasil susu segar melakukan pelatihan, praktek (percontohan) dan sosialisasi pengaplikasian fermentor multiguna, granulator, pengemas serta mesin pembuat es kream untuk menganekaragamkan susu segar menjadi produklain seperti susu pasteurisasi, susu asam, karamel susu, kerupuk susu serta es kream susu. Pada akhirnyatimpelaksanabersama mitra melakukan uji coba pemasaran hasilpenganekaragaman produk susu ke pusat-pusat penjualan buah tangan di daerah lain seperti Salatiga, Boyolali sampai Surakarta, maupun tempat-tempat wisata disekitarnya seperti Keteb pass, Kopeng. Evaluasi kegiatan dibagi menjadi 3 tahap yaitu evaluasi awal, evaluasiproses dan evaluasi akhir. Evaluasi awal berupa pretes untuk mengetahui tingkatpengetahuan dan kemampuan para peserta tentang materi ipteks yang akanditransfer. Evaluasi proses berupa presensi para peserta untuk melihatkesungguhan para peserta dalam mengikuti penyuluhan dan pelatihan. Evaluasiakhir disamping berupa post test dan evaluasi penjualan produk, untukmengetahui peningkatan pengetahuan dan kemampuan dari materi penyuluhandan demplot, juga dievaluasi berapa persen peternak yang mau menerapkanteknologi yang disampaikan tim pelaksana, serta berapa persen jumlah produkhasil penganekaragaman yang telah terjual. Kata kunci :penganekaragaman produk susu segar- fermentor multigunagranulator-pengemas-mesin produksi es krim susu

MENINGKATKAN PENDAPATAN NELAYAN DAN MASYARAKAT PENGOLAH IKAN PANGGANG DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN ASAP CAIR

METANA Vol 10, No 02: Desember 2014
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

Abstract Tambaklorok village, particularly around TPI has 250 households of population which approximately 70 % is poor to work as fishermen, fish sellers, laborers and unemployed so erratic income or below the minimum wage and some have no income at all. So they need business partnership to transfer the technology for improving the quality of human resources by empowering fishing communities, especially fishermen and fish processors to increase the income and standard of living of fishermen. During curing fish is traditionally done so much polluting and quality results are not optimal. Therefore, the transfer of the technology to be applied is the manufacture of liquid smoke with pirolisator to make grilled fish and the use of vacuum packaging so that the result is better quality and durable in storage. Fish as food is a source of high quality protein, 10 essential amino acids available include the amino acids lysine, methionine and histidine. Lysine is one of the essential amino acids, and its presence in fish is highly perishable, so it needs to be applied in the form of community service how to produce processed fish that the lysine amino acid content does not change that fumigation with liquid smoke flavored liquid. Curingin fish especially lemuru (Sardinillalongceps) has been done because this type of fish is widely available in Indonesia and many people consuming these types of fish because the price is affordable. Of training undertaken smoked fish can be produced with a more yellow color and a longer shelf is 7-10 days. With the quality of smoked fish better so increase the selling price and will increase the income of fishing communities. Keywords: marine fish, liquid smoke, pirolisator Abstrak Kelurahan Tambaklorok , khususnya  disekitar TPI  yang berpenduduk 250 kk dimana  sekitar 70 % merupakam warga miskin dengan pekerjaan sebagai nelayan, penjual ikan,buruh dan pengangguran sehingga penghasilanya tidak menentu atau dibawah UMR  bahkan ada yang tidak berpenghasilan sama sekali.Untuk itu perlu adanya pola kemitraan usahadenganmentransfer teknologi dalam meningkatkan kualitas sumber daya manusia dengan memberdayakan nelayan khususnya nelayan dan masyarakat pengolah ikan untuk meningkatkan pendapatan dan taraf hidup nelayan. Selama ini pengasapan ikan yang dilakukan secara tradisional sehingga banyak menimbulkan polusi dan kualitas hasilnya tidak maksimal. Oleh karenanya transfer teknologi yang akan diterapkan adalah dengan pembuatan asap cair dengan pirolisator untuk membuat ikan panggang dan penggunaan pengemasan vacuum sehingga hasilnya lebih berkualitas dan tahan lama dalam penyimpanannya.Ikan sebagai bahan pangan merupakan  sumber protein yang tinggi kualitasnya, 10 jenis asam amino esensial tersedia diantaranya  asam-asam aminolisin,  metionin dan histidin.Lisin  merupakan salah satu asam amino esensial, dan keberadaanya dalam ikan sangat mudah rusak, sehingga perlu diaplikasikan dalam bentuk pengabdian kepada masyarakat bagaimana cara memproduksi olahan ikan agar kandungan asam amino lisin tidak berubah yaitu pengasapan dengan asap cair .Pengasapan cair bercitarasa pada  ikan terutama ikan lemuru (Sardinilla longceps) sudah dilakukan  karena jenis ikan ini banyak terdapat di Indonesia dan masyarakat banyak mengkonsumsi jenis ikan ini karena harga yang terjangkau. Dari pelatihan yang dilakukan dapat dihasilkan ikan asap dengan warna yang lebih kuning dan daya simpannya lebih panjang yaitu 7-10 hari. Dengan kualitas ikan asap yang lebih baik sehingga harga jualnya naik dan akan meningkatkan pendapatan masyarakat nelayan. Kata kunci  :ikan laut, asap cair, pirolisator

Test Stability Of Natural Color Dyes From The Lether Fruit Of Palm’s Waste

METANA Vol 14, No 1 (2018): Juni 2018
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

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Abstract

The leather fruit of palm (Borassus flabilifer) is one of the local fruit native to Indonesia produced from palm plants are very abundant due to not knowing the season During this leather palm fruit  is still not widely used and is only regarded as wastes. The leather palm fruit  color has anthocyanin substances which are natural pigments reddish color. The extraction of the leather palm  by using different types of solvents include water, ethanol water mixture, the mixture of water - propanol, a mixture of water-ethanol-propanol, ethanol, a mixture of ethanol - propanol and propanol. The best extraction results were obtained by using ethanol solvent. Furthermore, stability test of pigment extract’s the leather fruit of palm (anthocyanin) to pH, temperature, light, and color was done by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer at maximum wavelength 520 nm. In the stability test of pigment extract’s the leather palm fruit (anthocyanin) to pH, pH range 0-5 with interval 1 obtained the best pH 1 with absorbance value 0,3965. Temperature stability test with temperature range 50 -100oC with 10oC range gives best temperature 50oC with absorbance value 0,387. The results of stability test of  pigment extract’s the leather fruit of palm (anthocyanin) to light showed decrease of absorbance value directly proportional to duration of irradiation The natural anthocyanin dye stability test derived from siwalan peel shows the extract with the greatest total anthocyanin having a large color intensity as well. Uji Stabilitas Zat Warna Alami  dari Limbah  Kulit buah Siwalan Buah siwalan (Borassus flabilifer) adalah salah satu buah lokal produk asli Indonesia yang dihasilkan dari tanaman lontar sangat melimpah karena tidak mengenal musim. Selama ini kulit buah siwalan masih belum banyak dimanfaatkan dan hanya dianggap sebagai limbah. Kulit buah siwalan mempunyai kandungan zat warna antosiaanin yang merupakan zat warna alami berwarna kemerah-merahan. Kulit buah siwalan di ekstraksi dengan menggunakan berbagai jenis solven antara lain air, campuran air etanol, campuran air – propanol, campuran air-etanol-propanol, etanol, campuran etanol – propanol dan propanol. Hasil ekstraksi terbaik didapatkan dengan menggunakan solvent etanol.  Selanjutnya dilakukan uji stabilitas ekstrak zat warna kulit buah siwalan (antosianin)  terhadap pH, suhu, sinar, dan warna dengan menggunakan spektrofotometer UV-Vis pada panjang gelombang maksimum 520 nm. Pada uji stabilitas ekstrak zat warna kulit buah siwalan (antosianin)  terhadap pH, rentang pH 0-6 dengan interval 1 didapat pH terbaik 1 dengan nilai absorbansi 0,3965. Uji stabilitas suhu dengan rentang suhu 50 -100oC dengan rentang 10oC menghasikan suhu terbaik 50oC dengan nilai absorbansi 0,387.  Hasil uji stabilitas ekstrak zat warna kulit buah siwalan (antosianin)  terhadap sinar menunjukkan penurunan nilai absorbansi berbanding lurus dengan lamanya penyinaran. Uji stabilitas zat warna alami antosianin yang berasal dari kulit buah siwalan menunjukkan ekstrak dengan total antosianin paling besar  memiliki intensitas warna yang besar pula.