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PERANCANGAN MESIN PENGHANCUR SAMPAH ORGANIK PADAT PERKOTAAN Nada, Made; Tika, Wayan; Arda, Gede
Agrotekno Vol. 15, No. 1 Februari 2009
Publisher : Agrotekno

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Abstract

Handling municipal garbage still becomes an ever ending problem. One way to tackle this problem is to utilize the garbage as organic fertilizer. The most promising technology in converting aerobically this rubbish to organic fertilizer is known as open windrow, but the success of implementing this technology is depended upon particle size of the garbage. So, chopping machine is needed to reduce it into a homogeneous size and constructing a chopping machine became the objective of the research. Tests on physical of the machine and its performance indicated that the designed machine was better than the machine that has already been available in the field. The size of chopped garbage was relatively homogeneous and its value was 10% better than that yielded form the older machine.
Beban Kerja dan Produktivitas Kerja Operator Traktor Tangan Pada Pembajakan Sawah ’Subak Ayo’ di Desa Babahan, Kecamatan Penebel, Kabupaten Tabanan Bali Nada, I Made; Arda, Gede; Pudja, Ida Ayu Rina Pratiwi
Rona Teknik Pertanian Vol 7, No 1 (2014): Volume 7, No. 1, April 2014
Publisher : Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17969/rtp.v7i1.2641

Abstract

Abstrak. Penelitian dengan metode survei, dari hasil penelitian diperoleh beban kerja objektif pekerja 1  dengan denyut nadi per menit pada pembajakan sawah datar, saat memindahkan traktor tangan dari sawah satu ke sawah yang lain dan miring masing-masing yaitu 111/menit, 123/menit dan 125/menit serta pekerja 2 dengan denyut nadi per menit pada pembajakan yang sama yaitu 114/menit, 120/menit dan 120/menit. Beban kerja subjektif pekerja 1 dengan keluhan sistem muskuloskeletal pada pembajakan sawah datar dari agak sakit 50% dan sakit 28,57%, pada saat memindahkan traktor tangan dari sawah satu ke sawah yang lain dengan prosen keluhan agak sakit5 3,57%, sakit 32,14% dan sakit 3,57%, dan pada sawah miring  dengan prosen keluhan agak sakit 60,71% dan sakit 50% serta pekerja pada pembajakan yang sama mempunyai keluhan muskoluskeletal masing-masing yaitu agak sakit 10,71% , 21,43%  dan agak sakit 25%. Produktivitas pekerja 1 dan pekerja 2 yaitu luas sawah per hari 10,45 are dengan penghasilan sebesar Rp.188,100 dan luas sawah 16,09 are dengan penghasilan sebesar Rp. 289,620 Productivity and Work Load of Hand Tractor Operator for Plowing Field of Subak Ayo’ in Babahan Village, Sub-district of Penebel, Tabanan BaliAbstract. This research was conducted by survey method. The results showed that operator’s objective load of operator 1 showed heartbeat per minutes when he plough flat and sloping land, when he moved his hand tractor from one part to other  fields were 111 heartbeats/minute, 123 heartbeat/minute and 125 heartbeat per minute respectively. Operator 2 working in the same works include 114 heartbeats/minute, 120 heartbeats/minute and 120 heartbeats/minute. Operator’s subjective load on operator 1 showed musculoskeletal system lamentation  on flat land  plough that were 50% less painful, and 28,57% painful when he moved the hand tractor on with percentage of lamentation were 53.57% less painful, 32.14 painful, and 3.57% very painful. On the other hand, he showed the percentage of lamentation on slopping land were 60.71 less painful, 50% painful. The research also found that the operators showed musculoskeletal system lamentation, that were 10.71% less painful and 21,43% painful and 25% very painful. Operator’s productivity of operator 1 and 2 per day was 0,11 hectare with income Rp. 188.100 and on 0,16 hectare, it generated income as high as Rp. 289,620.
Model Pengeringan Lapisan Tipis Rebung Bambu “Tabah” (Gigantochloa nigrociliata KURZ) Arda, Gede; Kencana, P.K. Diah; Gunadnya, IBP.; Yulianti, Ni Luh
Rona Teknik Pertanian Vol 9, No 1 (2016): Volume 9, No. 1, April 2016
Publisher : Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.17969/rtp.v9i1.4408

Abstract

Abstrak. Rebung bambu tabah (Gigantochloa nigrociliata KURZ) merupakan produk khas daerah Pupuan, Tabanan, Bali yang mempunyai potensi untuk dikembangkan sebagai produk yang bernilai ekonomis. Kajian awal proses pengeringan rebung untuk meningkatkan umur simpan rebung bambu Tabah dilakukan pada penelitian ini. Kurva laju pengeringan rebung bambu Tabah memberikan informasi penting untuk proses pengeringan. Oleh karena itu, tujuan penelitian ini adalah mempelajari karakteristik laju pengeringan rebung bambu Tabah melalui aplikasi model pengeringan lapisan tipis. Rebung bambu Tabah yang dibelah menjadi dua dan empat bagian dikeringkan pada suhu 50oC, 60oC, dan 70oC. Perubahan kadar air setiap saat kemudian dimodelkan dengan model Newton dan Page. Kesesuaian model yang digunakan dievaluasi dengan menentukan nilai koefisien determinasi (r2) dan RMSE dari model. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa model Page lebih baik digunakan untuk memodelkan pengeringan rebung bambu Tabah pada semua perlakuan. Model Newton menunjukkan ketidaksesuaian yang sangat tinggi pada suhu 50oC namun kesesuaiannya meningkat pada suhu yang lain.  Thin Layer Drying Model of Bamboo Shoots “Tabah” (Gigantochloa nigrociliata KURZ) Abstract. Bamboo shoots Tabah (Gigantochloa nigrociliata KURZ) is a unique product of Pupuan District, Tabanan, Bali which is potent to be developed as highly value product. Preliminary study of the bamboo shoots drying to enhance its storage life was conducted in this research. Bamboo shoots Tabah’s drying rate curve give an important information for its drying process. Therefore, the aim of this research was to study the characteristics of bamboo shoots Tabah drying by applying thin layer drying models. Bamboo shoots split into two and four pieces were dried under drying air temperatures 50oC, 60oC, and 70oC. Instantaneous moisture content of the shoots are modeled by Newton and Page model. The goodness of the models were evaluated by determining its coefficient of determination (r2) and RMSE. The results showed that Page model was better to model the bamboo shoots Tabah drying process on all drying treatments. The Newton Model indicated the worst fit on drying air temperature 50oC while showed better fit on other temperatures.
Analisis Efisiensi Biaya Distribusi Pupuk Bersubsidi di Wilayah Kabupaten Klungkung Menggunakan Metode Transportasi Febriani, Erni; Widia, I Wayan; Arda, Gede
Jurnal BETA (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian) Vol 4 No 2 (2016): September
Publisher : Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana

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Abstract

The aim of this research was to determine the distribution pattern of subsidized fertilizer in Klungkung regency, as well as to determine the distribution pattern of subsidized fertilizer that produced the minimum distribution cost. The research method used in the study, were a survey, measuring the distance and collect secondary data. The survey was conducted to official distributors to obtain the amount of farmer groups which recieved the subsidized fertilizer. The information of farmer groups’ distance to the official distributors, received fertilizer, and the cost spent to distribute the fertilizer were needed to calculate the unit cost of distribution. All of those information were obtained by field survey and direct measurement in location. The data obtained then was analyzed by applying three methods of transportation that was North West Corner Method, the Lowest Cost Method and The Vogel's Approximation Method. The results indicated that the methods produced different costs in which the minimum distribution cost by Rp 6.065.846,00 was produces by the Lowest Cost Method. The value of the result is vsame with the transportation minimum cost that produced by the distribution pattern of subsidized fertilizer at this time in Klungkung regency, so it can be concluded that the distribution pattern of subsidized fertilizer in Klungkung regency at this time is meeting with the all criteria distribution pattern with transportation minimum cost.
Studi Kombinasi Lama Fermentasi, Jenis Wadah dan Suhu Pengeringan Terhadap Karakteristik Kakao Kering Yulianti, Ni Luh; Arda, Gede
Jurnal Ilmiah Teknologi Pertanian Agrotechno Vol 3 No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Universitas Udayana

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24843/JITPA.2018.v03.i01.p07

Abstract

Tujuan penelitian ini adalah  mengkaji karakteristik biji kakao kering yang dihasilkan dari proses fermentasi dalam sekala kecil dan  mengkaji pengaruh penggunaan  wadah fermentasi yang berbeda pada kapasitas kecil, lama fermentasi serta pebedaan suhu pengeringan terhadap kualitas biji kakao kering yang dihasilkan.  Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan tiga faktor. Faktor pertama adalah wadah fermentasi (A) yang terdiri dari dua jenis yaitu wadah kotak kayu dan wadah karung.  Faktor kedua adalah lama fermentasi (B) yang terdiri dari dua taraf yaitu  5 hari dan 6 hari. Faktor tiga adalah suhu pengeringan (C) yang terdiri dari 50o C dan 60o C. Masing-masing perlakuan diulang sebanyak 2 kali. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa perlakuan biji kakao yang difermentasi dalam wadah kotak kayu selama 6 hari dan dikeringkan pada suhu 50oC (W1L350) menunjukkan karakteristik biji kakao yang baik, selanjutnya perlakuan tersebut merupakan perlakuan yang direkomendasikan sebagai perlakuan terbaik.
Pengaruh Suhu dan Lama Penyangraian terhadap Karakteristik Fisik dan Mutu Sensori Kopi Arabika (Coffea Arabica L) Purnamayanti, Putu Ayu; Gunadnya, I. B. Putu; Arda, Gede
Jurnal BETA (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian) Vol 5 No 2 (2017): September
Publisher : Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana

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Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk 1) mengetahui pengaruh suhu dan lama penyangraian terhadap karakteristik fisik dan mutu sensori kopi arabika, 2) mengetahui derajat suhu dan lama penyangraian yang terbaik terhadap karakteristik fisik dan mutu sensori kopi arabika. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial dengan dua faktor. Faktor pertama adalah suhu yang terdiri dari tiga taraf yaitu 220°C, 235°C dan 250°C. Faktor kedua adalah lama penyangraian, yang terdiri dari tiga taraf yaitu 14 menit, 17 menit dan 20 menit. Variabel yang diamati dalam penelitian ini meliputi rendemen, kadar air, nilai warna, kadar keasaman dan uji sensori kopi arabika. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perlakuan suhu dan lama penyangraian berpengaruh terhadap rendemen, kadar air, nilai warna, kadar keasaman, aroma, rasa dan warna kopi arabika. Suhu penyangraian 235°C dengan lama penyangraian 14 menit merupakan perlakuan terbaik untuk menghasilkan karakteristik fisik dan mutu sensori kopi arabika yang terbaik, yaitu dengan rendemen 82,5%, kadar air 1,08% (bb), beda warna L (Lightness) 6,51, keasaman 5,84, skoring aroma 3,6 (antara biasa dan suka), skoring rasa 3,2 (antara biasa dan suka), skoring warna 3,6 (antara biasa dan suka). This research was aimed to 1) determine the effects of temperature and duration of roasting coffee bean on physical characteristics and sensory quality of arabica coffee; 2) determine the temperature and roasting time which result the best of the physicals characteristics and sensory quality of arabica coffee. The experiments were carried out by using a factorial completely randomized design with two factors. The first factor was roasting  temperature which consisted of three levels of 220, 235 and 250°C. The second factor was  roasting duration, that consisted of three levels that was 14, 17 and 20 minutes. The variables observed in this study were yield, water content, color by CIELAB, acidity and organoleptic test. The results showed that the roasting temperature treatment and the duration of roasting affected the yield, water content, value of color, acidity levels, aroma, taste and color of arabica roasted coffee. The roasting temperature of 235°C with the duration of 14 minutes was the best treatment which produced the best roasted coffee in physical characteristics sensory quality of arabica coffee, namely 82.5% yield, 1.08% (w/w) moisture content, 6,51 color value (Lightness), 5,84 acidity, aroma 3,6 (between moderate and likes), taste score 3,2 (between moderate and likes), color scoring 3.6 (between moderate and likes).
Penentuan Umur Simpan Loloh Piduh Dengan Metode Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT) Menggunakan Pendekatan Model Arrhenius Nirmala Sari, Putu Wahyu; Gunadnya, IB. Putu; Arda, Gede
Jurnal BETA (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian) Vol 5 No 1 (2017): maret
Publisher : Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana

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Abstract

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui umur simpan loloh piduh yang dikemas ke dalam dua kemasan berbeda yaitu kemasan botol plastik dan botol kaca. Loloh piduh disimpan pada empat suhu penyimpanan berbeda yaitu 15oC, 35oC, 45oC, dan 55oC. Parameter yang diamati adalah pH dan nilai sensoris meliputi rasa asam, rasa manis, aroma asam, aroma alkohol, kekeruhan, dan uji kesukaan terhadap loloh piduh. Penelitian ini dilakukan selama 12 jam atau sampai 50 persen panelis menolak sampel uji dengan pengambilan data parameter pengamatan setiap 2 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa parameter mutu kritis dari loloh piduh kemasan botol plastik dan botol kaca adalah aroma asam yang mengikuti kinetika reaksi ordo ke-0. Umur simpan loloh piduh dalam kemasan botol plastik yang disimpan pada suhu ruang 28oC adalah 9,82 jam. Sedangkan umur simpan loloh piduh dalam kemasan botol kaca yang disimpan pada suhu ruang 28oC adalah 12,81 jam. The purpose of this study was to determine the shelf-life of lolohpiduh packed in two different packages that is packed in plastic bottle and glass bottle. Both packed lolohpiduh was stored in four temperatures, namely 15oC, 35oC 45oC 55oC. The observed parameters were pH and four sensory parameters using preference test. The sensory parameters consisted of sour taste, sweet taste, sour aroma, alcohol aroma, and turbidity. This research was conducted in12 hours or up to 50 percent of the panelists rejected the test sampleand observation was taken every two hour. The results showed that the critical quality parameters of lolohpiduh packed in plastic bottles and glass bottles was sour aroma which followed zero order of kinetics reaction. Predicted shelf-life of lolohpiduh packed in plastic bottles which stored at room temperature (28oC) was 9.82 hour, while the shelf life of lolohpiduh packed in glass bottles that stored at the same temperature was 12.81 hours.
Karakteristik Biji Kakao Hasil Fermentasi Kapasitas Kecil dengan Jenis Wadah dan Lama Fermentasi yang Berbeda Aryani, Novi Adi; Yulianti, Ni Luh; Arda, Gede
Jurnal BETA (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian) Vol 6 No 1 (2018): Maret
Publisher : Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana

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Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk 1) mengetahui pengaruh variasi wadah dan lama fermentasi terhadap karakteristik biji kakao hasil fermentasi pada kapasitas kecil. 2) dan untuk mengetahui perlakuan yang menghasilkan karakteristik biji kakao terbaik setelah fermentasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok faktorial dengan dua faktor. Faktor pertama adalah wadah yang terdiri dari tiga taraf yaitu kotak kayu, keranjang bambu dan karung plastik. Faktor kedua adalah lama fermentasi, yang terdiri dari tiga taraf yaitu 4 hari, 5 hari dan 6 hari. Parameter yang diamati dalam penelitian ini meliputi suhu fermentasi, pH luar biji kakao, pH dalam keping biji kakao, jumlah biji per 100 gram, kadar kulit, kadar air, uji belah meliputi biji tidak terfermentasi, biji setengah terfermentasi, biji terfermentasi sempurna, biji berkecambah, biji berjamur, biji berserangga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perlakuan wadah dan lama fermentasi berpengaruh terhadap suhu fermentasi, pH luar biji kakao, pH dalam keping biji kakao, jumlah biji per 100 gram, kadar kulit, kadar air, hasil uji belah yaitu biji tidak terfermentasi dan biji terfermentasi sempurna. Perlakuan biji kakao yang difermentasikan dalam kotak kayu berukuran 25,5 cm x 25,5 cm x 30,5 cm dengan kapasitas 7,5 kg yang difermentasikan selama 6 hari merupakan kombinasi perlakuan yang menghasilkan karakteristik biji kakao terbaik yaitu dengan suhu maksimal fermentasi yang dapat dicapai sebesar 45,45oC, pH luar biji kakao segar sebesar 6,40, pH dalam keping biji kakao segar sebesar 4,10, jumlah biji per 100 gram sebesar 87,5, kadar kulit sebesar 10,95%, kadar air sebesar 7,3% bb, hasil uji belah yaitu biji tidak terfermentasi 0%, biji setengah terfermentasi 8%, biji terfermentasi sempurna 92%, berjamur 0%, berkecambah 0% dan berserangga 0%.   This study is aimed at 1) knowing the effect of container variation and fermentation time to the characteristics of fermented cocoa beans in small capacity. 2) and knowing the treatment that produces the best cocoa beans characteristics after fermentation. The factorial randomized block design with two factors is used in this study. The first factor is a container type consisting of three levels, namely wooden box, bamboo basket, and plastic sack. The second factor is the fermentation length which consists of three levels; they are 4 days, 5 days, and 6 days. The parameters observed in this study are fermentation temperature, external cocoa bean pH, internal cocoa bean pH, number of beans per 100 grams, skin content, water content, split test including unfermented beans, underfermented beans, fermented beans, germinating beans, moldy beans, and beans that contain insect. The results showed that container treatment and fermentation time had an effect on the fermentation temperature, external cocoa bean pH, internal cocoa bean pH, number of beans per 100 grams, skin content, and water content, split test result that is unfermented beans and fermented beans. Furthermore, the treatment of fermented cocoa beans in a wooden box measuring 25.5 cm x 25.5 cm x 30.5 cm with 7.5 kg capacity fermented during 6 days is a combination of treatments that produce the best characteristics of cocoa beans with maximum temperature fermentation that can be achieved at 45.45oC, external cocoa bean pH at 6.40, internal cocoa bean pH 4.10, number of beans per 100 grams content of 87,5, skin content of 10.95%, water content of 7,3% bb, split test including unfermented beans 0%, underfermented beans 8%, fermented beans 92%, germinating beans 0%, moldy beans 0%, and beans that contain insect 0%.
Aplikasi Penggunaan Asap Cair terhadap Daya Awet Fillet Ikan Tuna Sutanaya, Nyoman Try Atmaja; Kencana, P.K Diah; Arda, Gede
Jurnal BETA (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian) Vol 6 No 2 (2018): September
Publisher : Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24843/JBETA.2018.v06.i02.p04

Abstract

Ikan tuna merupakan komoditi perikanan andalan yang mudah sekali mengalami perubahan mutu. Pengawetan diperlukan untuk memperpanjang umur simpan ikan terutama di saat-saat musim ikan dan agar ikan dapat sampai ke tangan konsumen sebelum mengalami pembusukan. Teknologi pengawetan yang dapat diterapkan adalah pemberian asap cair karena bahan mengandung fenol yang berperan sebagai antioksidan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh pemberian asap cair terhadap kandungan protein yang terdapat pada fillet ikan tuna dan mengetahui umur simpan fillet ikan tuna dengan penggunaan asap cair sebagai bahan pengawet yang disimpan pada suhu kamar (27o) dengan menggunakan metode ESS (Extended Storage Studies). Konsentrasi asap cair yang digunakan dalam penelitian antara lain konsentrasi asap cair 4%, konsentrasi asap cair 6% dan tanpa pemberian asap cair. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode ESS (Extended Storage Studies) yang diperoleh dari uji sensori selama penyimpanan dengan menentukan kesukaan terhadap penampakan, warna, bau, tekstur dan parameter lain yang diamati yaitu uji pH, kadar air dan uji protein. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa dengan penambahan asap cair tidak mampu mempertahankan kadar protein yang terkandung pada fillet ikan tuna selama proses penyimpanan dengan rata-rata penurunan kandungan protein untuk semua perlakuan sekitar 4,01% dan penambahan asap cair 6% mampu disimpan selama 54 jam, 2,33 kali lebih lama dibandingkan dengan tanpa penambahan asap cair. Tuna fish is a commodity of fishery products is very easly get change of the quality. Preservation is needed to prolong the life of save the fish especially at the time when the fish season and so that the fish can reach the consumer before experiencing the decay. Preservation technology that can be applied is the giving of liquid smoke because the ingredients contain fenol who act as antioxidants. Objective of this research is to find out the shelf life of tuna fish fillets by using the liquid smoke as preservatives and stored at room temperature (27o). This research uses the method ESS (Extended Storage Studies) obtained from sensory test during storage with determine the gladness of the appearance, color , smell, texture and other parameters observed namely pH test, the level of water and protein test. Based on the research results obtained using the method ESS, shows that the quality of tuna fish fillets with the addition of liquid smoke is best obtained on the treatment of liquid smoke concentration of 6% with long storage time during 54 hours, with the main quality parameters cause damage obtained from pH test results and sensory test.
Studi Pengaruh Jenis Kemasan dan Ketebalan Plastik Terhadap Karakteristik Mutu Rebung Bambu Tabah (Gigantochloa nigrociliata Kurz) Kering Lobo, Yustina Angreny; Kencana, Pande Ketut Diah; Arda, Gede
Jurnal BETA (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian) Vol 2 No 1 (2014): Maret
Publisher : Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana

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Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the effect of the type of plastic packaging with different thickness of the characteristics of dried bamboo shoots (Gigantochloa nigociliata KURZ). This study is also expected to increase the shelf life of bamboo shoots by using proper plastic packaging. The design used was a randomized block design with two factors. The first factor is the type of plastic with two different thicknesses with details P1: dried bamboo shoots packed with a thickness of 0.04 mm Polypropylene plastic, P2: dried bamboo shoots packed with a thickness of 0.08 mm PP plastic, P3: dried bamboo shoots packed with PE plastic thickness 0.04 mm, P4: bamboo shoots packed with a thickness of 0.08 mm Polyethylene plastic. And the second factor is the storage time with details of H1: 10 days, H2: 20 days, H3: 30 days, H4: 40 days. The study was repeated three times. Parameters observed in this study include analysis of weight, water content, texture and water absorption. The results of this study indicated that the type of plastic packaging, thickness and storage time gave significant effect on characteristics of dried bamboo shoots. The polypropylene plastic witha thickness of 0,08 mm is the best type of plastic packaging, because it has the lowest water content and lowest weight during 40 days of storage