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Phosphorylation of pregelatinized maranta starch (Maranta arundinaceae L.) as theophyllin tablet matrix controlled release Anwar, Effionora; Yusmarlina, Dina; Rahmat, Hasan; ., Kosasih
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 17 No 1, 2006
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

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Abstract

The present study was carried out to investigate the effect concentration level of pregelatinized and pregelatinized marantha starch phosphate as matrix polymer on the drug release profile. Pregelatinization starch was made by heating suspension of marantha starch with drum dryer. Phosphorylation of pregelatinized maranta starch was prepared by reacting pregelatinized marantha starch with Na2HPO4 and NaHPO4 (2:3). The modified starch product was used as matrices for tablet controlled release separately by direction compression process. Theophyllin was used as a model drug hydrophobic. The dissolution test was carried out separately in 0,1 N HCl (pH 1,8) and in phosphate buffer (pH 7,2), both for 8 hours by using paddle method.The result showed that there was no significant difference (P< 0,05) among the drug release profile from different level concentration of polymeric matrices. The drug release rate was found to be governed by the type and concentration level of polymer in matrix system, polymeric concentration (25%) in matrix, the slower release rate of the drug. Release profile showed a tendency to follow zero-order kinetics from all matrix tablets, and the drug release may be controlled by combination of diffusion and erosion delivery system.Key words: pregelatinized maranta starch phosphate, controlled release, polymeric matrices.
PATI PREGEL PATI SINGKONG FOSFAT SEBAGAI BAHAN PENSUSPENSI SIRUP KERING AMPISILIN Anwar, Effionora; SV, Antokalina; Harianto, .
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 3, No 3 (2006)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

For most reason for dry suspension is the drug changes from chemical degradation or hydrolysis like ampicillin. The dry syrups that require mixing prior to administration is solving the problem. These suspension are commersial, dry mixtures that require the addition of water at the time of dispensing. Many antibiotics are formulated as dry syrups and are intented for a pediatric patient population. There are usually fewer suspending material in suspension dry syrup than in convensional suspensions. The criteria for selecting inggredients are based both on suitable reconstitution and on physical tipe of powder mixture desired. This research was carried out the possibility of using phycical and chemical modification of cassava starch as suspending material. First, pregelatinized cassava starch was made by heated the cassava starch with added amount water. Secondly,  phosphorylated by adding phosphorous oxychloride for making cross-linked reaction and adding sodium monohydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4) for making substituted reaction respectively. Both of the cassava starch phosphate derived was used in tree formulas dry syrup, as comparative suspending material was Na Alginate. Then dry syrup was evaluated accordance to Indonesian  Farmacopea ed IV included sedimentation volume, redispersion, viscosity, flowing properties, pH, and ampicillin content after seven days. The result of evaluation were particle size 355-500 µm, flow rate 2,7-4,6 g/ det. Sedimention volume at temperature 27ºC during seven days for all formulas were 0,8-1,0, and redispertion 3-5 times. The viskosity of the suspensions were 58,6-357,1 cps .Flowing properties of the liquids were plastis -plastis tixotropic, pH 4,97-5,21, and ampicillin content between 93,12-99,00%.Keywords: dry syrup, pregelatized cassava starch phosphate, ampicillin
Formulasi Tablet salut Teofilin Menggunakan Eksipien Koproses Pregelatinisasi pati Singkong- Metilselulosa sebagai bahan Penyalut Pradana, Rangga; Chaidir, Chaidir; Anwar, Effionora
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 7, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Pregelatinized cassava starch (PCS) is a physically modified starch. The purposes ofthe study were to improve functionality of PCS with making coprocess composed ofPCS and methylcellulose (MC) by proportionally variation, which are 2:1, 3:1, and4:1, as well as to applied co-processed excipient that could retard the drug release ascoating material of theophylline tablet. Coprocessed excipient were characterized interms of morphology, particle size distribution, compressibility index, flow rate andangle of repose, thermal analysis, hygroscopicity, gel strength, swelling test, andmoiety analysis. Theophylline tablet that coated by PCS, MC, and co-processed PCSMCratio (4:1) characterized and in vitro drug release were made in chloride mediumof pH 1,2 and phosphate medium of pH 7,2. The characterization result of co-processedPCS-MC showed the improvement of functionality from PCS and synergismPCS with MC. Meanwhile, the result of in vitro drug release showed theophyllinetablet that coated by MC 1%, co-processed PCS-MC (4:1) 4% and 2% could retardthe drug release in both medium.Keywords : co-prosses, pregelatinized cassava starch, methylcellulose, theophylline,coated tablet.
PEMANFAATAN MALTODEKSTRIN PATI TERIGU SEBAGAI EKSIPIEN DALAM FORMULA SEDIAAN TABLET DAN NIOSOM Anwar, Effionora; Djajadisastra, Joshita; Yanuar, Arry; Bahtiar, Anton
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 1, No 1 (2004)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

The Use of Maltodextrin from Wheat Starch as an Exipient in Formula Tablet and Niosom dosage form. Wheat starch normally can be used as a tablet filler only, because the flow rate and binding capacity are not good enough. The wheat starch should be treated as follows : protein and amine free Bogasari wheat flour starch were hydrolyzed by ÃŽ±-amylase enzyme (Liquezym EX®) at variable temperature and time incubation to produce maltodextrin with different Dextrose Equivalent (DE) value. The maltodextrin could be used as tablet binder on wet granulation, tablet filler and binder on direct compress, a proniosom carrier to prepare niosom, a tablet filler, binder and disintegrator on direct compress tablet, a sugar coated tablet material. All of the product used active compound as amodel and the quality were evaluated according to the 4thed. of Indonesian Pharmacopeae and other valid references. The result shows that maltodextrin DE 1–5 could be used as a tablet binder which was processed by wet granulation on 2-5% concentration, as a tablet binder and filler which was processed by direct compress on 30-35%; maltodextrin DE 10-15 could be used as a proniosom carrier then continued to niosom preparation with surfactant composition of 2 mmol (1 mmol for span 60 and 1 mmol for cholesterol). The surfactant and drug concentration of 100 mmol/lt and 5 mmol/lt subsequently was proved to loading the drug as much as 81.28%. Maltodextrin DE 15-20 could be used as a tablet filler, binder and disintegrator at 84%, and starch hydrolyzed of DE 35-40 as a sugar coating which was more economical than sugar.
Eksplorasi dan Karakterisasi berbagai Kristal Ibuprofen Yanuar, Arry; Nursanti, Nursanti; Anwar, Effionora
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 7, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Ibuprofen is an analgesic anti-inflammatory nonsteroidal (AINS). Generally, ibuprofenhave a bad flowability because a high cohesivity. Another problem in manufacturingis the high tendency for sticking to the punches. Besides these disadvantageous properties,ibuprofen indicates bad dissolution behavior because of its hydrophobic structure.To improve the properties of ibuprofen can be used crystallization method withusing variation of solvents. In this experiment observed crystallization method bycooling, evaporation, and water presence, which used methanol, ethanol, and acetonesolvents. Of all the crystallization results are produced white prism-shaped crystalline.The selected method is cooling method, which is characterized using ScanningElectron Microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction, and Differential ScanningCalorimetry (DSC). These three characterizations indicate transformation of crystalform which compared with ibuprofen’s standard. The selected method also producesnon cohesive powder which have the size particle is 710-1180µm, compressibilityindex: IBMD 14.2%, IBED 16.6%, IBAD 17.1%; angles of repose: IBMD 28.1º,IBED 29.7º, IBAD 30.1º, and have higher solubility than the common crystal’ssolubility. The result indicates that crystallization method is able to improve flowrate,compressibility index, and dissolution rate properties of ibuprofen’s standard.Keywords : Ibuprofen, Crystal habit, Polymorphism, Crystallization techniques.
Uji Stabilitas Fisik Formula Krim yang Mengandung Ekstrak Kacang Kedelai (Glycine max) Dewi, Rosmala; Anwar, Effionora; S, Yunita K
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 1, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Soybean extract has been known for its antiaging potential. It was predicted that the addition of soybean extract to a cream could influence the physical stability of the cream. Therefore, this research was aimed to test the physical stability of cream containing soybean extract in different concentration (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%). The physical stability test included the storage for eight weeks at room temperature, high temperature (40°±2°C), and low temperature (4°±2°C). The stability parameters were the organoleptic observation, pH, globul size, viscosity, and cycling test. Those four cream formulas showed good stability in organoleptic, pH, globul size, viscosity, and cycling test.  
UJI STABILITAS SEDIAAN MIKROEMULSI MENGGUNAKAN HIDROLISAT PATI (DE 35–40) SEBAGAI STABILIZER Jufri, Mahdi; Anwar, Effionora; Utami, Putri Margaining
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 3, No 1 (2006)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Various solubilization techniques have been developed to enhance the bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs. One of the solubilization techniques is preparation of microemulsion. Microemulsion is a potential carrier in drug delivery system because it has many advantageous characteristics. In this research, hydrophobic drug was made in a dosage form of oil in water (O/W) microemulsion using ketoprofen as a model and investigated the influence of adding starch hydrolisates with dextrose equivalent (DE) 35-40 in variety concentrations (0,0%; 1,5%; 2,0%; 2,5%) to the stability of this microemulsion system. This microemulsion consisted of isopropyl miritate as oil phase, tween 80 and lechitin as surfactants, ethanol as cosurfactant, propylene glycol as cosolvent, starch hydrolisates DE 35–40 as stabilizer, and water as external phase. The evaluation was stability test both phisically and chemically. The result showed that the stability of microemulsion system increased significantly by adding starch hydrolisates DE 35-40 at 2,5%. Key words: microemulsion, ketoprofen, starch hydrolisates
PEMBUATAN NIOSOM BERBASIS MALTODEKSTRIN DE 5-10 DARI PATI SINGKONG (Manihot Utilissima) Jufri, Mahdi; Anwar, Effionora; Djajadisastra, Joshita
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 1, No 1 (2004)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Niosomes are non ionic surfactant vesicles that have potential application in the delivery of hydrophobic or amphilic drugs. We developed proniosomes, a dry formulation using a maltodextrin as a carrier coated with non ionic surfactant, which can be used to produce niosomes within a minutes by addition of hot water followed by agitation. A novel method is reported here for rapid preparation of proniosomes with wide range of surfactant loading. Maltodextrin DE 5-10 was hidrolyzed from tapioca starch using Thermamyl L 120 da Novo at 85o C. The result from SEM analyses shown that proniosomes appear very similar to the maltodextrin, but the surface was more smooth. Niosome suspensions which was observed under the optical microscopy and particle size analyzer were evaluated as drug carrier using ibuprofen as a model. The result provide an indication of maltodextrin DE 5-10 from tapioca starch are potentialy carrier in the proniosome preparation which can be used for producing niosomes.
Pembuatan Sediaan Tablet Mengapung Famotidin Menggunakan Kompleks Polielektrolit Kitosan-Pektin Sebagai Bahan Matriks Sagita, Erny; Anwar, Effionora; Surini, Silvia
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 8, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Floating tablet is one of the drug delivery system retained in the stomach which aims to prolong the lag time of the drug in the stomach. This principle can be used to improve the efficacy of famotidine in treating diseases in the stomach The purpose of this research is to develop dosage form afloat by using Chitosan Pectin Electrolytes (PEC) as matrix then used as the matrix in tablet dosage form with famotidine as a drug model. PEC also combined with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) with different. PEC was also combined with hydroxypropilmethylcellulose (HPMC) in different concentrations. The results of the dissolution study showed that PEC could retard the release of famotidin for 10 hours. PEC in combination with HPMC could retard the release of famotidin for 20 hours. Tablet that only contains PEC as matrix could remain buoyant for 12 hours while tablet with combination of PEC and HPMC could remain buoyant for 24 hours.Keywords: Famotidine, chitosan, polyelectrolite complex, pectin, floating tablet
Eksipien Koproses Pregelatinisasi Pati Singkong Metilselulosa sebagai Bahan Penyalut Tablet Pradana, Rangga; Anwar, Effionora; Chaidir, .
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 7, No 3 (2010)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Coating is one of the effective methods used in controlled release dosage form. Lots ofvariety in the form of a hydrophilic polymer excipient that is used to control the drugrelease many polymers that can be used for coating purposes, but only a few have beenknown to serve as a polymeric coating which functions to control the rate of drugrelease Pregelatinized cassava starch (PCS) is a physically modified starch. The purposesof the study were to improve functionality of PCS with making coprocess composedof PCS and methylcellulose (MC) by proportionally variation, which are 2:1,3:1, and 4:1, as well as to applied co-processed excipient that could retard the drugrelease as coating material of theophylline tablet. Coprocessed excipient characterizedin terms of morphology, particle size distribution, compressibility index, flow rateand angle of repose, thermal analysis, hygroscopicity, gel strength, swelling test, andmoiety analysis.Keywords : co-prosses, pregelatinized cassava starch, methylcellulose.