Athena Anwar
Pusat Teknologi Intervensi Kesehatan Masyarakat, Jl. Percetakan Negara No. 29 Jakarta Pusat.

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PENGARUH AKSES PENYEDIAAN AIR BERSIH TERHADAP KEJADIAN DIARE PADA BALITA Anwar, Athena; Musadad, Anwar
Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan Vol 8, No 2 Jun (2009)
Publisher : Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan

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Inappropriate and inadequate clean water supply can cause considerable water borne diseases, especially diarrhoea. This illness often bring about an outbreak and as the main death cause of children under five years old. This study is the advanced analysis of the baseline health research (riskesdas) data held in 2007. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of clean water supply towards diarrhoea incidence of the group age. The sample was all children under five years old in Indonesia that were chosen as the sample of Riskesdas 2007 and as thecompleted data with the drinking water supply. As dependent variable is diarrhoea to children under five years old, whereas the independent variables are the quantity of water usage, the physical quality of water, the access for water, the kind of facilities, ownership of latrine, latrinetype, mother hand washing behavior, mother educational level, mothers profession, the age and gender of the children under five years old. Data set was analyzed by logistic regression with the complex design approach. The result showed that the physical quality of water, the access for water, and the amount of water consumption influence diarrhoea incidence among the children under five years old after controlled by mother educational level, the ownership and type of latrine, and childrens sex. Keywords: drinking water, sanitation, diarrhea, behavior.
TINGKAT RISIKO PEMAKAIAN ALAT PELINDUNG DIRI DAN HIGINE PETUGAS DI LABORATORIUM KLINIK RSPUN CIPTOMANGUNKUSUMO, JAKARTA Perwitasari, Dian; Anwar, Athena
Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan Vol 5, No 1 Apr (2006)
Publisher : Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan

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Level of Risk Used Material Safety and Hygiene Laboratory Employee In Clinical Laboratory Ciptomangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta.The study on the description of personal protective equipment (PPE) and personal hygiene for laboratorian were undertaken, in relation to high risk factor being infected with diseases including HIV/AIDS, in cl inical laboratory Ciptomangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, in 2001. The number of samplesis 48 personnel who work in laboratories (24 hour, emergency installation, hematology, and child laboratory), and the study design is cross-sectional. The risk level is being scored in several criteria. There are 56.8% laboratorian who did not use PPE. Based on risks, the high risk group is those who work inchild laboratory (100%) and hematological laboratory (75%). Based on personal hygiene habit after handling specimen, such as handwashing, 45.4% personnel had bad personal hygiene, thus the high riskgroup in child laboratory and hematological laboratory are both 75%.Keywords: clinical laboratory, level of risk, personal hygiene
FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KEJADIAN DIARE PADA ANAK BALITA (Analisis Lanjut Data SDKI, 1994) Irianto, Joko; Soesanto, Sri Soewasti; Supraptini, Supraptini; Inswiasri, Inswiasri; Irianti, Sri; Anwar, Athena
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 24, No 2&3 Sept (1996)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

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The risk of diarrhoea for children under five years of age is higher than in adults. Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 1994 (1DHS-1994) data were analysed to know the risk of sociodemographic and environmental factors on diarrhoea among children under five years of age. The sociodemographic factors which were analysed included area, education and occupation of the parents, age, while the environmental factors were main source of drinking water, type of latrine, kind of floor, distance between the well and septic tank. The results showed that the risk of having diarrhoea in rural areas was higher than in urban areas. Incidence of diarrhoea among children aged 12-24 months was higher than those of 25-59 months. Incidence diarrhoea was lower among the households which have sources of clean water or households which have toilet facilities with septic tanks. Bivariate analysis of parents education and age of children as sociodemographic factors show that these factors have influence on diarrhoea. The diarrhoeal risk among children age of 12-24 months was 2.23 times higher than those children age of 25-59 months. Source of drinking water, type of latrine, distance between the well and septic tank, overcrowding as environmental factors all have influence on the incidence of diarrhoea. The highest risk occurred among household which have toilet facility without septic tank. Multivariate analysis show that mothers education, overcrowding and age of children as dominant factors have influenced the incidence of diarhoea among children under five years of age. The highest risk was the age of the children.
PENGARUH PENCEMARAN GAS KHLORIN (CI2) TERHADAP KESEHATAN PENDUDUK JAKARTA SELATAN Sukar, Sukar; Lubis, Agustina; Anwar, Athena; Inswiasri, Inswiasri; Palupi, Kumoro
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 20, No 1 Mar (1992)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

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A survey for determining the health impact of chlorine gas to the community was carried out in Karet Kuningan, South Jakarta from March till September 1991. Health impact of chlorine gas are respiratory, eye and skin disease. Interviews were conducted by propulsive sampling method. The result showed that 43.3% of the respondents living in the study area can smell the chlorine gas pollution but in the control area they could not. In the study area 73.3% and in the control area 90% knew about healthy environment. It is estimated that there was a relationship between chlorine gas pollution with Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI). The report from the same Health Center (H.C) showed that ARI cases were the highest among other diseases in this research area. Through the study it was found that there were 12 cases (8.1%) of ARI consisting of 3 cases of cough, 3 children, 4 adults and 2 elderlies with breathing problems. It was not proven that there was any relation between the chlorine gas pollution and ARI, eye and skin diseases, but since chlorine gas was detected in this area there is an indication that chlorine gas pollution has already occured. It is suggested that the monitoring of chlorine gas should be carried out not only in the study area, but also in similar areas where there are concentrations of industries with chlorine gas emission.
PEMANTAUAN KUALITAS UDARA DI DAERAH RAWASARI DAN PULOGADUNG, JAKARTA Tugaswati, A. Tri; Sukar, Sukar; Anwar, Athena; Soesanto, Sri Soewasti
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 24, No 1 Mar (1996)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

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Total suspended particulate matter (TSP), sulphur dioxide (S02) and nitrogen dioxide (N02) have been monitored at Rawasari district and industrial area Pulogadung in Jakarta as part of the Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS/WHO)/Air Network since 1978. This study reports the yearly trend of TSP, S02, N02 during 1986-1995, and water soluble sulfate and nitrate content in particulate during 1986-1990, in both sites. There are similar patterns of the yearly change of TSP, SO2, NO2 in both sites during the monitoring period of 1986-1995, and sulphate and nitrate during the monitoring period of 1986-1990. The TSP levels in Rawasari and Pulogadung area are stable during 1986-1995 in the range of 150-300 pg/m3. The annual average concentrations of S02 and N02 up to 2.50 pg/m3 and 14.71 pg/m3 respectively, are observed. The sulphate levels in both sites tend to decrease, while the nitrate levels tend to increase. The sum of sulphate and nitrate content comprised at maximum of 8.20% of the total mass of TSP in Rawasari site, and 7.40% of mass of TSP in Pulogadung industrial site.
PENGETAHUAN DAN PERILAKU MASYARAKAT TENTANG PENGELOLAAN PESTISIDA DI RUMAH TANGGA DI BOGOR, DEPOK, TANGERANG, DAN BEKASI Soerachman, Rachmalina; Anwar, Athena
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 42, No 3 Sep (2014)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

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AbstractThe number and type of pesticides used by households continues to increase. As it is intended to control pests, almost all pesticides are toxic. The use and improper storage can increase the risk of exposure and may ultimately lead to health hazards. The study aims  to  find  out  about  the  management  of  pesticide  use  in  households.  This  study was conducted in four cities/districts in West Java and Banten Provinces with crosssectional design. Number of samples in each location was 300 respondents determined by using the Estimation of the difference between twopopulation proportions formula. Data collection was performed by interviews using a questionnaire asked to the head of household or one adult member in the household. Data processing and analysis was performed by using SPSS software, while the results were presented descriptively. The proportion of respondents who have heard of the term pesticide was the highest in Bogor District (84.6%) From these proportions, more than 86.6% of it know how to use pesticides/insecticides and more than 88.4% know how to save it.The proportion of respondents who know management regulations, labeling and the prohibition of certain pesticides in the four locations were 14.6%, 49.0%, and 60.3% respectively. In practice, the highest proportion of respondents who used to read the rules of how to use pesticides/insecticides was in Bogor (77.8%) and who used to wash their hands after applying it was in Bekasi (92.0%). The proportion of respondents who used to using safety device when applying pesticides/insecticides in four location were low relatively (not more than 22.6%). The most safety device type used was the mask, and the highest proportion of respondents who use it was in Depok. There is discrepancy between the knowledge and the behavior of respondents on pesticide management (usage and storage).Keywords : pesticide, community’s knowledge and behavior, householdAbstrak Penggunaan pestisida di rumah tangga dari waktu ke waktu terus mengalami peningkatan baik dari segi jumlah maupun jenisnya. Sesuai dengan tujuan penggunaannya yaitu mengendalikan hama, maka hampir seluruh jenis pestisida bersifat toksik. Penggunaan dan penyimpanan yang tidak sesuai dengan peraturan yang telah ditetapkan dapat meningkatkan risiko paparan dan pada akhirnya dapat menimbulkan bahaya terhadap kesehatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengetahuan, dan perilaku tentang pengelolaan (penyimpanan dan penggunaan) pestisida di rumah tangga Penelitian ini dilakukan di 4 kota/kabupaten di Provinsi Jawa Barat dan Banten dengan desain potong lintang (cross sectional). Jumlah sampel per lokasi sebanyak 300, yang dihitung menggunakan rumus estimasi beda dua proporsi. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara wawancara menggunakan kuesioner terhadap kepala rumah tangga atau salah satu anggota rumah tangga yang telah dewasa dan paling mengetahui kondisi rumah tangga. Pengolahan dan analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak SPSS dan disajikan secara deskriptif. Proporsi responden yang pernah mendengar istilah pestisida paling tinggi di Kabupaten Bogor (84,6%). Dari proporsi tersebut, lebih dari 86,6%nya mengetahui cara penggunaan pestisida/insektisida dan lebih dari 88,4% mengetahui cara penyimpanannya. Proporsi responden yang mengetahui adanya peraturan pengelolaan, pelabelan maupun adanya pelarangan pestisida tertentu di keempat lokasi masingmasing adalah 14,6%, 49,0%, dan 60,3%. Dalam prakteknya, proporsi tertinggi yang biasa membaca aturan penggunaannya adalah kelompok responden di Kabupaten Bogor (77,8%); mencuci tangan setelah mengaplikasikan, proporsi tertinggi adalah Bekasi (92,0%). Proporsi responden yang menggunakan APD di keempat lokasi penelitian relatif rendah (tidak lebih dari 22,6%). Jenis APD yang paling banyak digunakan adalah masker, dan proporsi tertinggi yang menggunakannya adalah responden di Depok. Terdapat ketidak sesuaian antara pengetahuan dan perilaku responden dalam pengelolaan pestisida.Kata kunci : Pestisida, Pengetahuan dan Perilaku, Rumah tangga
MODEL PREDIKSI KEJADIAN DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE (DBD) BERDASARKAN FAKTOR IKLIM DI KOTA BOGOR, JAWA BARAT Ariati, Jusniar; Anwar, Athena
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 42, No 4 Des (2014)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

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AbstractDengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) presents a serious health problem in Indonesia. Dengue viruses are transmitted to human through the biting of infected mosquitoes, especially Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus.The occurrence of variation and climate change will Affect the growth areas of mosquitoes. This situation can influence on the emergence of dengue fever cases. In this paper will discuss the predictions of the mathematical model of considering the incidence of DHF with climatic factors. The research design was a retrospective study with the data collected is dengue incidence and climate include temperature, rainfall, humidity and rainy days since 2002-2010. Data analysis was performed using Minitab 16.0 software statistical time series. The results showed that R2 varied between 0.65 to 0.99. The highest R2 value of the regression equation obtained in August, September and October is 0.99 and the lowest in April with a R2 value of 0.65. The results of predictions based on 4 predictors (precipitation, rainy days, temperature and humidity) with the incidence of DHF is actually not much different, except in April. It can be concluded that according to linear predictive models of dengue is influenced by climatic factors (precipitation, rainy days, temperature and humidity) 2 months before and 1 month prior dengue incidence.Keywords : Dhf, Climate, Prediction ModelAbstrakDemam Berdarah Dengue (DBD) merupakan salah satu masalah kesehatan di Indonesia. Aedes aegyptisebagai vektor utama penyakit DD/DBD kehidupannya dipengaruhi oleh faktor iklim, diantaranya suhu, kelembaban udara, curah hujan dan hari hujan. Berbagai upaya pengendalian  telah   dilakukan  namun  belum   menurunkan  jumlah  kasus  secara  signifikan, sehingga diperlukan model untuk memprediksi kejadian DBD di suatu wilayah sehingga kejadiannya dapat diantisipasi. Dalam tulisan ini akan membahas model matematika prediksi kejadian DBD dengan mempertimbangkan faktor iklim. Disain penelitian adalah studi retrospektif dengan data yang dikumpulkan adalah kejadian DBD dan iklim yang meliputi suhu, curah hujan, hari hujan dan kelembaban sejak tahun 2002-2010. Analisis data dilakukan secara time series menggunakan minitab statistical software 16.0. Hasil analisis mendapatkan model prediksi kejadian DBD dipengaruhi oleh fungsi empat faktor iklim, yaitu curah hujan, hari hujan, suhu dan kelembaban pada lag time2.Kata kunci : Demam Berdarah, Faktor Iklim, Model Prediksi
GAMBARAN GANGGUAN CEMAS MASYARAKAT DI SEKITAR MENARA BASE TRANCEIVER STATION/BTS DI BANDUNG DAN JAKARTA Anwar, Athena; Idaiani, Sri
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 42, No 4 Des (2014)
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AbstractA research on Health Effect of Electromagnetic Fields to People Arround The Base Tranceiver Stations (BTSs) in Jakarta and Bandung was conducted to study the influence of BTS existence on the residents’ mental health condition.The research design was cross-sectional The number of sample was 655 people scattered in 10 BTSs. The data was collected through interviews using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) questionnaires, conducted by researchers of Center for Public Health Intervention Technology, NIHRD. Data processing and analysis were performed bivariate between the house’s distances from BTSs and the occurrences of anxiety disorder. The results showed that 64,8% of respondents in Bandung and 57,8% of respondents in Jakarta have a general health complaints such as dizziness/headaches, cough and fever, and suffering from degenerative diseases such as high blood pressure, stroke, and diabetes mellitus (DM). Specially for mental health, there is a significant association between respondents’ anxiety disorders and the distance of their house from the BTSs (p<0,05). The proportion of respondents suffering from anxiety disorder is higher for respondents whose house is located less than 100 meters from the BTSs than those who have their house at a greater distance (over 100 meters). The respondents living near BTSs in Bandung and Jakarta have general health problems. The anxiety disorder is most likely triggered by the BTSs existence near their house.Keywords : Base Transceiver Station, Radiation, Anxiety DisorderAbstrakTelah dilakukan Penelitian Pengaruh Medan Elektromagnetik Terhadap Kesehatan Masyarakat Di Sekitar Menara Pemancar Telepon Seluler (BTS) di Jakarta dan Bandung, Disain dari penelitian adalah potong lintang dengan jumlah sampel 655 orang yang tersebar di sekitar 10 BTS. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara wawancara menggunakan kuesioner Mini International of Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) oleh peneliti peneliti Pusat Teknologi Intervensi Kesehatan Masyarakat. Pengolahan dan analisis data dilakukan secara bivariat antara jarak rumah terhadap BTS dengan kejadian gangguan cemas. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa 64,8% responden di Bandung dan 57,8% di Jakarta mempunyai keluhan kesehatan yang bersifat umum seperti pusing/sakit kepala, batuk dan demam, menderita penyakit degeneratif seperti darah tinggi, stroke, dan diabetes mellitus (DM). Khusus untuk kesehatan mental, terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara gangguan cemas responden dengan jarak rumah ke BTS (p<0,05). Proporsi gangguan cemas pada responden dengan rumah berjarak kurang dari 100 meter ke BTS lebih tinggi dari pada responden dengan jarak rumah lebih jauh (lebih dari 100 meter). Gangguan cemas yang dialami kemungkinan besar karena pengaruh keberadaan BTS di sekitar rumah.Kata kunci : Menara BTS, Radiasi, Gangguan Cemas
AKURASI ALAT DETEKSI SODIUM DALAM URIN SECARA OTOMATIS DENGAN METODE ELECTRODA SELEKSI ION KERING Budiman, Basuki; Pela, Kartika; Arifin, Aya Yuriesta; Ferbriani, Ferbriani; Safitri, Amalia; Anggraini, Dwi; Dewi, Rinda Ayu; Anwar, Athena
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 41, No 1 (2018): Maret 2018
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

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Inductively Couple Plasma (ICP) is a standard method to detect urinary sodium. However, the urinary sodium analysis method has a limitation in which the process to free sodium from molecules is not digest thoroughly. Ionic Selected Electrode (ISE) method is the better option. A New authomatic instrument Na-K-Cl automatic digital analyser that is “Spotchem EL 1520” using ISE method (dry ISE) was developed but the application to detect urinary sodium has not yet done. The purpose of this trial was to test the accuracy of the instrument in detecting urinary sodium. A number of 100 people  aged 20-64 years participated in the trial by  collecting around 50 mL fresh urine. Urinary sodium was analysed by ICP method in chemical laboratory and by ISE method using the digital analyser instrument. A number of 6 out of 100 urine sample did not meet a minimum volume requirement to be analysed by ICP method but it was able to be analysed using ISE method. The instrument was able to detect urinary sodium more than 132 (SD:77,81) mmol/L compared to Laboratory ICP method 79.38 (SD: 47,50) mmol/L. The Sensitivity of the instrument to detect sodium in urine was 97.6% (95% CI : 87.1-99.9%) and the Specivicity was 58 % (95% CI: 44.7-71.9). The trial also analysed urinary creatinine with aution instrument. A number of 10 urine sample was analysed by private clinical laboratory as quality control.  Aution is semi quantitave digital analyser and the result was inline with quantitative (controlled sample). The automatic digital analyser can be used as alternative for conventional analyses of urinary sodium.ABSTRAKMetode deteksi konsentrasi sodium dapat dilakukan dengan metode ICP atau ISE.  Saat ini telah dikembangkan alat deteksi sodium metode ISE kering yang dapat diterapkan pada sampel serum maupun urin. Uji coba alat dilakukan di laboratorium terpadu Badan Litbang Kesehatan di Bogor. Sebanyak 100 orang partisipan terlibat dalam uji coba. Partisipan  adalah penduduk di sekitar kantor dan honorer penelitian kohor tumbuh kembang di Bogor. Partisipan diminta specimen urin di laboratorium dan diperiksa kadarnya pada hari itu juga. Dua alat yang diuji coba adalah Na-K-Cl digital analyzer, (Spotchem EL 1520, arkray dengan metode ISE kering) dan creatinine aution, semi kuantitatif (arkray). Keduanya menggunakan urin sebagai specimen. Uji coba dimulai dengan pemeriksaan deteksi kreatinin karena pemeriksaan harus kurang dari 24 jam. Sebanyak 50 sampel diperiksa berurutan tanpa jeda, kemudian diteruskan 50 spesimen lainnya. Kesepakatan supervisor, diperiksakan 10 specimen diperiksa di laboratorium swasta yang ada di Bogor sebagai pembanding. Ujicoba alat Na-K-Cl analyzer dengan 100 specimen urin dilakukan  tanpa jeda. Pembanding hasil periksa alat ini adalah pemeriksaan urin metode ICP di laboratorium terpadu dan dikerjakan oleh analis kimia yang berpengalaman. Dari segi proses, kedua alat tidak ditemukan masalah saat ujicoba. Kedua alat ini digunakan untuk memeriksa 25 spesimen per hari. Hasil kadar kreatinin setelah dibandingkan dengan hasil periksa di laboratorium swasta secara grafik bagus walaupun dengan nilai absolut berbeda. Uji statistik menunjukkan Se 97,6 dan Sp 58. Hasil deteksi dengan alat ini lebih sensitive dibandingkan dengan laboratorium.Kata kunci: Inductively Couple Plasma ( ICP), Ionic Selected Electrode (ISE), sodium urin
Pneumonia pada Anak Balita di Indonesia Anwar, Athena; Dharmayanti, Ika
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 8 No. 8 Mei 2014
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

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Pneumonia adalah penyakit infeksi yang merupakan penyebab utama kematian pada balita di dunia. Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) tahun 2007 melaporkan bahwa kematian balita di Indonesia mencapai 15,5%. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi faktor determinan terjadinya pneumonia pada balita di Indonesia. Desain penelitian ini adalah potong lintang dengan menggunakan data Riskesdas 2013. Kriteria sampel adalah balita (0 ? 59 bulan) yang menjadi responden Riskesdas 2013. Variabel dependen adalah kejadian pneumonia balita, sedangkan variabel independennya adalah karakteristik individu, lingkungan fisik rumah, perilaku penggunaan bahan bakar, dan kebiasaan merokok. Penetapan kejadian pneumonia berdasarkan hasil wawancara, dengan batasan operasional diagnosis pneumonia oleh tenaga kesehatan dan/atau dengan gejala pneumonia dalam periode 12 bulan terakhir. Jumlah sampel yang memenuhi kriteria adalah 82.666 orang. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa faktor risiko yang paling berperan dalam kejadian pneumonia balita adalah jenis kelamin balita (OR = 1,10; 95% CI = 1,02 - 1,18), tipe tempat tinggal (OR = 1,15; 95% CI = 1,06 ? 1,25), pendidikan ibu (OR = 1,20; 95% CI = 1,11 ? 1,30), tingkat ekonomi keluarga/kuintil indeks kepemilikan (OR = 1,19; 95% CI = 1,10 ? 1,30), pemisahan dapur dari ruangan lain (OR = 1,19; 95% CI = 1,05 ? 1,34), keberadan/kebiasaan membuka jendela kamar (OR = 1,17; 95% CI = 1,04 ? 1,31), dan ventilasi kamar yang cukup (OR = 1,16; 95% CI = 1,04 ? 1,30). Disimpulkan bahwa faktor sosial, demografi, ekonomi dan kondisi lingkungan fisik rumah secara bersama-sama berperan terhadap kejadian pneumonia pada balita di Indonesia.Pneumonia is an infectious disease which is a major cause of mortality in children under five years of age in the world. National Basic Health Research 2007 reported that infant mortality in Indonesia has reached 15.5%. The objective of the study was to identify the determinant factors related to the incidence of pneumonia in children under five years of age in Indonesia. The research design was cross sectional, using National Basic Health Research 2013 data. Sample criteria were children under five years of age (0 ? 59 months). The dependent variable was the incidence of pneumonia among children under five years of age, while the independent variables were individual characteristics, physical environment of house, types of fuel used, and smoking habit. There were 82,666 samples that fulfilled the study criteria. The result showed that determinant factors contributing to the incidence of pneumonia in children were sex (OR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.02 ? 1.18), residence (urban/rural) (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1,06 ? 1,25), maternal education (OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.11 ? 1.30), household poverty index quintile (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.10 ? 1.30) , kitchen separation (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.05 ? 1.34), window availability in bedroom (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.04 ? 1.31), and bedroom ventilation (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.04 ? 1.30). This study concluded that social factors, demographic, economic levels and the physical environment of house simultaneously contributed to the incidence of pneumonia in children under five of age.?