Passive optical network (PON) technology promises ti facilitate the rollout of broadband services by cable television operators, incumbent telcos, data CLECs and wireless carriers. PONs will break the bandwidth bottleneck, leading to a local access network that is digital, broadband and interactive. In the short-term, the most promising application for PONs is as an optical feeder for telcos,cable TV companies and wireless providers. PONs complement emerging broadband access technologies such as xDSL (copper), HFC (coax) and LMDS (wireless), rather than competing against them, by allowing for shorter access. Drop and higher bandwidth. Because it provides a low cost, high bandwidth, fault-tolerant for carriers interested in delivering lucrative revenue generating broadband services, PON is the best solution for the next generation broadband local loop. And then, we want to explain about HFC. HFC is the most cost-effective, fleksibel distribution technology available today for handing broadband information requirements. Many major cable television operating companies in united states are ready using it. Likewise,there is strong demand for the technology in Europa, latin Amerika, and Southeast Asia. Operator of HCF network are well positioned to become the low-cost provider of consolidated video, data, and voice.
The aim of this research is to develop a program with a back-propagation artificial neural network algorithm to classify heart sound signals. The classification is done for normal heart sound and 24 heart murmurs. Using a stethoscope with 1 kHz bandwidth amplifier, normal heart sound from some human samples are detected. For completing pathology data, heart murmurs are downloaded from internet. The signals of heart sound were analyzed it’s power spectral, for feature extraction. The results show that using feature extraction with spectral method and back-propagation artificial neural network, we can differentiate the normal heart sound and heart murmurs. The input tolerance of the system is tested using noisy data. The percentage of success of 90 % is obtained with SNR of 10 dB for 125 frequency samples. The best architecture and network parameters result 125 input neurons, 2 hidden layers with 75 and 50 neurons on each layer, 25 output neurons, 0.6 learning rate and 0.7 momentum coefficient.
The research conducted to study the quality of image compression through discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Discrete Wavalet Transform is the compression involves with compressing image which, when decompressed, will be an exact replica of the original image. Two of the error metrics used to compare the various image compression techniques are the Mean Square Error (MSE) and the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). A lower value for MSE means lesser error, and as seen from the inverse relation between the MSE and PSNR, this translates to a high value of PNSR. A higher value of PSNR is good because it means that the ratio of signal to Noise is higher
Incompleteness limb function makes people not be able to do the activity itself such as communication via telephone. A number of buttons should be suppress when people make a telephone call. This can not be done by some people. An auxiliary apparatus for patients with communication paralysis is one of the solution because with this device the dissable can do a telephone call only with voice commands. It can help patients with paralysis if they left by the person who tends the child . Basically, this is a switch of sound consisting of pre amp, op amp, and sequence the control of the relay. The process of instrument this is with voice commands which remains in a range of frequencies audio and with the amplitude of minimal 6vpp then the voice will turn relay which connected to the his radio mobile. After a switch on, hence mobile would ask for tone or the name of who willin are calling , after mentioned hence automatically mobile will do a call that which those services was readily available on mobile called voice dial , not just do a call this device can also serves to lift incoming calls and can be inferred this device can be used to perform call and lift incoming calls only with voice commands
The need for being security is very important in human life. TheÂ globalization era has demanded people to create security in the work. Likewise with warehouse security system for office warehouses and houses security also evolved. With frequent crimes of theft and robbery warehouse, we need a security system that can be applied or used as a safety warehouses, buildings and homes. This is a priority that formed the title of this thesis, the application of Thermal Sensor Alarm Detection and Webcam Comes In Warehouse Through PC-Based Internet Connection. When the PIR sensor detects human motion sensor will produce a logic 1, then the output of the PIR sensor will be heading to the input port status, port status which will send data to the computer and to turn on the camera recorder.
Generally speaking, parking area in shopping centre uses portal at the entry and exit door. This control system applied the new technology but still using operator to open and close the portal in both doors entry and exit including paid the parking cost. In this paper, design of new system to parking area is built. The new control use PLD technology to arrange the operation of portal in parking area without operator. In this system, the parking customer for motorcycle just need to insert three coin of Rp 1000,00 to the box and the portal will open automatically. After the rider trough the portal, it will be closed by it self.
Buck converter is one of DC chopper which has the function of stabilizing the voltage to lower voltage where the output voltage is lower than the input voltage without having to remove power is relatively large. By using a buck converter is a high voltage can be reduced to lower as you wish without losing power is relatively large. The voltage output of the buck converter is able to charge the battery. The magnitude of the output voltage depends dutycyle switching generated by the microcontroller. This tool is also equipped with a flow sensor is used to detect the charging current into the battery. If the charging current is reduced, the buzzer will sound. The tool is based microcontrollers using BASCOM ATMEGA8535, which can generate a PWM with dutycyle specified. Dutycyle determined the size of the input voltage and the desired output.
Getaran akibat gempa bumi akan mengakibatkan adanya frekuensi gelombang seismik denganfrekuensi rendah (0Hz - 20Hz), untuk mendeteksi keberadaan frekuensi gelombang seismiktersebut dapat menggunakan sensor piezo elektrik. Piezo elektrik adalah sebuah sensor seismikyang mempunyai getaran gempa beramplitudo rendah dan sangat mudah terkontaminasi noisesehingga dibutuhkan filter untuk meredam sinyal noise tersebut. Moving Average (MA) filteradalah suatu metode yang sederhana dan berguna untuk menapis derau acak yang terdapat padaderau asli. MA filter bekerja dengan cara meratakan sejumlah titik tertentu dari isyarat masukanuntuk menghasilkan tiap titik dari isyarat luaran. Gelombang seismic (getaran buatan) padapenelitian ini adalah dengan memberikan amplitudo sensor piezo PVDF antara 3mm, 5mm, 7mm,9mm dan 12mm pada frekuensi 2 Hz (konstan). Sensor piezo mendeteksi kekuatan getaran buatandengan menggunakan Moving Average Filter yang menghasilkan nilai SNR (signal to noiseratio) lebih kecil dibandingkan tidak menggunakan MAF Nilai PGA (peak groundacceleration) dalam satuan grafitasi akan tinggi pada saat sinyal amplitude getaran yangdiberikan juga tinggi (PGA = 0,01G pada saat amplitude getaran 3mm dan 1,43G pada saatamplitude getaran 12 mm).
Microstrip antennas are very concerned shapes and sizes. Can be viewed in terms of simple materials, shapes, sizes and dimensions smaller antennae, the price of production is cheaper and able to provide a reasonably good performance, in addition to having many advantages, the microstrip antenna also has its drawbacks one of which is a narrow bandwidth. In this research will be designed a microstrip antenna bowtie which works at a frequency of 5.2 GHz which has a size of 68mm x 33mm groundplane. For the length and width of 33mm x 13mm patch. This antenna is designed on a printed cicuit board (PCB) FR4 epoxy with a dielectric constant of 4.7 and has a thickness of 1,6mm. This bowtie microstrip antenna design using IE3D software. This antenna has been simulated using IE3D software showed its resonance frequency is 5.270 GHz with a return loss -23 595 dB bandwidth of 230 MHz, VSWR 1,142, unidirectional radiation pattern and impedance 43,919Ω. The results of which have been successfully fabricated antenna with a resonant frequency of 5.21 GHz with a return loss -16.813 dB bandwidth of 79 MHz, VSWR 1.368, unidirectional radiation pattern, impedance 43,546Ω and HPBW 105 °.
Nowadays, to pass through the toll road, mostly riders often complain that the queue is quite long and quite long. Implementing Tool for Toll Payment Systems Using a Microcontroller-based Bar Code Reader is designed to facilitate transaction processing and make the time spent in the process of using the toll road more efficient. This paper describes the process of making automatic vehicle detection devices so that drivers do not need to stop to process the toll road usage. This tool is designed using a barcode reader as input data, Ethernet shield as an internet network (local), Arduino Uno as a process controller in sending data from barcode reader into SPT application, servo motor / as a driver to automatically open the gate and Android as notification/notification for toll road users. From the results of testing all input and output functions can be performed. In testing using a toy car unit, the reading distance of the barcode with the barcode reader is ± 7cm. In this case, the system can run well and has a pretty good performance because the barcode reader can read a maximum of ± 15cm.