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Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Giant Gourami Vasa-Like cDNA ALIMUDDIN, .; ANDRIYANI, IRMA; JUNIOR, MUHAMMAD ZAIRIN; ARFAH, HARTON; OCTAVERA, ANNA; CARMAN, ODANG; YOSHIZAKI, GORO
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 18, No 3 (2011): September 2011
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (171.232 KB) | DOI: 10.4308/hjb.18.3.135

Abstract

Molecular marker is useful in the development of testicular cells transplantation for detecting donor-derived germ cells in the recipient gonad. In this study, a giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy) vasa-like gene (GgVLG) was cloned and characterized for use as a molecular marker for germ cells in this species. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that GgVLG comprises 2,340 bps with an open reading frame of 1,962 bps encoding 653 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contained 17 arginine-glycine or arginine-glycine-glycine motifs and eight conserved motifs belonging to the DEAD-box protein family. The GgVLG sequence showed high similarity to Drosophila vasa, common carp vasa homolog and tilapia vasa homolog for 66.2, 85.9, and 90.7%, respectively. In adult tissues, the GgVLG transcripts were specifically detected in ovary and testis. In situ hybridization analysis showed that GgVLG mRNA was detected in oocytes of the ovary and spermatogonia of the testis. There was no signal detected in the spermatocytes, spermatids and other gonadal somatic cells. Thus, consensus sequences, specific localization of GgVLG mRNA in the germ cells, amino acid sequence similarity and phylogenic analysis all suggest that GgVLG is the giant gourami vasa-like gene. Further, GgVLG can be used as a molecular marker for giant gourami germ cells.
Fermentation Characteristics of Rice Crop Residue-Based Silage Treated by Epiphytic and Commercial LAB Santoso, B; Hariadi, B Tj; alimuddin, .; Seseray, D Y
MEDIA PETERNAKAN - Journal of Animal Science and Technology Vol 35, No 1 (2012): Media Peternakan
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (474.864 KB) | DOI: 10.5398/

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of addition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant from king grass and a commercial inoculant of L. plantarum on fermentation characteristics and nutrient digestibility of rice crop residue-based silage. In experiment 1, mixture of rice crop residue (RC), soybean curd residue (SC) and cassava waste (CW) in a 80 : 10 : 10 (on dry matter basis) ratio was used as silage material. Four treatments silage were (A) RC + SC + CW as a control; (B) RC + SC + CW + LAB inoculant from king grass (2%, v/w) ; (C) RC + SC + CW + LAB inoculant from king grass (3%, v/w); (D) RC + SC + CW + L. plantarum inoculant (2%, v/w). In experiment 2, six Kacang goats were used in a 6 × 3 Youden square experiment and fed elephant grass, rice straw, and rice crop residue-based silage. The results showed that crude protein (CP) content in silages B, C, and D was slightly higher than silage A. Lactic acid concentration was significantly higher (P
Temperature Control System in Closed House for Broilers Based on ANFIS Alimuddin, .; Boro Seminar, Kudang; Made Subrata, I Dewa; Nomura, Nakao; Sumiati, .
TELKOMNIKA Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering Vol 10, No 1: March 2012
Publisher : Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (0.512 KB) | DOI: 10.11591/telkomnika.v10i1.656

Abstract

Indonesia is a tropical country with sufficiently high ambient temperatures on broiler reaches an average daily temperature of 360C (maximum) and 320 C (minimum) data adjusted BMG Bogor. Industry poultry broiler house seeks to maintain a temperature of about 28-300C. Optimal conditions in a closed houseshould be controlled to allow optimal growth of broilers. Therefore, the required control system that is able to maintain optimum environmental conditions inside the house closed. This study aims to design an ANFIS control system for controlling the temperature inside a broiler house (closed house) for broiler. Data is collected at three different periods of the starter period (5 days): 29.50C-30.900C, a period of 25 days is a grower-29.0C 34.20C, and the finisher of 30 days is obtained 33.20C.Data 290C-processed using the approach ANFIS modeling for simulation of temperature control on closed house for broiler. Set point control simulation using the same temperature 290C for starter period (5 days), grower (25 days) and finisher (30 days). The simulation results show the output in a closed house temperature fluctuates around set point the 290C-340C.
Rapid method for identification of transgenic fish zygosity Alimuddin, .; Yoshizaki, G.; Carman, O.
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 6, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Abstract

Identification of zygosity in transgenik fish is normally achieved by PCR analysis with genomic DNA template extracted from the tissue of progenies which are derived by mating the transgenic fish and wild-type counterpart.  This method needs relatively large amounts of fish material and is time- and labor-intensive. New approaches addressing this problem could be of great help for fish biotechnologists.  In this experiment, we applied a quantitative real-time PCR (qr-PCR) method to analyze zygosity in a stable line of transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) carrying masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou D6-desaturase-like gene. The qr-PCR was performed using iQ SYBR Green Supermix in the iCycler iQ Real-time PCR Detection System (Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA).  Data were analyzed using the comparative cycle threshold method.  The results demonstrated a clear-cut identification of all transgenic fish (n=20) classified as a homozygous or heterozygous.  Mating of those fish with wild-type had revealed transgene transmission to the offspring following expected Mendelian laws. Thus, we found that the qTR-PCR to be effective for a rapid and precise determination of zygosity in transgenic fish. This technique could be useful in the establishment of breeding programs for mass transgenic fish production and in experiments in which zygosity effect could have a functional impact. Keywords: quantitative real-time PCR; zygosity; transgenic fish; mass production   ABSTRAK Identifikasi sigositas ikan transgenik biasanya dilakukan menggunakan analisa PCR dengan cetakan DNA genomik yang diekstraksi dari jaringan ikan hasil persilangan antara ikan transgenik dan ikan normal.   Metode ini memerlukan ikan dalam jumlah yang banyak, dan juga waktu serta tenaga.  Pendekatan baru untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut akan memberikan manfaat besar kepada peneliti bioteknologi perikanan.  Pada penelitian ini, kami menggunakan metode PCR real-time kuantitatif (krt-PCR) untuk menganalisa sigositas pada satu strain ikan zebra (Danio rerio) transgenik yang membawa gen D6-desaturase-like dari ikan salmon masu, Oncorhynchus masou.  krt-PCR dilakukan menggunakan iQ SYBR Green Supermix pada mesin iCycler iQ Real-time PCR Detection system (Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA).  Data dianalisis menggunakan metode pembandingan nilai cycle threshold.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semua ikan transgenik (n=20) yang diidentifikasi dapat diklasifikasikan secara jelas sebagai ikan homosigot atau heterosigot.  Persilangan antara ikan transgenik tersebut dengan ikan normal menunjukkan transmisi transgen ke keturunannya mengikuti hukum segregasi Mendel.  Dengan demikian, metode krt-PCR adalah efektif untuk penentuan sigositas secara cepat dan tepat pada ikan transgenik.  Teknik ini dapat berguna dalam program produksi ikan transgenik secara massal dan dalam percobaan dimana faktor sigositas memberikan pengaruh nyata. Kata kunci: kuantitatif real-time PCR; sigositas, ikan transgenik; produksi massal
Oral Administration of 17α-Methyltestosterone Increased Male Percentage of Freshwater Crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus Carman, O.; Jamal, M.Y.; Alimuddin, .
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 7, No 1 (2008): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Abstract

Cherax quadricarinatus is one of freshwater crayfish species that has enormous potential for expanding its farming in future.  Application of monosex male culture using steroid sex hormone administration method during the period of sex differentiation or early developmental stage might be increased efficiency in farming.  This study was aimed to increase male of C. quadricarinatus by oral administration of diet containing 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) towards production efficiency.  Two-week-old of Cherax quadricarinatus were fed ad libitum on diets containing various dose of MT, i.e., 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg diet or diet containing no MT as control, 3 times daily for 30 days.  After MT-treatment, crayfish were fed frozen Chironomus sp.  and shrimp diet.  Sex ratio, survival and growth rate (by length and weight) were observed at the end of experiment.  Sex was determined by visual observation; the male sex organ is located at the fifth walking leg while the female is at the third.  Data was analyzed by F and BNT tests.  The results of study show that administration of MT was significantly changed the male ratio of crayfish.  Treatment dose of 50 mg/kg diet was effective to increase male sex percentage from 24.93% (control) to be 59.96%. Growth was also significantly being improved, while survival rate was insignificant.  Thus, oral administration of MT is an effective way to increase male sex percentage of crayfish, although other methods and the time of hormone administration are needed to be verified to obtain maximal results. Keywords: monosex, 17α-methyltestosterone, sex reversal, Cherax quadricarinatus   ABSTRAK Salah satu jenis lobster air tawar yang berpotensi tinggi untuk dikembangkan usaha budidayanya adalah Cherax quadricarinatus. Aplikasi teknik budidaya tunggal kelamin (monoseks) dengan metode pemberian hormon seks steroid yang diberikan pada saat diferensiasi kelamin atau masa perkembangan awal ikan diduga dapat meningkatkan efisiensi usaha.  Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk meningkatkan persentase C. quadricarinatus jantan menggunakan metode seks reversal melalui pemberian pakan yang mengandung 17α-metiltestosteron (MT) sebagai upaya efisiensi produksi.  C. quadricarinatus umur 2 minggu diberi pakan yang mengandung MT dengan dosis 25, 50, 75, 100 dan 150 mg/kg pakan atau tanpa hormon secara ad libitum, 3 kali sehari selama 30 hari.  Setelah perlakuan lobster uji diberi pakan alami Chironomus sp. beku dan pakan udang. Parameter yang diamati meliputi nisbah kelamin, kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhannya (panjang dan berat mutlak), yang dilakukan pada akhir penelitian. Identifikasi jenis kelamin dilakukan secara visual; alat kelamin lobster jantan terdapat pada bagian pangkal kaki jalan kelima, yang betina terletak pada bagian dasar kaki jalan ketiga.  Data dianalisis menggunakan uji F dan BNT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian hormon MT berpengaruh nyata terhadap persentase kelamin jantan lobster. Perlakuan dengan dosis 50 mg/kg pakan efektif untuk meningkatkan persentase jantan C. quadricarinatus dari 24,93% (kontrol) menjadi 59,96%.  Pertumbuhan panjang dan berat mutlak  juga menunjukkan pengaruh yang berbeda nyata, sementara kelangsungan hidup tidak berbeda.  Dengan demikian pemberian hormon MT melalui pakan cukup efektif untuk meningkatkan persentase lobster jantan yang dihasilkan, meskipun penggunaan metode lain dan waktu pemberian hormon MT masih perlu diteliti untuk memperoleh hasil maksimal.  Kata kunci: tunggal kelamin, 17α-metiltestosteron, seks reversal, Cherax quadricarinatus
Characterization of β-Actin Promoter from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Alimuddin, .; Octavera, A.; Arifin, O.Z.; Sumantadinata, K.
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 7, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Abstract

Promoter is one of the factors determining the successful of transgenesis.  In this study we isolated and characterized β-actin promoter from Nile tilapia (tiBP) towards production of autotransgenic tilapia.  β-actin promoter has high activity in muscle.  Sequence of tiBP promoter was isolated by using PCR method. Sequencing was performed using ABI PRISM 3100 machine. Analysis of sequences was conducted using GENETYX version 7 and TFBind softwares. DNA fragment of PCR amplification product digested from the vector cloning was then ligated with pEGFP-N1 to generate ptiBP-EGFP construct. The construct was microinjected into one-cell stage of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to test the tiBP promoter activity. EGFP gene expression was observed by fluorescence microscope.  The result of sequence analysis showed that the length of DNA fragment obtained is about 1.5 kb and containing the evolutionary conserved sequences of transcription factor for β-actin promoter including CCAAT, CArG and TATA boxes.  Furthermore, tiBP sequence in ptiBP-EGFP construct could regulated GFP expression in muscle of zebrafish embryos injected with the construct. The results suggested that PCR amplification product is the regulator sequence of tilapia β-actin gene. Autotransgenic tilapia can be then produced by changing GFP gene fragment of ptiBP-EGFP construct with genes from tilapia encoding important traits in aquaculture. Keywords:  cloning, β-actin promoter, autotransgenic, EGFP, Oreochromis niloticus, Danio rerio   ABSTRAK Promoter merupakan salah satu faktor penentu keberhasilan transgenesis.  Pada penelitian ini kami mengisolasi dan mengkarakterisasi promoter β-actin dari ikan nila (tiBP) dalam rangka pembuatan ikan nila autotransgenik. Promoter β-actin memiliki aktivitas tinggi pada jaringan otot. Sekuens promoter tiBP diisolasi menggunakan metode PCR.  Sekuensing dilakukan menggunakan mesin ABI PRISM 3100. Analisa sekuens menggunakan software GENETYX versi 7 dan TFBind.  Fragment DNA hasil amplifikasi PCR yang didigesti dari vektor kloning selanjutnya diligasi dengan pEGFP-N1 untuk membuat konstruksi ptiBP-EGFP. Konstruksi ptiBP-EGFP dimikroinjeksi ke embrio ikan zebra (Danio rerio) fase 1 sel untuk menguji aktivitas promoter tiBP. Ekspresi gen EGFP diamati menggunakan mikroskop fluoresens. Analisa sekuens menunjukkan bahwa panjang fragmen DNA hasil amplifikasi PCR sekitar 1,5 kb dan memiliki faktor transkripsi yang konserf untuk promoter β-actin, yaitu CCAAT, boks CArG dan TATA.  Selanjutnya, sekuens tiBP dalam konstruksi ptiBP-EGFP mampu mengendalikan ekspresi gen EGFP pada jaringan otot embrio ikan zebra yang dimikroinjeksi dengan konstruksi tersebut.  Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa fragmen DNA hasil amplifikasi PCR tersebut merupakan sekuens promoter β-actin ikan nila. Pembuatan ikan nila autotransgenik selanjutnya dapat dilakukan dengan mengganti gen EGFP pada pktBA-EGFP dengan gen-gen asal ikan nila yang mengkodekan karakter penting dalam budidaya ikan. Kata kunci:  kloning, promoter β-actin, autotransgenik, EGFP, Oreochromis niloticus, Danio rerio
Hematology of common carp following DNA vaccination and koi herpesvirus challenge test Nuryati, Sri; Maswan, N.A.; Alimuddin, .; Sukenda, .; Sumantadinata, K.; Pasaribu, F.H.; Soejoedono, R.D.; Santika, A.
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 9, No 1 (2010): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Abstract

The study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of DNA vaccine doses on hematological aspect which represent immune response and its influence on common carp survival rate. DNA vaccines encoding the viral glycoprotein of  koi herpesvirus (KHV) have been proved to highly protect the fish under laboratory condition.  A dose of 12.5 µg/100 µl vaccine had resulted in a survival rate of 96.67 % during 30 days after challenge test with a lethal dose of KHV. Fish vaccinated using lower doses, i.e. 2.5 and 7.5 µg/100µl showed 100% mortality after 15 and 19 days challenge test respectively, whereas non vaccinated fish as a control showed 100% mortality after 17 days challenge test.  Total leucocytes of the vaccinated fish were higher than control until 42 days post vaccination, but declined afterward.  Phagocytic index of the vaccinated fish using 12.5 µg/100 µl was declined after 49 days post vaccination or 7 days post challenge test. Key words: DNA vaccine, Koi herpesvirus (KHV), leucocyte, phagocytic index, Cyprinus carpio   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh vaksinasi menggunakan vaksin DNA dengan dosis berbeda terhadap gambaran darah ikan sebagai respresentasi tanggap kebal ikan mas serta pengaruhnya terhadap tingkat kelangsungan hidup ikan mas. Vaksin DNA penyandi glikoprotein koi herpesvirus (KHV) dapat memberikan proteksi yang tinggi pada percobaan skala laboratorium.  Vaksinasi dengan dosis 12,5 µg/100µl dapat mempertahankan kelangsungan hidup sebesar 96,67% selama satu bulan setelah uji tantang dengan virus KHV menggunakan dosis letal.  Ikan yang divaksin dengan dosis yang lebih rendah yaitu 2,5 dan 7,5 µg/100µl mengalami kematian total berturut-turut setelah 15 dan  19 hari uji tantang, sedangkan ikan kontrol yang tidak divaksin mengalami kematian total setelah 17 hari uji tantang.  Jumlah leukosit total ikan yang divaksinasi lebih tinggi dibanding dengan kontrol sampai hari ke-42, setelah itu mengalami penurunan.  Indeks fagositosis ikan yang divaksin dengan dosis 12,5 µg/100µl mengalami penurunan setelah hari ke-49 atau 7 hari setelah uji tantang. Kata kunci: Vaksin DNA, Koi herpesvirus (KHV), leukosit, indeks fagositosis, Cyprinus carpio
Effectiveness of hCMV, mEF1a and mAct promoters on driving of foreign gene expression in transgenic zebrafish Alimuddin, .; Yoshizaki, G.; Carman, O.; Takeuchi, T.
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 6, No 1 (2007): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Abstract

Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have long been recognized for its beneficial effect for human health and development.   The D6 fatty acid desaturase is generally considered to be the rate-limiting factor in HUFA biosynthesis.  Here, as the first step of study, we conducted experiment to select an appropriate construct that allows higher expression levels of masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) D6-desaturase gene in zebrafish (Danio rerio) in order to increase its activity for synthesizing EPA/DHA.  Salmon D6-desaturase cDNA (sD6) was separately ligated with human cytomegalovirus (hCMV), medaka elongation factor 1a (mEF1a) and medaka b-actin (mAct) promoters.  The resulted construct was designated as hCMV-sD6, mEF1a-sD6 and mAct-sD6, respectively.  Each of the constructs in circular DNA form was microinjected into 1-cell stage embryos at a concentration of 30mg/ml. Transgenic individuals were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and their expression levels were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR.  The first (F1) and second (F2) generation was produced by crossing the transgenic founder F0 and F1, respectively, with wild-type fish.  The results showed that the highest transient gene expression level was obtained from the mAct-D6 construct, followed respectively by EF1a-D6 and hCMV-D6 construct. The transmission rate of transgene into F1 generation was 4.2%-44.1%, and into F2 was followed the Mendellian segregation pattern.   Expression of transgene in F2 generation was varied between strains regarding as the mosaics of F0 fish.  Now, a transgenic system to study the modification of fatty acid biosynthesis pathways in fish was established.  Further investigations are to produce fish containing higher levels of EPA and DHA. Keywords: desaturase, nutraceutical fatty acid, transgenic, zebrafish, masu salmon   Abstrak Promoter merupakan regulator yang menentukan tempat, waktu dan tingkat ekspresi gen.  Pada penelitian ini, kami melakukan seleksi kontruksi plasmid yang tepat yang menghasilkan tingkat ekspresi yang tinggi dari gen D6-desaturase-like ikan masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) yang ditransfer ke ikan zebra (Danio rerio) untuk meningkatkan kemampuannya dalam mensintesa EPA/DHA.  cDNA D6-desaturase-like (OmD6FAD) dari ikan salmon masu diligasi secara terpisah dengan promoter dari cytomegalovirus manusia (hCMV), elongation factor 1a (mEF1a) dan b-actin (mbAct) dari ikan medaka, untuk membuat konstruksi plasmid yang berturut-turut disebut sebagai hCMV-OmD6FAD, mEF1a- OmD6FAD dan mbAct-OmD6FAD. Konstruksi tersebut dengan konsentrasi 30mg/ml disuntikkan ke embrio pada saat fase satu sel. Individu transgenik diidentifikasi menggunakan PCR dan tingkat ekspresi transgen dianalisa dengan RT-PCR.   Hasil menunjukkan bahwa tingkat ekspresi sementara yang tertinggi dari gen asing adalah diperoleh dari konstruksi mbAct-OmD6FAD, diikuti selanjutnya oleh EF1a-OmD6FAD dan hCMV- OmD6FAD. Transgen telah ditransmisikan ke ikan generasi F2 dengan mengikuti pola segregasi Mendel. Tingkat ekspresi transgen yang tinggi pada jaringan ikan F2 yang diperiksa telah diperoleh.  Dengan demikian, sebuah sistem transgenik untuk memodifikasi biosistesa asam lemak pada ikan telah dikembangkan.  Kata kunci: promoter, desaturase asam lemak, transgenik, ikan zebra, ikan salmon masu
The Phenotype of Diploid and Triploid F1 of Female Kohaku and Sanke Koi with Males White and Red Koi Alimuddin, .; Sumantadinata, K.; Hadiroseyani, Yani
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 1, No 3 (2002): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Abstract

This study was done to discover the effect of addition of chromosome number on phenotype F1 hybrid of females kohaku (white-red) and sanke (white-red-black) koi with males white and red koi. The white and red males koi were the F1 of gynogenesis. Spawning of koi was done by hormonal (ovaprim 0,5 ml/kg body weight) and fertilization was done artificially. Triploidization was done by heat shock at 40°C during 1,0-1,5 minutes after 2-3 minute from egg fertilization. Colour analysis was done on 4 months old fish. Triplodization was succeeding on 86,67%.  Addition of chromosome number on koi due to triploidization was suppressed the percentage of koi with combination color (kohaku, shiro-bekko, hi-utsuri, and sanke). It was seen on hybridization of sanke vs white koi as much as 5,55%, while on sanke vs red koi reached 45,02%. Hybridization of kohaku vs white koi as well as kohaku vs red koi produced higher percentages of kohaku compared to kohaku vs kohaku. Key words: Phenotype, diploid, triploid, koi fish, hybrid, chromosome   Abstrak Studi ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan jumlah set kromosom terhadap fenotipe keturunan persilangan ikan koi kohaku (putih-merah) dan sanke (putih-merah-hitam) betina dengan jantan putih dan merah. Ikan koi jantan putih dan merah merupakan hasil ginogenesis generasi pertama. Pemijahan ikan koi dilakukan dengan rangsangan hormonal ovaprim 0,5 ml/kg induk dengan sistim pembuahan buatan. Triploidisasi dilakukan dengan memberikan kejutan panas 400C selama 1,0-1,5 menit pada saat 2,0-3,0 menit setelah pembuahan telur. Analisis warna dilakukan setelah ikan berumur 4 bulan. Tingkat keberhasilan triploidisasi yang diperoleh cukup tinggi, yaitu sebesar 86,67%. Penambahan jumlah set kromosom ikan koi akibat triploidisasi menurunkan persentase ikan koi yang berwarna kombinasi (putih-merah, putih-hitam, merah-hitam dan putih-merah-hitam) sebesar 5,55% untuk persilangan sanke vs putih, dan 45,02% untuk persilangan sanke vs merah. Tingginya penurunan koi warna kombinasi diduga disebabkan adanya dominansi warna tertentu, misalnya dominansi warna hitam yang persentasenya meningkat sebesar 31,7% pada persilangan sanke vs merah. Pada persilangan kohaku dengan koi putih dan dengan koi merah, persentase kohaku lebih besar daripada perkawinan normal kohaku yang diperoleh pada tahap pertama. Persentase kohaku dari perkawinan normal kohaku hanya sebesar 18,6%, sedangkan kohaku vs putih atau dengan merah adalah sekitar 27% untuk triploidisasi dan 33% untuk persilangan  normal. Tingkat kelangsungan hidup ikan normal lebih besar daripada ikan hasil triploidisasi, kecuali persilangan sanke vs putih. Kata kunci : Fenotipe, diploid, triploid, ikan koi, hibrid dan kromosom
Aplication of Gene Transfer in Aquaculture Alimuddin, .; Yoshizaki, G.; Carman, O.; Sumantadinata, K.
Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 2, No 1 (2003): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

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Abstract

Recently, global food security has become a hot issue by the public in national as well as out of the country. Aquacultural output will need to be increased several fold in order to meet the rising demands for fish in coming years as the increasing of mankind population. The intensity and capacity of production is expected to increase using biotechnology approach. One of the advances biotechnologies that expected to be a powerful approach for aquaculture development is transgenic technique. This technique has been applied to several commercially valuable species. This review describes various techniques of gene transfer, persistence and expression of transferred gene, application and future aspect of gene transfer research in aquaculture. Key words: Gene transfer, gene expression, biotechnology,  aquaculture   ABSTRAK Saat ini, keamanan pangan telah menjadi isu hangat di masyarakat baik di dalam maupun di luar negeri. Produksi akuakultur diharapkan dapat ditingkatkan beberapa kali lipat untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pangan berupa ikan dimasa-masa mendatang akibat peningkatan populasi manusia. Intensitas dan kapasitas produksi diharapkan meningkat dengan menggunakan pendekatan bioteknologi. Salah satu teknik modern yang diduga akan menjadi sarana yang berguna dalam pengembangan akuakultur adalah teknologi transfer gen. Teknik ini telah diaplikasikan pada spesies-spesies yang memiliki nilai ekonomis. Ulasan ini menggambarkan variasi metode transfer gen, persistensi dan ekspressi dari gen yang ditransfer, aplikasi dan prospeknya ke depan dari penelitian transfer gen dalam akuakultur. Kata kunci : transfer gen, ekspressi gen, bioteknologi, akuakultur