Kgs Ahmadi
Program Studi Teknologi Industri Pertanian – Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Jl. Telaga Warna – Tlogomas - Malang

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Optimization of Rapid Solidification to Enrich Fish Oil from by-Product of Lemuru Canning Processing with w-3 batty Acids by Response Surface Method

Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan Vol 16, No 3 (2005): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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Abstract

Oil from by-product of lemuru canning processing was a source of w-3 fatty acid but its characteristics had out been known. The content of w-3 fatty acids of this oil had to be increased. Various methods are available to enhance w-3 fatty acids concentration Rapid solidification was one of limited methods to enrich fish oil by w-3 fatty acids containing triglycerides. This research was conducted to optimize rapid solidification condition to enrich fish oil from by product of lemuru canning processing with w-3 fatty acids and characterize the enriched oil compared by International Association of Fish Meal and Oil Manufacturers standard. In optimization process, the content of EPA+OHA and yield .was maximized. A two-factors central composite design in Response Surface Method was used to study the effect of solvent-to-oil ratio (X1) and extraction time (X2). The response (Y) is the multiplication of EPA+DHA content by yield. The results showed that under optimum conditions the maximum response were obtained at a solvent-to-oil ratio of 3,95:1(vw) and extraction time of 24,93 hours. The w-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil had EPA+DHA content of 33,33% and yield of 9.40% (w/w). The produced w-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil had good quality based on food grade fish oil standard, unless Fe and Cu content. Chelation could reduce these oxidizing metals. Key words : w-3 fatty acids, rapid solidification, response surface method, central composite design.

Characteristics of Microcapsule of ?-3 Fatty Acids Enriched Oil from Lemuru Meal Processing

Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan Vol 19, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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Abstract

Omega-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil from lemuru fishmeal processing met the quality standard of food grade fish oil, but it was susceptible to oxidation. Microencapsulation by spray drying was one method that could protect this oil against oxidation and the microcapsule could be applied more widely and easier to handle. The important factor that affected microencapsulation process by spray drying method was encapsulant to core ratio. The objective of research was to elucidate the effect of encapsulant to core ratio (2:1; 3:1; 4:1; 5:1; and 6:1 (w/w)) on characteristics of ?-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil microcapsule. The increase of microencapsulation efficiency and the decrease of surface oil proportion were related to better emulsion stability prior to spray drying and film forming ability around oil globule as the sodium caseinate proportion increased. Emulsification and heating during spray drying could induce hydrolysis of triglycerides in fish oil. Therefore, the quantity of free fatty acids relatively unchanged although the proportion of encapsulated oil decreased. The decrease of oxidation degree is caused by better protective effect of sodium caseinate during emulsification and spray drying due to better film forming ability as proportion of encapsulant increased. However, it was followed by the decrease of ?-3 fatty acids content that related to decreasing proportion of fish oil. This phenomenon was supported by unchanging ?-3 fatty acids retention that showed protective effect of sodium caseinate on oxidation during microencapsulation. Different encapsulant to core ratio did not change yield of microcapsule. Different proportion of surface oil did not affect microcapsule recovery.Key words : fish oil from by product of lemuru meal processing, ?-3 fatty acids enriched oil, microencapsulation, spray drying, encapsulant to core ratio

KRISTALISASI PELARUT SUHU RENDAH PADA PEMBUATAN FRAKSI KAYA VITAMIN E MENGANDUNG TOKOTRIENOL DARI DISTILAT ASAM LEMAK MINYAK SAWIT [Low Temperature Solvent Crystallizationin Tocotrienol Containing Vitamin E Rich Fraction Preparation from Palm Fatty Acid

Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan Vol 22, No 2 (2011): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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Abstract

KRISTALISASI PELARUT SUHU RENDAH PADA PEMBUATAN FRAKSI KAYA VITAMIN E MENGANDUNG TOKOTRIENOL DARI DISTILAT ASAM LEMAK MINYAK SAWIT [Low Temperature Solvent Crystallizationin Tocotrienol Containing Vitamin E Rich Fraction Preparation from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate] Kgs Ahmadi1)*, dan Teti Estiasih2) 1) Program Studi Teknologi Industri Pertanian – Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Jl. Telaga Warna – Tlogomas - Malang 2) Program Studi Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan – Universitas Brawijaya Jl. Veteran – Malang   Diterima 05 November 2010 / Disetujui 10 Oktober 2011 ABSTRACT   Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) is a by-product of physical refining of CPO (Crude Palm Oil) in deodorization process. PFAD is a potential source of natural vitamin E, that besides tocopherol, also contains tocotrienol. Both have functions as antioxidant and vitamin. This research studied a method for obtaining vitamin E rich fraction that contained tocotrienol by low temperature hexane solvent crystallization. The elucidation factors were ratio of solvent to unsaponifiable fraction of PFAD(5:1, 6:1, and 7:1) and crystallization temperature (-20, -10, and 0°C). The experiment was conducted in factorial completely randomized design. The research showed that PFAD contains high tocotrienol. Low temperature solvent crystallization of unsaponifiable fraction gave 33.88% increase ofvitamin E concentration compared to control. Temperature and ratio of solvent to unsaponifiable fraction affected enrichment of vitamin E in PFAD. Later, saponification increased vitamin E content in unsaponifiable fraction of PFAD. Enrichment of tocopherol was higher than that of tocotrienol, supposed as a result of improper separation process in crystallization stage. Modulation of Vitamin E concentration during saponification of PFAD increased antioxidant activity compared to unsaponifiable fraction. The best result was achieved at ratio of solvent to unsaponifiable fraction of 6:1 and crystallization temperature of -10°C.   Key words: low temperature, solvent crystallization, vitamin E, tocotrienol, palm fatty acid distillate  

Performance of Activated Natural Zeolite on Purification of Oil from Tempeh Chips Frying

Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 10, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Used frying oil is the oil that used repeatedly.  This oil has low quality physically and chemically.  This research was objected to purify used frying oil from tempeh chips processing therefore it is suitable for consumption.  The elucidated factors were HCl normality and zeolite activation temperature.  This research used completely randomized design with two factors that arranged factorially.  The first factor was HCl normality in zeolite soaking: without soaking (HCl 0 N), and soaking with HCl 2 N, 4 N, and 6 N.  The second factor was ziolite activation temperature: 3000C, 4000C, 5000C, dan 6000C.The result showed that HCl normality and zeolite activation temperature were significantly affected the performance of zeolite.  The color value, free fatty acid content, and anisidin value decreased as the HCl normality and activation temperature increased.  It was supposed that the increasing HCl normality and activation temperature caused the ratio of Si/Al increased.  It affected the capability of zeolite for adsorption.  Meanwhile, the peroxide value increased as the HCl normality increased due to increasing polarity that caused by increasing Si/Al ratio.  The best characteristic of purified used frying oil was obtained from HCl 6 N and activation temperature of 6000C with the characteristic as followed: color value that indicated by absorbance at 500 nm of 0.491, free fatty acid content of 0.5%, peroxide value of 0.094 meq/kg, and anisidine value of 43.92.Keywords: used frying oil, natural zeolite, activation

Chemical Activation of Natural Zeolite for Purification of Fish Oil from By- Product of Fishmeal Processing

Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 8, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Omega-3 fatty acid has health benefits.  Indonesia has some species of fish that contain this kind of fatty acid such as lemuru.  However its utilization as -3 fatty acid source is still limited.  Fish oil from lemuru meal processing has poor quality because of its color and peroxide value, besides its free fatty acid content. Therefore purification process should be employed to improve its quality.This research was conducted to elucidate the performance of natural zeolite in purification of fish oil from lemuru meal processing. Acitivation of natural zeolite was employed to increase its adsorption capacity.  One  technique to activate natrural zeolite was chemical activation by strong acid (HF, H2SO4, dan HCl). Concentration level of activated zeolite in purification was also defined. The best result was natural zeolite activated by HCl and concentration level of 15%.  The characteristics of purified lemuru oil were as followed: absorbance at 430 nm of 0,24, free fatty acid content 4,12, ω-3 fatty acid content of 20,34%, and peroxide value of 93,6 meq/kg.Keywords: natural zeolite, purification, lemuru meal processing, fish oil

KRISTALISASI PELARUT SUHU RENDAH PADA PEMBUATAN FRAKSI KAYA VITAMIN E MENGANDUNG TOKOTRIENOL DARI DISTILAT ASAM LEMAK MINYAK SAWIT [Low Temperature Solvent Crystallizationin Tocotrienol Containing Vitamin E Rich Fraction Preparation from Palm Fatty Acid D

Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan Vol 22, No 2 (2011): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1293.366 KB)

Abstract

Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) is a by-product of physical refining of CPO (Crude Palm Oil) in deodorization process. PFAD is a potential source of natural vitamin E, that besides tocopherol, also contains tocotrienol. Both have functions as antioxidant and vitamin. This research studied a method for obtaining vitamin E rich fraction that contained tocotrienol by low temperature hexane solvent crystallization. The elucidation factors were ratio of solvent to unsaponifiable fraction of PFAD(5:1, 6:1, and 7:1) and crystallization temperature (-20, -10, and 0°C). The experiment was conducted in factorial completely randomized design. The research showed that PFAD contains high tocotrienol. Low temperature solvent crystallization of unsaponifiable fraction gave 33.88% increase ofvitamin E concentration compared to control. Temperature and ratio of solvent to unsaponifiable fraction affected enrichment of vitamin E in PFAD. Later, saponification increased vitamin E content in unsaponifiable fraction of PFAD. Enrichment of tocopherol was higher than that of tocotrienol, supposed as a result of improper separation process in crystallization stage. Modulation of Vitamin E concentration during saponification of PFAD increased antioxidant activity compared to unsaponifiable fraction. The best result was achieved at ratio of solvent to unsaponifiable fraction of 6:1 and crystallization temperature of -10°C.

PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH AIR KELAPA DAN ASAM SITRAT UNTUK MEMPERPANJANG KESEGARAN BUNGA POTONG SEDAP MALAM (Polianthes tuberose)

Fakultas Pertanian Vol 3, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi

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Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan konsentrasi terbaik aor kelapa dan asam sitrat dalam upaya untuk memperpanjang kesegaran bunga potong sedap malam. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Laboratorium Rekayasa Proses Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Malang. Metode penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Langkap (RAL) dua faktor dengan dua ulangan. Faktor yang pertama adalah konsentrasi air kelapa (0%, 1%, 2%, 3% dan 4%) dan faktor yang kedua konsentrasi asam sitrat (0 ppm, 100 ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm dan 400 ppm). Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa perlakuan terbaik terdapat pada konsentrasi air kelapa 3% dan asam sitrat 300ppm dengan lama kesegaran bunga 9 hari, presentase bunga mekar 6.05%

PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH ARANG HASIL SAMPING PEMBUATAN ASAP CAIR DARI CANGKANG KELAPA SAWIT SEBAGAI BRIKET ARANG UTILIZATION OF WASTE CHARCOAL SIDE OF MAKING LIQUID SMOKE FROM SHELL OIL PALM AS BRIQUETTE CHARCOAL

Fakultas Pertanian Vol 3, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Universitas Tribhuwana Tunggadewi

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Abstract

Penelitian sumber energi terbarukan menjadi penting saat ini karena bahan bakar minyak bumi, gas alam, dan batu bara yang selama ini merupakan sumber utama energi jumlahnya semakin menipis. Cangkang kelapa sawit memiliki potensi yang sangat besar untuk menjadi sumber energi terbarukan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan briket arang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan komposisi perekat dan ukuran butiran arang yang paling baik untuk pembuatan briket arang, sifat dari briket arang yang dibuat dari cangkang kelapa sawit dan mengetahui kelayakan usaha dari pembuatan briket arang dari cangkang kelapa sawit. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan memakai Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) yang disusun secara 2 faktorial, yaitu Faktor I : Perbandingan perlakuan arang, Faktor II : Konsentrasi Perekat (K). Karakteristik briket arang dari cangkang kelapa sawit yang terbaik adalah dengan nilai kalor sebesar 7,41kalor/gram, kadar air sebesar 2,63%, dan waktu nyala selama 7,41 menit

Optimization of Rapid Solidification to Enrich Fish Oil from by-Product of Lemuru Canning Processing with w-3 batty Acids by Response Surface Method

Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan Vol 16, No 3 (2005): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3713.189 KB)

Abstract

Oil from by-product of lemuru canning processing was a source of w-3 fatty acid but its characteristics had out been known. The content of w-3 fatty acids of this oil had to be increased. Various methods are available to enhance w-3 fatty acids concentration Rapid solidification was one of limited methods to enrich fish oil by w-3 fatty acids containing triglycerides. This research was conducted to optimize rapid solidification condition to enrich fish oil from by product of lemuru canning processing with w-3 fatty acids and characterize the enriched oil compared by International Association of Fish Meal and Oil Manufacturers standard. In optimization process, the content of EPA+OHA and yield .was maximized. A two-factors central composite design in Response Surface Method was used to study the effect of solvent-to-oil ratio (X1) and extraction time (X2). The response (Y) is the multiplication of EPA+DHA content by yield. The results showed that under optimum conditions the maximum response were obtained at a solvent-to-oil ratio of 3,95:1(vw) and extraction time of 24,93 hours. The w-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil had EPA+DHA content of 33,33% and yield of 9.40% (w/w). The produced w-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil had good quality based on food grade fish oil standard, unless Fe and Cu content. Chelation could reduce these oxidizing metals. Key words : w-3 fatty acids, rapid solidification, response surface method, central composite design.

Characteristics of Microcapsule of ?-3 Fatty Acids Enriched Oil from Lemuru Meal Processing

Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan Vol 19, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (299.21 KB)

Abstract

Omega-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil from lemuru fishmeal processing met the quality standard of food grade fish oil, but it was susceptible to oxidation. Microencapsulation by spray drying was one method that could protect this oil against oxidation and the microcapsule could be applied more widely and easier to handle. The important factor that affected microencapsulation process by spray drying method was encapsulant to core ratio. The objective of research was to elucidate the effect of encapsulant to core ratio (2:1; 3:1; 4:1; 5:1; and 6:1 (w/w)) on characteristics of ?-3 fatty acids enriched fish oil microcapsule. The increase of microencapsulation efficiency and the decrease of surface oil proportion were related to better emulsion stability prior to spray drying and film forming ability around oil globule as the sodium caseinate proportion increased. Emulsification and heating during spray drying could induce hydrolysis of triglycerides in fish oil. Therefore, the quantity of free fatty acids relatively unchanged although the proportion of encapsulated oil decreased. The decrease of oxidation degree is caused by better protective effect of sodium caseinate during emulsification and spray drying due to better film forming ability as proportion of encapsulant increased. However, it was followed by the decrease of ?-3 fatty acids content that related to decreasing proportion of fish oil. This phenomenon was supported by unchanging ?-3 fatty acids retention that showed protective effect of sodium caseinate on oxidation during microencapsulation. Different encapsulant to core ratio did not change yield of microcapsule. Different proportion of surface oil did not affect microcapsule recovery.Key words : fish oil from by product of lemuru meal processing, ?-3 fatty acids enriched oil, microencapsulation, spray drying, encapsulant to core ratio