Taufik Ahmad
Research Institute for Coastal Fisheries

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PERFORMANCES OF TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE IN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PONDS Ahmad, Taufik; Tjaronge, M.; Suryati, E.
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science Vol 4, No 2 (2003): October 2003
Publisher : Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development - MOA

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Abstract

Mangrove ecosystem plays an obvious role in maintaining the biological balance in the coastal environment where shrimp ponds are usually constructed. The removal of mangroves around shrimp ponds has frequently brought about harvest failure. The study evaluated the performance of tiger shrimp culture in ponds provided with water from a water body where there was mangrove vegetation (hereafter mangrove reservoir). Twelve ponds, each measuring 2,500 m2, were filled with seawater from the mangrove reservoir until the water depth of 100 cm and then stocked with 20-40 PL/m2. In the first six ponds, the bottom water was released into the reservoir when the water depth reached 140 cm and then the water depth was maintained at 100 cm. In the second six ponds, the water was released from the ponds until the water depth reached 60 cm and then refilled with reservoir water until a depth of 100 cm. Both treatment ponds received water from the reservoir which also received the wastewater. The feeds for the shrimps were broadcast into the ponds twice a day to meet the 3% shrimp biomass requirement, which adjusted every other week through sampling. The result showed that mangrove  vegetation is capable of removing excessive nutrients, up to 70% for NO3-N and NH4 +-N, reducing PO4 =-P fluctuation, and producing bioactive  compounds. In the second treatment ponds, shrimp mortality started to occur in day 28 and most died by day 54 after stocking due to white spot disease outbreak. Mass mortality took place 54 days after stocking in two out of six of the first treatment ponds.
EKS TAPOL PKI DAN KONTROL PEMERINTAH: Studi pada Komunitas Tapol PKI Moncongloe Sulawesi Selatan (1979-2003) Ahmad, Taufik
Patanjala : Jurnal Penelitian Sejarah dan Budaya Vol 5, No 3 (2013): PATANJALA VOL. 5 NO. 3 SEPTEMBER 2013
Publisher : Balai Pelestarian Nilai Budaya Jawa Barat

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AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan menjelaskan kontrol pemerintah dan politik resistensi tahanan politik Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI) pasca pembebasan dengan mengambil kasus pada komunitas tahanan politik Moncongloe di Sulawesi Selatan. Metode yang dipergunakan adalah metode sejarah, dengan tahap; pengumpulan sumber (heuristik), kritik sumber mencakup kritik eksteren yang menyangkut otentisitas atau keabsahan sumber dan kritik interen yang menyangkut kredibilitas atau bisa tidaknya sumber dipercaya, interpretasi atau penafsiran atas data, dan yang terakhir adalah penyajian kisah sejarah atau historiografi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pasca pembebasan, persoalan komunitas tahanan politik Moncongloe tidak berakhir. Mereka dihadapkan pada kontrol pemerintah melalui perangkat konstitusi dan penjurusan negatif pada diri tahanan politik sebagai orang “tidak bersih lingkungan”. Akibatnya, melahirkan sebuah komunitas yang terpinggirkan dalam bidang sosial, politik dan ekonomi. Setelah reformasi, ruang perjuangan eks tahanan politik mulai terbuka lebar dengan berdirinya berbagai organisasi-organisasi yang memperjuangkan hak-hak mereka yang selama ini diabaikan oleh pemerintah. AbstractThis study aims to explain the control of the government and political resistance performed by post-released prisoners of Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI). This is a case study of the Moncongloe community of political prisoners in South Sulawesi. The author conducted history method, covering heuristics (collecting sources), source criticism (including external criticism concerning the authenticity or validity of sources as well as internal criticism regarding the credibility of the sources, and interpretation of the data), and historiography (the presentation the story). The results showed that the issue of Moncongloe political prisoners has not come to an end even though they have already been released. The post-released prisoners are facing the government control through the constitution and negative image on political prisoners as not having "clean environment". As a result, they are socially, politically and economically marginalized. After the reform, they had a wide opportunity to struggle because there were many organizations established to fight for the rights of those who have been ignored by the government.
MENGAIL DI AIR KERUH: GERAKAN PKI DI SULAWESI SELATAN 1950-1965 Ahmad, Taufik
Patanjala : Jurnal Penelitian Sejarah dan Budaya Vol 6, No 2 (2014): PATANJALA VOL. 6 NO. 2 JUNI 2014
Publisher : Balai Pelestarian Nilai Budaya Jawa Barat

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AbstrakArtikel ini dimaksudkan untuk menjelaskan gerakan PKI di Sulawesi Selatan tahun 1950 sampai 1965. Pokok persoalan dalam penelitian ini adalah bagaimana dinamika gerakan PKI di tengah buruknya situasi politik dan keamanan regional? Apakah terdapat interelasi hubungan yang dinamis dan saling memberi pengaruh antara PKI dengan kelompok politik lainnya? Bagaimana PKI mengimbangi kekuatan-kekuatan lokal sehingga mampu bertahan sebelum kehancurannya tahun 1965? Penelitian ini penting untuk melihat perubahan dan hubungan kekuasaan di tengah dinamika politik di daerah Sulawesi Selatan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode sejarah kritis dengan melakukan analisis sumber dokumentasi dan wawancara mendalam. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa munculnya pemberontakan DT/II Kahar Muzakkar dan Permesta memengaruhi ritme gerakan PKI. PKI tidak dapat mengembangkan organisasinya di daerah pedalaman karena penetrasi DI/TII di daerah pedalaman menyebarkan agitasi bahwa PKI anti agama. Sementara di daerah kota, PKI mendapat tantangan dari militer dan elit birokrat yang umumnya dikuasai oleh bangsawan. Akibatnya, PKI gagal mendapatkan dukungan di Sulawesi Selatan pada pemilu 1955. Setelah DI/TII dan Permesta ditumpas gerakan PKI berkembang pesat dan mendapat dukungan luas dari para petani. Terdapat interelasi hubungan yang dinamis, berfluktiatif, saling memberi pengaruh antara PKI dengan kelompok politik lain dari satu periode ke periode lainnya.   AbstractThis article is intended to explain PKI movement in South Sulawesi in 1950 – 1965.  The main subject in this research is to know how the dynamics of the movement of the PKI in the middle of the bad political situation and regional security.  Is there any dynamic interrelation relationship and mutual influence between the PKI with other political group? How does PKI offset local forces so that they can withstand before its destruction in 1965? This reasearch is important to overview the changes and the power relations in the middle of dynamics politics of South Sulawesi.  The research method that is used in this rearch is critical history method with doing documentation source analysis and in depth interview.  The result found that the rebellion of DT/II of Kahar Muzzakars and Permesta affected the rhytm of PKI movement.  PKI could not evolve the organization in rural areas because of the penetration of DI / TII in the countryside that was spreading anti-religious agitation of PKI.  Meanwhile in the city, PKI got challenged from the military and elite bureaucrats who were generally dominated by nobles.  As a result, PKI failed to gain support in the South Sulawesi in 1955 elections. After DI / TII and Permesta exterminated, the PKI movement was growing rapidly and had a wide support from the peasants.  There is a dynamic relationship interrelation, fluctuating, mutual influence between PKI with other political groups from one period to another period.
EKS TAPOL PKI DAN KONTROL PEMERINTAH: Studi pada Komunitas Tapol PKI Moncongloe Sulawesi Selatan (1979-2003) Ahmad, Taufik
Patanjala : Jurnal Penelitian Sejarah dan Budaya Vol 5, No 3 (2013): PATANJALA VOL. 5 NO. 3 SEPTEMBER 2013
Publisher : Balai Pelestarian Nilai Budaya Jawa Barat

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Abstract

AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan menjelaskan kontrol pemerintah dan politik resistensi tahanan politik Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI) pasca pembebasan dengan mengambil kasus pada komunitas tahanan politik Moncongloe di Sulawesi Selatan. Metode yang dipergunakan adalah metode sejarah, dengan tahap; pengumpulan sumber (heuristik), kritik sumber mencakup kritik eksteren yang menyangkut otentisitas atau keabsahan sumber dan kritik interen yang menyangkut kredibilitas atau bisa tidaknya sumber dipercaya, interpretasi atau penafsiran atas data, dan yang terakhir adalah penyajian kisah sejarah atau historiografi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pasca pembebasan, persoalan komunitas tahanan politik Moncongloe tidak berakhir. Mereka dihadapkan pada kontrol pemerintah melalui perangkat konstitusi dan penjurusan negatif pada diri tahanan politik sebagai orang “tidak bersih lingkungan”. Akibatnya, melahirkan sebuah komunitas yang terpinggirkan dalam bidang sosial, politik dan ekonomi. Setelah reformasi, ruang perjuangan eks tahanan politik mulai terbuka lebar dengan berdirinya berbagai organisasi-organisasi yang memperjuangkan hak-hak mereka yang selama ini diabaikan oleh pemerintah.AbstractThis study aims to explain the control of the government and political resistance performed by post-released prisoners of Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI). This is a case study of the Moncongloe community of political prisoners in South Sulawesi. The author conducted history method, covering heuristics (collecting sources), source criticism (including external criticism concerning the authenticity or validity of sources as well as internal criticism regarding the credibility of the sources, and interpretation of the data), and historiography (the presentation the story). The results showed that the issue of Moncongloe political prisoners has not come to an end even though they have already been released. The post-released prisoners are facing the government control through the constitution and negative image on political prisoners as not having "clean environment". As a result, they are socially, politically and economically marginalized. After the reform, they had a wide opportunity to struggle because there were many organizations established to fight for the rights of those who have been ignored by the government.
REPLACEMENT OF FISH MEAL WITH POULTRY OFFAL MEAT IN DIETS FOR HUMPBACK GROUPER Cromileptes altivelis GROW-OUT Usman, Usman; Rachmansyah, Rachmansyah; Lante, Samuel; Kamaruddin, Kamaruddin; Ahmad, Taufik
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 1, No 1 (2006): (June 2006)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

Fish meal (FM) has traditionally ben a major ...........
PERFORMANCE OF MANGROVE-FRIENDLY SEMI-CLOSED SHRIMP POND Ahmad, Taufik; Mangampa, Markus; Tjaronge, Muhammad
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 1, No 1 (2006): (June 2006)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Mangrove has been ............
BUDI DAYA TERPADU Cherax quadricarinatus DAN C. albertisi DENGAN PADI DALAM KOLAM TANAH Ahmad, Taufik; Sofiarsih, Lilis; Sutrisno, Sutrisno
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 2, No 2 (2007): (Agustus 2007)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

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Produktivitas usaha budi daya Cherax spp. belum diketahui secara pasti apalagi bila dikaitkan dengan isu bahwa cherax dapat memakan benih padi. Produksi benih cherax telah dapat dilakukan di hatcheri namun masih diarahkan terutama pada usaha memproduksi udang hias, padahal cherax di beberapa negara lain telah lama diproduksi sebagai udang konsumsi dan termasuk dalam kelompok crayfish dalam perdagangan hasil perikanan dunia. Rancang bangun wadah untuk mengakomodir sifat biologi, terutama kemampuan merayap keluar wadah, kanibalisme, dan kebiasaan makan tanaman air seperti padi, dicoba diterapkan pada pembesaran cherax secara terpadu. Benih cherax umur 45 hari ditebar pada padat tebar 15 ekor/m2 kedalam bak berukuran 1 m x 1 m x 0,5 m  berpematang dan berdasar tanah. Perlakuan yang diuji spesies cherax dan penanaman padi sebagai naungan dalam kolam. Pakan diberikan sebanyak 3% bobot biomassa dalam bentuk pakan udang windu komersial. Kedalaman air dalam bak dipertahankan 10—20 cm pada pelataran dan sekitar 30—40 cm pada caren atau kobakan. Sampling dilakukan setiap 30 hari untuk mengamati pertumbuhan yang dicerminkan oleh pertambahan panjang total dan karapas serta bobot rataan individu. Pertumbuhan padi, jumlah anakan, dan bulir gabah per malai, dalam petak tempat pemeliharaan cherax yang tidak berbeda (P>0,05) dari dalam petak tanpa cherax membuktikan bahwa cherax bukan pemakan padi. Selain itu, laju bertumbuh cherax dalam petak padi campur tanaman air juga tidak berbeda (P>0,05) dari dalam petak padi. Baik C. quadricarinatus maupun C. albertisi dapat mencapai bobot 20 g selama 90 hari pemeliharaan dalam kolam tanah. Kedua spesies cherax yang diuji merupakan pembuat lobang di pematang, kedalaman lubang berkisar 20—80 cm dan dapat menimbulkan kebocoran. Budi daya C. quadricarinatus dan C. albertisi dapat dikembangkan sebagai sumber penghasilan baru tanpa kekhawatiran dapat mengganggu ketahanan pangan.Cherax spp. in Indonesia is not so well known compare to other crustaceans such as penaeids shrimp, the main aquaculture products. Since the 1990’s, the production of cherax post larvae has been intended to supply the hobbyists of ornamental crustaceans.  No data available of how large is the production of cherax in Indonesia, either for food or ornament. To provide evidence that cherax is not a padi eater, an experiment was carried out in an integrated culture with padi in 1 m x 1 m x 0.5 m earthen ponds. The cherax stocked into the ponds are C. quadricarinatus and C. albertisi, at 15 PL-45/m2 of each different pond. The water depth in each pond is maintained at 30—40 cm on the perimeter ditch. The feed, grower penaeids shrimp feed, is given at 3% biomass weight when necessary. The cherax is sampled every 30 days for total and carapace length as well as individual weight. Number and weight of grain produced and numbers of paddy seedling are the variable observed to monitor padi growth. The number of grains and seedling in cherax ponds which is not significantly different (P>0.05) from those in ponds without cherax indicating that cherax is not padi eater. Either C. quadricarinatus or C. albertisi achieved maximum individual weight of 20 g in 90 days rearing period. Both of the cherax are dyke hole maker, but tend to causing seepage. The depth of the hole ranges from 20—80 cm, just enough for the cherax to hide just after moulting. Obviously, cherax culture could be developed as a new source of income for the farmers and would not cherax is not padi eater. Either C. quadricarinatus or C. albertisi achieved maximum individual weight of 20 g in 90 days rearing period. Both of the cherax are dyke hole maker, but tend to causing seepage. The depth of the hole ranges from 20—80 cm, just enough for the cherax to hide just after moulting. Obviously, cherax culture could be developed as a new source of income for the farmers and would not threaten the production rice, the Indonesian staple food.
THE GROWTH OF PATIN Pangasiodon hypophthalmus IN A CLOSE SYSTEM TANK Ahmad, Taufik; Sofiarsih, Lilis; Kusmana, Kusmana
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 2, No 1 (2007): (June 2007)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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This experiment aimed to evaluate the possibility of using integrated recirculation production system for patin grow-out. Each of twelve concrete 2.5 m x 4.0 m x 1.0 m tanks filled to 0.73 m depth was stocked with 100 juvenile patin, 9-10g body weight. Six tanks were equipped with sand and palm (Arenga pinata) fibre filters planted with vegetables, lettuce and kangkoong. A submersible pump was installed in each tank to assure continuous water recirculation at the rate of 0.4 L sec-1. The filtered water flowed into the tank at the surface (SC treatment), or at the bottom (BC treatment). In the other 6 tanks, the water flowed continuously from a concrete canal in an open culture system at a similar rate and with similar water entrance positions (SO and BO treatments). The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The fish were fed dry pelleted feed to satiation and sampled every other week for growth observation. After 90 days, the average individual weight of the fish attained the range of 80-100 g. The fish grew significantly faster (P<0.05) in SC tanks compared to those in the rest of the tanks, except in BC tanks. Denser growth of plankton and more suitable water quality was considered to encourage faster growth of the fish in close system tanks. The survival of the fish was not significantly different (P>0.05) among treatment, ranging from 99% to 100%. In terms of water usage, the closed system tanks produced fish weighing 202.38–220.05 g m-3, much more efficiently than did the open system tanks, 1.87–1.89 g/m3. The vegetables, either lettuce or water spinach, grew well on the filter. These results suggest that the integrated recirculation tank system is suitable for patin culture.
FERMENTED BLOOD MEAL USE FOR TIGER GROUPER, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus GROW-OUT DIET Usman, Usman; Kamaruddin, Kamaruddin; Palinggi, Neltje Nobertine; Rachmansyah, Rachmansyah; Ahmad, Taufik
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 2, No 1 (2007): (June 2007)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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The experiment aimed to evaluate the optimal level of fermented blood meal used in grow-out diets for tiger grouper, as an alternative protein source to fish meal. Juvenile tiger grouper, initial weight 31.1 ± 2.1 g, were stocked into 1 m x 1 m x 2 m floating net cages at 20 fish cage-1. The treatment applied was isoprotein and isocaloric diets formulated to contain fermented blood meal (FBM) of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30.0% replacement of fish meal protein. The diets were fed to the fish twice a day to satiation for 20 weeks. Based on the Tukey test, the fish fed 0%–15.0% FBM demonstrated similar performance (P>0.05) to those fed the control diet (FBM0) in terms of specific growth rate, weight gain, and feed and protein efficiency. Specific growth rate, weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency of the fish fed 22.5%–30.5% FBM were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of the fish fed control diet (FBM0). However, there was a significant culvilinier decliner in overall fish performance with increasing inclusion of FPM and most notable for weight gain, feed efficiency and feed consumption. Based on regression analysis, the asymptote where fish growth deteriorates as a function of FBM inclusion was determined to be 8.9%. Tiger grouper diets incorporating up to 9% FBM as fish meal replacement had no adverse affects on fish growth and survival.
SINGLE-O-SHELTER HUNA (Cherax albertisi) AND REDCLAW (C. quadricarinatus) CULTURE Ahmad, Taufik; Sofiarsih, Lilis; Nuryadi, Nuryadi; Apriyana, G.
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2007): (December 2007)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Many hatcheries successfully produced and sold cherax as ornamental crayfish. The attempt to culture cherax in earthen pond to produce consumable size yabbies facing the fact that cherax is a good hole digger and usually escapes through the hole in dyke. Single-o-shelter meant to provide shelter for every single spawner as well as hideout for the juvenile produced. The shelter for spawner was a 25 inches long and 2.0 inches diameter PVC pipe randomly spread on pond bottom. Aquatic weed (Vallisneria torta) grew in the shallow part of pond to provide hiding place for juvenile. The species stocked is huna and redclaw, each at density of 2 and 6 sets of spawner. One set of spawner consists of 3 males and 5 females weighing averagely around 20 g each. The experimental units are randomly selected to facilitate random block design in 2 rearing period as replicate. The pond dimension is 10x10 m, divide into 3 compartments i.e. feeding, ground, nursery ground and harvest ditch. Water depth at nursery ground was 30 cm and at the other compartments at 60 cm. Follow gravity force, the water in ponds flows at 50—100 L minute-1. Self-made diet distributed into pond twice a day to meet 3% daily feeding ration. Survival rate and specific growth rate of spawner as well as juvenile produced and number of gravid female checked at the end of each rearing period or every 3 months. After 6 months, average weight of redclaw and huna reaching 146.12 ± 34.47 g and 103.7 ± 29.83 g, respectively. Redclaw produced progeny of 5 size groups and huna produced only 2 groups. Respective to the species, average weight of the first offspring batch was 39.03 ± 5.33 and 26.83 ± 2.09 g. Redclaw at 2 sets of spawner and male grow faster than of 6 sets of spawner and female. No survival rate significant difference among ponds indicates that single–o-shelter technique provides sufficient shelter for spawner to grow and reproduce. Male monosex redclaw culture in earthen pond seems to be more promising than mixed-sex and female monosex culture for consumable size production of either huna or redclaw.