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SISTEM KERJA DENGAN PENDEKATAN ERGONOMI TOTAL MENGURANGI KELUHAN MUSKULOSKELETAL, KELELAHAN DAN BEBAN KERJA SERTA MENINGKATKAN PRODUKTIVITAS PEKERJA INDUSTRI GERABAH DI KASONGAN, BANTUL Purnomo, Hari; Manuaba, Adnyana; Adiputra, Nyoman
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol. 1, No. 3 Desember 2007
Publisher : Udayana University

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Era globalisisi saat ini, industri kecil dituntut untuk meningkatkan produktivitasagar dapat bersaing untuk kelangsungan hidup. Dalam upaya meningkatkan produktivitaskerja perlu adanya usaha yang kondusif untuk mengoptimalkan sistem kerja. Peningkatanproduktivitas akan tercapai jika semua komponen dalam sistem kerja dirancang secaraergonomis. Sistem kerja pada industri gerabah di Kasongan Bantul banyak melibatkanaktivitas fisik, sehingga perlu sistem kerja yang ergonomi untuk dapat meningkatkanproduktivitas. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan perbaikan sistem kerja pada industri gerabahdi Kasongan dengan pendekatan ergonomi total. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakanadalah rancangan eksperimental yang menggunakan randomized pre and post-test controlgroup design dengan jumlah sampel 14 orang untuk masing-masing kelompok. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan bahwa sistem kerja dengan pendekatan ergonomi total dapat : (a)menurunkan keluhan muskuloskeletal pekerja sebesar 87,8% ; (b) menurunkan kelelahanpekerja sebesar 77,5% ; (c) menurunkan beban kerja pekerja sebesar 21,55 denyut/menitatau sebesar 21,69% ; (d) menurunkan risiko cedera di tempat kerja sebesar 10,65% ; (e)meningkatkan produktivitas pekerja sebesar 59,49% ; dan (f) meningkatkan pendapatanpekerja sebesar 23,81% dan meningkatkan pendapatan perusahaan sebesar 76,19%.
THE PRACTICAL ASPECT OF ERGONOMICS IN HINDU RELIGIOUS CEREMONY IN BALI Sutjana, D P; Adiputra, Nyoman
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol. 2, No. 1 Maret 2008
Publisher : Udayana University

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The word of ergonomics is not found in Balinese vocabulary. In fact, the Balinese are very proud to work with comfortable-, and fitted tools in all sectors of their daily live activities, including in the religious ceremony. Therefore, it is hypothesized, that the Balinese applying the ergonomics principles for their better performances. To test the stated hypothesis, a study was carried out. Participatory observation technique was applied. It is followed by interview to the respondents, and also associated with documentation to the subject studied. Subject studied were the offerings made in conducting religious ceremony, the temporary building for cremation of the dead body, and the temple building. The results found are as the followings: a) the temporary building for religious ceremony is made based on the anthropometrics measurements of the user, such as upper reach, side reach, knee height, buttock height, shoulder height and should width; b) the forms and sizes of offerings are adjusted according to the place provided; c) the container for an offering has been improved from time to time for efficiency and made of locally produced raw materials; d) the size of offering container is made based on the hand sizes such as grip, width of the hand and counted in traditional unit; e) the interior design, for room or temple building is made fit for it?s appropriate function. Therefore, it is concluded that in doing their daily live activities related to religious ceremony, ergonomics principles are applied. Comfortability, easy to use, and feeling of satisfaction are the criteria in using any kind of tools for Balinese. It is suggested that more research is needed to explore more data on the application of ergonomics in Balinese daily live.
ERGONOMIC INTERVENTION OF HOUSES TYPE 36/120 SAVES ELECTRICITY AND INCREASES COMFORT OF OCCUPANTS IN NUANSA KORI HOUSING SADING MENGWI BADUNG Parwata, I Wayan; Manuaba, Adnyana; Adiputra, Nyoman; Sutjana, IDP
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol. 3, No. 1 Januari 2009
Publisher : Udayana University

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Development of the housing sector has now spread to the suburban areas ofDenpasar; even some rural areas in Bali have become targets of housingdevelopers. Designing and arranging of houses through ergonomic interventioncomprises one of several efforts for improving the houses’ quality in terms oftheir natural comfort. The ergonomic intervention should meet such criteria as tobe technically applicable, less costly, energy saving especially that of electricity,socio-culturally convenience, and environment friendly. This experimental studybeing reported applied a treatment by subject design, in which eight houses wereselected as sample, located in the housing complex of Perumahan Nuansa KoriSading Mengwi Badung. Of the eight sampled houses, each two houses facednorth, south, east and west, respectively. Twenty six occupants of the eightsampled houses were interviewed using a questionnaire. All samples wereselected by stratified random sampling. The ergonomic intervention comprisedremodeling of ventilation and windows of all the sampled houses. Data collectingof objective comfort was carried out before and after intervention i.e. at 8 am, 10am, 12 pm, 2 pm, 4 pm and 8 pm, by measuring temperature, humidity, lightintensity, and airflow. Data of subjective comfort were collected by questionnaire,which had been tested earlier for its validity and reliability. The results showedthat (1) before intervention the average of wet temperature was 23.66 ± 1.36 ºC,after intervention was 23.09 ± 1.20 ºC; (2) before intervention the average of drytemperature was 28.76 ± 1.07 ºC, after intervention was 27.88 ± 0.73 ºC; (3)relative humidity before intervention was 73.44 ± 4.37 %, after intervention was72.63 ± 2.73 %; (4) natural light intensity before intervention was 134.94 ± 71.69lux, after intervention was 229.69 ± 114.53 lux; (5) the average of airflow beforeintervention was 0.10 ± 0.04 m/sc, after intervention was 0.31 ± 0.08 m/sc; and(6) electricity saving resulted in 11% as evidenced by decrease of electricity billby 8%. The conclusions could be arawn are (1) that ergonomic intervention byremodeling ventilation and windows of houses type 36/120 could improveobjective comfort by 12.4% (p<0.05), along with increase of subjective comfort ofthe occupants of the houses facing all directions; dan (2) moreover, electricitysaving resulted in 11% (p<0.05) as evidenced by decrease of electricity bill by 8%(p<0.05). This study suggests that ergonomic intervention should be applied sinceearly in the construction of houses in order to make them cheaper, healthier, andmore comfortable.
REDESIGN OF WORK PLACE AND SYSTEM WITH ERGONOMIC INTERVENTION IMPROVES THE PERFORMANCE OF THE SKT (HAND ROLLED CIGARETTE) ROLLERS AT CIGARETTE INDUSTRY “X” IN KEDIRI EAST JAVA Sajiyo, H; Manuaba, Adnyana; Adiputra, Nyoman; Sutjana, Putu
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol. 3, No. 1 Januari 2009
Publisher : Udayana University

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In this research ergonomic intervention of the 4 main factors influencingperformance was conducted. The four main factors are : (a) intervention of humancovering the change in position of the SKT rollers from the position of facing oneanother into that of facing the same direction, from the hunchbacked sitting positioninto the upright one; (b) intervention of work equipment covering the changes inform, dimension, table and chair size, and layouts of space and work facilities ; (c)intervention of work system covering the changes in work process arrangement, rightand left hand movement, time allocated for active break and in the removal oftobacco which used to be done by the knockers but now is done by the rollers; (d)intervention of work environment, that is, exhaust installation to regulate thecirculation and wind humidity in the SKT rollers’ room. Redesign of place and worksystem with ergonomic intervention contribute to : (a) the decrease in work loadfrom medium category into light category; (b) the decrease in work tiredness frombeing very tired category into being not tired; (c) the decrease in musculoskeletalcomplaint from high category (being disturbed) into light category (beingundisturbed); (d) the decrease in medical treatment cost by 56,97%; (e) the increasein work productivity by 41,47%; (f) the increase in the SKT rollers’ salaries by15,10%; and (g) the increase in the company’s profit by 12,76%. Generally, redesignof place and work system can increase the performance of the SKT rollers at cigaretteindustry “X” at Kediri, East Java. Therefore, it has been suggested that the companycontinue to redesign the place and work system with ergonomic intervention in theother units.
MODEL AKTIVITAS PRAKTIKUM LAPANGAN BERBASIS ERGONOMI (APeLErg) MEMPERBAIKI RESPON FISIOLOGIS TUBUH, MENURUNKAN KELELAHAN, DAN MENINGKATKAN KINERJA, DIBANDINGKAN DENGAN MODEL LAMA (APeL), PADA MAHASISWA FMIPA UNIMA Palilingan, Rolles; Manuaba, Adnyana; Adiputra, Nyoman; Pangkahila, Alex
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol. 3, No. 1 Januari 2009
Publisher : Udayana University

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Aktivitas praktikum lapangan merupakan kegiatan yang dilakukan sebagaiimplementasi kurikulum akademik di Jurusan Fisika FMIPA UNIMA. Sebagaiimplementasi kurikulum tersebut telah dibuat model aktivitas praktikum lapangan (modelAPeL) dan telah digunakan sejak tahun 2001. Namun model APeL ternyata menimbulkanrisiko yang merugikan bagi mahasiswa dilihat dari respon fisiologis dan kelelahansehingga mahasiswa belum dapat mencapai kinerja yang diharapkan. Untuk itu telahdiupayakan dengan penerapan pendekatan ergonomi total (PET) suatu model baru yaitumodel APeLErg. Untuk menguji keandalan model APeLErg dibandingkan dengan modelAPeL, telah dilakukan penelitian dengan hipotesis: model APeLErg, dibandingkan denganmodel APeL; memperbaiki respon fisiologis tubuh; menurunkan kelelahan; danmeningkatkan kinerja mahasiswa di daerah dataran rendah/panas dan di daerah datarantinggi/dingin. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam dua tahap dengan menggunakan rancangansama subjek. Penelitian pada tahap pertama dilakukan di daerah panas denganmenggunakan 15 orang subjek sedangkan penelitian tahap kedua di daerah dinginmenggunakan 18 orang subjek. Hasil penelitian tahap I dan tahap II menunjukkan bahwaaktivitas dengan model APeLErg dapat: memperbaiki respon fisiologis mahasiswa secarasignifikan (p<0,05); menurunkan rata-rata skor kelelahan umum secara signifikan(p<0,05); meningkatkan kecepatan, kekonstanan dan ketelitian mahasiswa secarasignifikan (p<0,05); dan meningkatkan kinerja mahasiswa secara signifikan (p<0,05). Darihasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa model APeLErg dapat: memperbaiki responfisiologis mahasiswa; menurunkan tingkat kelelahan mahasiswa; dan meningkatkankinerja mahasiswa dalam melakukan aktivitas praktikum lapangan.
ERGONOMIC REDESIGN OF WORKING TOOLS INCREASES PERFORMANCE OF TRADITIONAL COCONUT OIL MAKERS IN THE DISTRICT OF DAWAN, KLUNGKUNG Arimbawa, I Made Gede; Adnyana Manuaba, Ida Bagus; Nala, I Gusti Ngurah; Adiputra, Nyoman
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol. 3, No. 2 Juli 2009
Publisher : Udayana University

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The business of producing coconut oil in the district of Dawan, Klungkung is oneexample of small-scale home industries in the rural area. The level of working productivityof the oil makers can be categorized as relatively low, as viewed from the aspect of thefollowing indicators: (a) level of working burden, (b) musculoskeletal complaints, (c) levelof fatigue or tiredness, and (d) level of productivity. One factor that causes the lowproductivity is the fact that the working tools used in this industry are non-ergonomicallydesigned such as: (1) tool for peeling off the coconut fibers, (2) tool for taking the coconutflesh, (3) tool for grating the coconut flesh, (4) tool for extracting milk from the watermixedgrated coconut, (5) stove for boiling the coconut milk. Based on the above problemsbackground, it is necessary to make more ergonomic new design or redesign of the toolsthat are used by the coconut oil makers in the district of Dawan in order to increase theirworking performance or productivity.This research was carried out using treatment by subject design by comparing beforeand after treatment involving 22 female subjects selected by simple random method fromall female coconut oil makers in the studied area. Before treatment the research subjectswere asked to make coconut oil as usual with their traditional tools. After an interval ofwashing out period was given, the subjects entered the treatment phase in which they wereasked to make coconut oil by using the tools already redesigned ergonomically. The dataobtained from the research were analyzed by t-paired test at a significance level of 5%.Results of the analysis showed as follows: (1) average of working heart rate beforetreatment was 108.49 ± 0.95 pulse /minute and after treatment 91.92 ± 1.91 pulse /minute,indicating a decrease of workload from moderate to mild one (decrease of working heartrate of 16.59 pulse/minute or 14.69%); (2) average of musculoskeletal complaints beforetreatment was 51.73 ± 1.36 and after treatment 36.79 ± 0.83 (a decrease of 14.94 or26.17%); (3) average of fatigue before treatment was 66.75 ± 3.60 and after treatment49.50 ± 3.28 (a decrease of 17.19 or 25.83%); (4) average of working productivity beforeand after treatment was 35.86 ± 1.09 and 48.66 ± 1.10, respectively (an increase of 12.81 or35.71%). Based on evaluation of investment yield, the NVP value in a five-year period Rp.11.503.431,- > 0, PBP 9.22 months > 0, and RoI 32.54 > 13% (rate of interest commonlyapplied in 2008).It is concluded that redesign of working tools to be more ergonomic has proven to beable to increase the working performance of coconut oil makers and hence worth investing.Novelty of this research is in the positive results related to ergonomic redesigning of thetools for making coconut oil in the district of Dawan, Klungkung by approaches to being systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary, participatory, and appropriate technology usage.Further studies on similar related working issue should focus on the aspects of workingenvironment, especially on how to overcome smoke pollutant in the kitchen area, on moreproper work station and working organization or on that related to production quality of thecoconut oil by generating maximally all the potential already in existence among the localtraditional coconut oil makers.
ERGONOMIC INTERVENTION DECREASES THE LOAD OF LEARNING AND INCREASES THE STUDENTS PERFORMANCES Pungus, Meity; Manuaba, Adnyana; Adiputra, Nyoman; Tirtayasa, Ketut
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol. 4, No. 2 Juli 2010
Publisher : Udayana University

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Most students’ activities in respect to the implementation of the academic curriculumare done at home. In fact, conventional activity done by the students in boardinghouse ofMinahasa tradition showed unfavorable risks to students based on the load of learning withindicators of musculoskeletal complaints, boredom, and fatigue. Consequently, thestudents were not yet able to attain the intended performance. To overcome the problems,it has made the efforts of ergonomics intervention. In order to test the capability of theergonomics interventions, it had been done a research with the hypothesis, the ergonomicsinterventions on the activity in boardinghouse of Minahasa tradition: normalizes the bodytemperature; decreases the musculoskeletal complaints; decreases the level of boredom;decreases the level of fatigue; increases the accuracy of working; increases the speed ofworking; increases the constancy of working; and increases the results of working of thestudents. This research was done in two periods by utilizing the treatment by subjectdesign. The first and second period was done during four weeks, without and withergonomic intervention. The subjects utilized in the research were as many as 15 persons.The measurements of dependent variables were done before and after doing the activity.The results of the research showed that the ergonomics interventions on the learningactivities in boardinghouse could decrease load of learning significantly (p<0.05): the bodytemperature became normal, the musculoskeletal complaints decreased 44.79%; the levelof boredom decreased 9.79%; the level of fatigue decreased 15.20%; the accuracy ofworking decreased 55.06%; the speed of working decreased 17.32%; the constancy ofworking decreased 30.72%; and the results of working of the students increased 131.44%.It can be concluded that the ergonomics interventions can: decrease the load of learning ofthe students and increase the performance of the students.
STEROID FOR MANAGEMENT OF PSEUDO-OTHEMATOMA Sudana, Wayan; Adiputra, Nyoman; Wiyadi, H.M.S.
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Vol. 5, No. 1 Januari 2011
Publisher : Udayana University

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Has conducted research on the use of steroids triamsinolon asetonid as pseudo-othematomamedical therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness triamsinolonasetonid. Prevention of the formation of serum in the lesion, so that pseudo-othematomacan be cured without surgery. Surgery and preventing of the formation collagen tissue inthe lesion, so that the pseudo-othematoma can be cured without deformity. It is expectedthe establishment of a pseudo-othematoma practical for health personnel, effective,efficient, safe and comfortable for the patient. This study design is the design of arandomized controled pretest-postest design. In the test group were treated withtriamsinolon asetonid intracutaneus injected in lesion area with the number according tothe percentage of the amount of teraphy effusion before. Then press verban installed. In thecontrol group, only pressing verban installed. From the research results obtained, whishafter the third treatment using the triamsinolon asetonid, pseudo-othematoma diseaselooked very meaningful. Due to its unique histological structure of the ear, then themanipulation of the ear is moe advisable to be careful, to prevent new lession with variousimpacts.
PENDEKATAN ERGONOMI TOTAL PADA AKTIVITAS PRAKTIKUM LAPANGAN DI DAERAH PANAS MENURUNKAN KELELAHAN DAN SUHU INTI TUBUH MAHASISWA Palilingan, Rolles Nixon; Adiputra, Nyoman
Bumi Lestari Journal of Environment Vol 10, No 1
Publisher : Udayana University

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n the Environmental Physics concentration, to implement the academic curriculum of Physics Department of FMIPA UNIMA, it had been made guidance in the book form to be used in performing the field practicum activity. The guidance had been utilized since the year 2001. However, the conventional activity apparently caused unfavorable risks to the students based on the efficiency of circulatory system so that the students could not attain the intended performance yet. Therefore, it has been arranged a new model of activity with several treatments by using the totally ergonomics approach. In order to test the capability of the activity compared with the conventional one, it had been done a research with the hypothesis: the intervention with the totally ergonomics approach decreases and the body core temperature of the student in the low land/hot area. This research was done by using the design of treatment by subject. The research has used 15 subjects as sample. The measurements of dependent variable were done in the beginning, among units of practicum, and the last on the end of period. The results of the research showed that the activity with the totally ergonomic approach could decrease fatigue and the body core temperature of the student significantly (p<0.05). With the decreasing of fatigue and body core temperature, it means that the activity is good biomechanically and thermally (in low land/hot area). The fatique and hyperthermia condition were responsible as the main cause of the low performance of the students. The activity with ergonomic intervention by using the totally ergonpomics approach succeeds in overcoming the fatigue and hyperthermia condition so that the performance of the students could increase considerably. Based on the research it can be concluded that the intervention with the totally ergonomic approach can: decrease fatigue and decrease body core temperature of the students in doing the field practicum activity. It can be suggested that in doing the activity with ergonomic intervention by using the totally ergonomic approach, principal requisites of every treatment must be fulfilled in order to achieve the intended goals.
TANAMAN OBAT, TANAMAN UPACARA DAN PELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN Adiputra, Nyoman
Bumi Lestari Journal of Environment Vol 11 No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Environmental Research Center (PPLH) of Udayana University

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The existence of medicinal plant in Bali is a factual thing, as it is shown by the lontar usada Bali. On the other hand the ceremonial plants could not be forgotten. The question now, is there any relationship between these two plants? Does the relationship could be used in the environmental conservation program? It is hypothesized that some of the medicinal plants belong to the ceremonial plants; through horticulture the conservation of medicinal plants and ceremonial plants could be done. Therefore, walk-through surveys had been conducted in some hotels and governmental offices in Badung and Denpasar region. The results shown: that the horticulture planted belong to the medicinal plants, ranged from 46.5 %-78.2 %; and 50.0 % - 78.2 % belong to the ceremonial plants as well. It is concluded that through the horticulture, the conservation of living environmental could be done; therefore, the existence of medicinal and ceremonial plants could be maintained and become a reality until forever.