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Zainal Abidin
SMP Negeri 1 Meranti

Published : 406 Documents
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Perilaku Kesalahan Puncak Spektrum Akibat Penggunaan Fungsi Jendela Kotak, Hanning, dan Flattop pada Sinyal Sinus Waktu Kontinu , Khuschandra; Abidin, Zainal
Jurnal Teknik Mesin Vol 12, No 1 (2010): APRIL 2010
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

#### Abstract

Vibration signals obtained from measurement are usually dominated by sinusoidal component. During measurement, the signal is recorded by a data logger with finite time record. This process causes truncation of the sinusoidal signal which may result a significant error of the spectral peak. This error is commonly reduced by the use of window functions. Unfortunately, the use of window function may cause spectral peak error although the obtained spectrum has been corrected. This paper describes derivation of mathematical equations of spectral peak error as a result of using Hanning and flattop windows on a sinusoidal signal. As a comparison, it initially describes derivation of mathematical equation of spectral peak error as a result of using uniform window on a sinusoidal signal. Finally, the equations which have been derived are validated using numerical simulation performed by Matlab software. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Sinyal yang diperoleh dalam pengukuran getaran biasanya didominasi oleh sinyal sinusoidal. Dalam pengukuran getaran, sinyal direkam dengan menggunakan perangkat akuisisi data dengan waktu rekam yang terbatas. Akibatnya, terjadi pemotongan pada sinyal sinus sehingga menghasilkan kesalahan puncak spektrum. Kesalahan puncak spektrum dapat direduksi dengan menggunakan fungsi jendela. Sayangnya, penggunaan fungsi jendela, meskipun telah dikoreksi, masih menyebabkan kesalahan puncak spektrum. Dalam makalah ini dipaparkan penurunan persamaan matematik kesalahan puncak spektrum akibat penggunaan fungsi jendela Hanning dan flattop pada sinyal sinus. Sebagai pembanding, terlebih dahulu dipaparkan penurunan persamaan matematik kesalahan puncak spektrum akibat penggunaan fungsi jendela kotak pada sinyal sinus. Sebagai indikasi bahwa persamaan yang diturunkan sudah benar, maka persamaan matematik yang diperoleh divalidasi secara numerik dengan bantuan perangkat lunak Matlab. Kata kunci: Kesalahan puncak spektrum, kesalahan, fungsi jendela, hanning, flattop, amplitudo.
Pengembangan Metode Integrasi Numerik dengan Frekuensi Batas yang Mampu Mereduksi Pengaruh Sinyal Pengganggu terhadap Hasil Integrasi Abidin, Zainal; Purnama, Fandi; Heryadi, Budi
Jurnal Teknik Mesin Vol 13, No 1 (2011): APRIL 2011
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

#### Abstract

In vibration measurements, integration process is often performed to acceleration as well as velocity signals. This integration process is usually done numerically in DSA (Dynamic Signal Analyzer) so that the result of integration has error with respect to the true (theoretical) value. Therefore, development of numerical integration methods with cutoff frequency are presented in this paper. This development produces equations which can reduce the influence of noise with respect to the result of numerical integration. Furthermore, these equations are validated with the simulation and experiment results. Base on the validation results, it can be concluded that the equations which have been derrived are correct.
Penggunaan Jerk untuk Deteksi Dini Kerusakan Bantalan Gelinding dan Pemantauan Kondisi Pelumasan Abidin, Zainal; Heryadi, Budi
Jurnal Teknik Mesin Vol 13, No 1 (2011): APRIL 2011
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

#### Abstract

This paper describes the use of jerk signal, a signal obtained from differentiation of the acceleration signal with respect to time, for detecting the early damage of a bearing and bad lubrication conditions. The use of jerk signal is expected to result more sensitive detection than that obtain using acceleration signal. To prove this hypothesis, this paper shows the results of vibration measurement for needle bearings and taper roller bearings with variation of load level, types of bearing damage, and lubrication condition. Comparisons of acceleration and jerk signals are performed in both time domain, by comparing their RMS values, as well as in frequency domain, by comparing their spectrums. The results of the experiment show that the use of jerk signal can give a more sensitive result in detecting bearing damage than that produced using acceleration signal. Moreover, the use of jerk signal can lead to better results in detecting bad lubrication of rolling bearing than that obtain using Crest Factor (CF) value.
SIFAT FISIKO KIMIA BERAS MERAH GOGO LOKAL ENDE [The Physico-chemical Properties of Local Ende High Land Brown Rice] Lalel, Herianus J.D.; Abidin, Zainal; Jutomo, Lewi
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan Vol 20, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

#### Abstract

SIFAT FISIKO KIMIA BERAS MERAH GOGO LOKAL ENDE [The Physico-chemical Properties of Local Ende High Land Brown Rice] Herianus J.D. Lalel1)*, Zainal Abidin1), dan Lewi Jutomo2) 1)Jurusan Budidaya Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Nusa Cendana     Jl. Adi Sucipto, Penfui, P.O. Box 104, Kupang 85001, Nusa Tenggara Timur 2)Jurusan Gizi, Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Nusa Cendana Diterima 6 Mei  2009 / Disetujui 7 Desember 2009 ABSTRACT   Ten strains of Ende high land brown rice were assessed to underpin their physico-chemical properties related to their potential uses.  Are Ndota has bigger grain size and smoother gel consistency than others (63.50 mm gel length). It potentially can be used as food thickeners and baby foods.  Are Kea showed the highest water imbibition ability (90.99%), the fastest wettability (12.11 sec), and the highest dispersibility value (2,50 %) due to its high amylose content (33.21 %). Potentially, Are kea can be used for noodles. The variety also had small repose angle (27.46°), therefore it can be easily transported.    Key words: Brown rice, Highland rice, Ende, Physico-chemical properties
DINAMIKA PERBERASAN DI SULAWESI TENGGARA ABIDIN, ZAINAL; -, IDRIS; SYAM, AMIRUDDIN
SOCA (SOCIO-ECONOMIC OF AGRICULTURRE AND AGRIBUSINESS) Vol. 5, No. 3 November 2005
Publisher : Program Studi Agribisnis, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Udayana Jalan PB.Sudirman Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Telp: (0361) 223544 Email: soca@unud.ac.id

#### Abstract

The research aimed to know dynamics of rice related to rice system in South East Sulawesiwas done in September to Oktober 2004 in Kendari regency (Uepai, Amonggedo,Pondidaha and Abuki district). This research used survey methode involved 40 responden.The data used secundary data having the caracter of time series and primary data. Theresulth showed that wet paddy production was very fluctuantive. Their productivity wasrelated stable at 3,5 â 3,8 t/ha. Dry land paddy was wide enough used by farmer especialyin area that had poor paddy field, but wide area and its production had overtime trendwhile production increased. That productivity was still lower than national productivity of2,52 t/ha. Although main production more increase in the latest of 10 years, but thegovernment represented by Bulog still brought rice from out side South East Sulawesiespecially from South Sulawesi. Rice farming system was showed R/C &gt; 1 value. Than,exchange value of benefict on cost, the use of cost was still dominated by labour. Thebenefict used for labour was 29 %. Rice farming system contributed around 75 % of totalhousehould income, besides that, farmer also obtained income from the other farmingsystem, livestock and off-farm.
TINGKAT PENDAPATAN PETANI TERHADAP KOMODITAS UNGGULAN PERKEBUNAN SULAWESI TENGGARA SAHARA, DEWI; ABIDIN, ZAINAL; -, DAHYA
SOCA (SOCIO-ECONOMIC OF AGRICULTURRE AND AGRIBUSINESS) Vol. 7, No. 2 Juli 2007
Publisher : Program Studi Agribisnis, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Udayana Jalan PB.Sudirman Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Telp: (0361) 223544 Email: soca@unud.ac.id

#### Abstract

ABSTRACT The study had been done to cocoa farmers in Kolaka regency and cashew nut farmer in Muna regency on April to July 2004 used survey method. This study was aimed to observe farming system description, income rates and contribution of farming system income on structure of household income so that could be known the welfare of farmer. The result showed that income rates of cocoa farmers were greater than cashew nut farmers. The amount burden of cocoa farmers were 4,32 people, while that income was Rp 7.059.943,70 per years, contribution of farming system income was 76,38 % of the total of farmer income with B/C ratio 2,80. the income rates of cashew nut farmers were Rp 4.437.475,54 per years with 4,62 people, contribution of farming system income was 16,34 % of the total of farmer income with B/C ratio 1,17. Both had B/C ratio &gt; 1, so that farming system were still beneficial and reasonable to be developed. The welfare of cocoa farmers was above poverty line while income per capita per years was equivalent to 710,51 kg rice, where as welfare of cashew nut farmers was almost be in poor criteria, income per capita was equivalent to 384,30 kg rice. Therefore one of the ways to increase cashew nut farmers income was to repair farming system by giving production input and making the land use effective. Keywords: IncomeRates, Welfare, Superiorcommodity ABSTRAK Pengkajian tingkat pendapatan petani terhadap komoditas unggulan perkebunan telah dilakukan pada petani kakao di Kabupaten Kolaka dan petani jambu mete di Kabupaten Muna pada bulan April â Juli 2004 dengan menggunakan metode survei. Penelitian bertujuan untuk melihat gambaran usahatani, tingkat pendapatan dan kontribusi pendapatan usahatani terhadap struktur pendapatan rumah tangga sehingga diketahui taraf hidup petani di Sulawei Tenggara. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat pendapatan petani kakao lebih besar daripada petani jambu mete. Jumlah tanggungan keluarga petani kakao 4,32 jiwa dengan pendapatan sebesar Rp 7.059.943,70 per tahun, kontribusi pendapatan usahatani sebesar 76,38 % dari total pendapatan petani dengan nilai B/C ratio 2,80. tingkat pendapatan petani jambu mete sebesar Rp 4.437.475,54 per tahun dengan tanggungan keluarga sebanyak 4,62 orang, kontribusi pendapatan usahatani 16,34 % dari total pendapatan dengan nilai B/C ratio 1,17. Dari nilai B/C ratio yang lebih besar dari satu (B/C &gt; 1) maka kedua usahatani tersebut masih menguntungkan dan layak untuk dikembangkan. Taraf hidup petani kakao sudah diatas garis kemiskinan dengan pendapatan per kapita per tahun setara dengan 710,51 kg beras, sedangkan taraf hidup petani jambu mete masih dalam kriteria hampir miskin dengan dengan pendapatan per kapita per tahun setara dengan 384,30 kg beras. Oleh karena itu, salah satu cara untuk meningkatkan taraf hidup petani jambu mete dalah dengan memperbaiki pola usahatani dengan memberikan input produksi dan mengefektifkan lahan diantara tanaman jambu mete dengan tanaman semusim. Kata kunci: Tingkat Pendapatan, Taraf Hidup, Komoditas Unggulan
MODEL PERPINDAHAN MASSA SISTEM CAIR-CAIR DALAM TANGKI BERPENGADUK DENGAN PENDEKATAN TEORI LAPISAN FILM Abidin, Zainal; Wahyuningsih, Wahyuningsih; Endy Yulianto, Mohamad
GEMA TEKNOLOGI Vol 15, No 1 (2006): Periode April - Oktober 2006
Publisher : GEMA TEKNOLOGI

#### Abstract

Zainal Abidin, Wahyuningsih, Mohamad Endy Yulianto, in paper model of mass transfer system of liquid in churn tank with coat film theory approach explain that Mass transfer in the liquid-liquid phase is an important phenomena in the extraction process. Mass transfer coefficient is one of the factors that influence the rate of mass transfer. Nowadays, in the extraction process of free fatty acid from palm oil with methanol, there&rsquo;s no data of mass transfer coefficient. The goal of this research was todetermine and develop correlation of mass transfer coefficient on the extraction process of palm oil&rsquo;s free fatty acid with methanol, as the solvent. Therefore, the research was held in two major steps. The first step was held a liquid-liquid extraction in the laboratory, and the second step was develop an empirical correlation for mass transfer coefficient in the term of dimensionless groups. Batch extraction was conducted in an agitated vessel. The variables that is studied in the process include temperature process, solvent to feed weight ratio, and impeller speed. Based on the data that was obtained from the experiment, the correlation equation that can be used to calculate the mass transfer coefficient was expressed by Sherwood number and could be correlated turbine Reynolds number, Schmidt number, (dp/dT) and (L/S). The result by of Sh = 6,648x10-4 Re0,194 Sc0,333 (dp/dT)0,140 (L/S)0,183The averege deviation of the equation is 9,67 % if it is intended to account for mass transfer coefficient. These dimensionless groups are developed in the range of 3169 to 11750, 6321 to 9897, 0,0007 to 0,0013, and 0,333 to 1 in the Reynolds number, Schmidt number, (dp/dT), and (L/S), respectively.Key words : extraction, mass transfer
PRODUKSI FORMULASI INSEKTISIDA CAIR BENTUK EMULSIFIER CONCENTRATE YANG EFEKTIF GUNA MEMBASMI NYAMUK AEDES AEGYPTI DALAM USAHA MENCEGAH PENYAKIT DEMAM BERDARAH Supriyo, Edy; Abidin, Zainal; Nugraheni, Nugraheni; Wahyuni, Sri
METANA Edisi Khusus Februari 2011
Publisher : METANA

#### Abstract

Abstract &nbsp; Liquid pesticide formulation in the form of emulsifier concentrate (EC) is more preferable because it does not form clogging and blocking in the tools and precipitating that harden. Based on fired capacity in the whole pesticide formulation industry, about 25 % produce emulsifier concentrate. In the emulsion formulation, the important point is unite insoluble matter become a homogeny and stable formulation for long period. The selection of emulsifier type is very important because it is influenced by quality and EC formulation stability. Result formula very good is 20 % propoxure; 5 % Malathion; 5 %; agrisol ; 20 % DBS; 45 % Xyline dan 5 % additive (%w/w), concentration affection test 0.025% v/v for thinner solvent in 20 strain aedes aegypti mosquitoes at Semarang killed on 2 hours = 4 mosquitoes, 4 hours = l0 mosquitoes, 6 hours = 16 mosquitoes and on 8 hours all mosquitoes had been died. From emulsion stability test, in oil phase and water phase was found terpentine as stable solvent in the emulsion form, with separated oil percentage at concentration 3mg/l about 42%. In water phase emulsion forms micro emulsion with white fog colors in whole concentration 1, 2 and 3 ppm &nbsp; Keyword: Emulsifier Concentrate
REPAIR OF PROCESS EXTORTION OF CENTRIFUGAL OIL AND ADJUSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY IS PRECISELY UTILIZE AT INDUSTRY CHIPS EMPING GEPUK MELINJO DI KABUPATEN BATANG Abidin, Zainal
METANA Volume 5 Nomor 2 Desember 2007
Publisher : METANA

#### Abstract

Abstract At the industry produce the chips emping gepuk melinjo conventional generally experience of the resistance at process extortion of oil because this process walk gravitationly with extortion time about 0.5 hour. Problems of arising out is oil conten in chips emping gepuk melinio still high about 15 %&nbsp; is while equipments of extortion of oil which have is not yet can operate in an optimal fashion ( leak is in gravitation with time of 30 minute). &nbsp;is so that needed by the equipments able to improve ; repair the process extortion of oil in chips emping gepuk melinjo fry. This matter will pursue in improvement of capacities produce the chips emping gepuk melinio. To increase product to be needed modify, equipments of extortion of oil, &nbsp;so that efiensi production can be boasted up and peaceful for the use it and also improve the chips emping product qualitv gepuk. As according to the clauses released by Departemen Kesehatan, oil content in food stuff fried by is less than 5%. because at high oil rate will quicken the process rancidity at food-stuff. Besides with high oil rate will be able to improve the cholesterol rate in blood. From the result of perception during extortion by centrifugal oil wringer, extortion time about 2 - 3 minute with oil content in chips emping gepuk under or less than 5 %, so that the result of chips emping gepuk yielded by seen drier and will improve the endurance. &nbsp; Keyword : Chips emping gepuk melinjo, centrifugal wringer,oil rate and extortion time.
PENGEMBANGAN PROSES ENZIMATIS GELOMBANG MIKRO UNTUK PRODUKSI ASAM LEMAK DARI BUAH SAWIT SECARA IN SITU Yulianto, Mohammad Endy; Abidin, Zainal; S, FS Nugraheni; Paramita, Vita
METANA Volume 06, Nomor 2, Tahun 2010
Publisher : METANA

#### Abstract

Abstract Vegetable oil is one of plantation commodity and used as food source and oleochemical. One of the connection between vegetable industry and oleochemical industry is the conversion of vegetable oil into fatty acid. Indonesia is one of major producer of Crude Palm Oil (CPO), Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) and Cocos Nucifera Oil (CNO), but Indonesia is also import fatty acid in the application of paint, plastics, cosmetics, detergent and soap industry. These facts show a pityfull condition of vegetable oil industry. Therefore, it is neccesary to take an effort in order to fulfill our domestic demand of fatty acid. Up to now, the fatty acid is produce by converting CPO into fatty acid, which provide high cost production due to the expensive process of CPO production. An alternative process was proposed by cutting the two stages of fatty acid production into one stage. This stage covered the direct enzymatics production of fatty acid from fresh fruit of palm oil. The lipase of palm oil is inactivated in a microwave based-enzymatics hydrolysis bioeractor. The research objectives was developing the fatty acid production through microwave biochemical process by activate the lipase enzyme of the fresh fruit of palm oil. The parameters examined were including pH, ratio of water-fruit, and the milling of the palm oil as time function. The lipase activity as a result of microwave tunning up process was increasing along with the increasing of the reaction temperature. Without the addition of buffer, the acidity of the system decreased along with the production of fatty acid. Along with the increasing of the water concentration, the fatty acid produced was also increased. Â  Key Words: fatty acid, lipase, microwave