Yusianto .
Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia

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Characteristics of Quality Profile and Agribusiness of Robusta Coffee in Tambora Mountainside, Sumbawa Aklimawati, Lya; ., Yusianto; Mawardi, Surip
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 30, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Coffee development in Indomesia by means of optimalizing local resources needs to be done for increasing national coffee production as well as for expanding domestic and international markets. These opportunities must be used to gain benefit as a strategic action for raising farmer’s prosperity. This study was aimed to observe physical quality and flavor profile of Robusta coffee from Tambora mountainside, and to identify agribusiness coffee system applied by the farmers, including problem identification at farmer’s level. This research was carried out at Pekat Subdistrict (Dompu District) and Tambora Subdistrict (Bima District), West Nusa Tenggara Province. Direct observation and in-depth interviews were conducted in this study. Data collected consisted of primary and secondary data, as well as 11 green coffee samples from farmers to be analysed its physical quality and flavor profile. The number of respondents were nine stakeholders consisted of three farmers, two farmer group leaders, one field officer, one duty officer, one trader, and one large planter official. Respondents selection were based on convenience sampling method. The results showed that physical quality of coffee bean was belonged to Grade 4—6 (fair to poor quality), while broken beans shared the highest number of physical defects. Robusta coffee from Tambora mountainside performed good taste profile, that the coffee can be promoted to be fine Robusta by improving post harvest handling. Robusta coffee farming at Tambora mountainside was characterized by monoculture cropping system, average of land ownerships about 1 ha/household, and average productivity about 900—1,000 kg green coffee/ha/year. Major problems on Robusta coffee farming at Tambora mountainside consisted of lack of coffee plant maintenance as well as limited accessibility to financing and technology. Key words: agribusiness, physical quality, flavor, Robusta coffee, Tambora mountainside
Performance of Some Arabica Coffee Local Varieties from Gayo Highland Hulupi, Retno; Nugroho, Dwi; ., Yusianto
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 29, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Recently, most of coffee farmers at Gayo highland (Aceh) are planting various of local varieties, namely Timtim Aceh, Borbor, P 88, BP 542A and Ateng Super. Those varieties have been planted to replace S line and Catimor Jaluk varieties which were damaged by leaf rust and root disease. Research on the performance of those varieties was to investigate superior characteristics of each variety and moreover as based to choose the best one as released variety for Gayo Highland. Research finding revealed that Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were well adapted to Gayo highland conditions with yielding ability 0.956 ton/ha and 0.909 ton/ha, respectively. Although the highest yield was obtained by Ateng Super variety (1.76 ton/ha green coffee), but not stable, therefore it could not be categorized as superior variety. The previous two varieties also had good cup quality (by standard assesment of Specialty Coffee Association of America), then it could contribute Gayo coffee specialty product. The resistance test for leaf rust disease in the field plantation, showed all varieties demonstrated varying in their resistance. BP 542A variety was the most resistant type, whereas Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were moderately. However all varieties become more susceptible if planted at lower altitude, less than 1,000 m asl. The resistance test to coffee berry borer and parasitic nematode showed that Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were ranked into almost resistant to resistant. Based on all result of the superior characteristics testing, Timtim Aceh and Borbor varieties were the best one, and it could be proposed to be released as Arabica coffee varieties that suitable at Gayo highland. Key words: Arabica coffee, Gayo highland, local varieties, variety performance, cup quality, yielding, resistant to leaf rust disease
Quality and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee Processed by Some Fermentation Treatments: Temperature, Containers, and Fermentation Agents Addition ., Yusianto; Widyotomo, Sukrisno
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 29, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Coffee fermentation is a step of wet processing. In fact, some microorganisms naturally exist on the surface of coffee cherry. Using a starter culture of microorganisms may change equilibrium of microorganism population. Among some safe fermentation agents are present in “ragi tape” (yeast), “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk. A fermentor machine equipped with eating-control and stirrer had been designed, and tested before. Some treatments investigated were fermentation containers (fermentor machine and plastic sacks); fermentation agents (fresh cage-luwakcoffee, “ragi tape”, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk); temperature of fermentation (room, 30 C, 35 C, and 40 C); and duration of fermentation (6, 12, and 18 hours). The experiment were replicated three times. Wet-coffee parchments were washed and sundried until moisture content reached 12%. The dried parchment was hulled and examined for the bean quality and flavors. The experiment indicated that 40 C fermentation in fermentor machine resulted in higher content of “full sour defect”. Fermentation agents significanly influenced bean size. Temperature treatment significanly influenced bulk density and bean size. The best flavor profile was obtained from fermentation in plastic sack at ambient temperature. Bacteria of fermented milk and “fresh luwak coffee” as fermentation agents resulted up to excellent flavor. Twelve hours fermentation produced best flavor of Arabica coffee compared to 6 and 18 hours. Key words: Arabica coffee, fermentation, flavour, fermentation agents
Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping ., Yusianto; Nugroho, Dwi
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 30, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical perqutions 
Physical and Flavor Quality of Some Potential Varieties of Arabica Coffee in Several Interval Storage Periods ., Yusianto; Hulupi, Retno; ., Sulistyowati; Mawardi, Surip; Ismayadi, Cahya
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 23, No 3 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Coffee storage was an active process, where the quality and flavor was depend on the origin, humidity, temperature, period, and ware house condition. The objective of this research was to know quality and flavor of some Arabica coffee varieties in interval of storage periods. The examined coffee varieties were BP 416 A, BP 430 A, BP 432 A, BP 509 A, BP 542 A, P 88, AS 1, S 795, and USDA-762. The treatments were recent harvest, one and two years stored green coffee. The green coffee were wet processed, sun dried, packed in polyethylene bags, one kg/pack and placed in some covered plastic boxes. The boxes were stored in ware house covered with wavy asbes roof and flat asbes ceiling. The green coffee was examined for its moisture content, color, and bulk density. The green coffee was roasted at medium level, and then examined for its the bulk density, yield, volume of swelling, and color of the roasted and powdered. The flavors examination was blind test method. The research showed that storage period significantly influenced the moisture content, color, and bulk density of green coffee, yield, volume of swelling, color of roasted coffee, color, and flavor profile of coffee powder. Those varieties tested showed significantly different on the moisture content, green coffee color, roasted coffee color, coffee powder color, and the profile flavor. The storage period influenced the green coffee color from greenish-gray to yellowish-red. The bulk density of green coffee decreased. The varieties that showed a little color changeduring storage, were BP 430 A,BP 416 A, AS 1, and S 795. One year of storage periode, the green coffee was still had the original color, but after two years, the original color had changed totally. The powder of recent harvest coffee was darker than that of one and two years storage. One year stored coffee had higher quality of aroma, intensity of aroma, quality of flavor, intensity of flavor, acidity, quality of after taste, intensity of after taste and preference, than the recent harvest and two years stored coffee. recent harvest had higher body, bitterness, and astringency, than that of one and two years stored coffee. The main off-flavor of recent harvest coffee was green and grassy, the one year stored coffee was harsh, woody, earthy, and sour, while the two years stored coffee was harsh, woody, earthy and moldy. The flavor change in the first year was higher than in the second year storage. The varieties, that had lowest change on flavor during storage, were BP 416 A, AS 1, P 88, BP 432 A and S 795. Key words: Coffee, Arabica, variety, clone, storage, quality, flavor, color.
Physical, Chemicals and Flavors of Some Varieties of Arabica Coffee ., Yusianto; Hulupi, Retno; ., Sulistyowati; Ismayadi, Cahya
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 21, No 3 (2005)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Export of Arabica coffee was 28,100 tons/year or 8.28% total export of Indonesian coffee, most of them are specialty coffee. Beside their origin, variety and determine the of physical, chemical and flavors characters. The promising clones or varieties i.e. BP 416A, BP 418A, BP 430A, BP 431A, BP 432A, BP 507A, BP 508A, BP 509A, BP 511A, BP 513A, BP 516A, BP 517A and BP 518A still not be determined their quality This research was conducted to analyze their physicals, chemicals and flavors during 2 periods of harvesting (2004 and 2005), using AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762 as the control. Mature coffee berry was harvested, sorted manually, and depulped, cleaned manually and then fermented in plastic sacks during 36 hours. The fermented parchment was washed, and then sun dried, dehulled to get green coffee. Observations wre conducted on green coffee yield, husk content, color of green coffee, distribution of size, bulk density of green and roasted coffee, roasting characters, color of roasted beans, and pH, acidity and flavors. The results showed (a) The lowest content of husk was BP 432A and the highest was USDA 762. The control varieties of AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762, showed husk content >15%, while those potential varieties were < 15% except BP 416A. (b) Beans size >6,5 mm and more than 80% were BP 416A, BP 430A, BP 432A, BP 509A, P 88 and S 795. Green coffee of BP 430A, BP 432A and BP 509A were uniform, but S 795 was not uniform. AS 1 and BP 416A and P 88 was one group; S 795 was one group with BP 542A; BP 509 was a group with BP 432A; but BP4 30A and USDA 762 were the other groups. (c) Green coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color, but BP 542A was the darkest color. AS 1 and S 795 were a group with all potential varieties, except BP 542A. (d) Roasted coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color and AS 1 was the darkest. In this case, AS 1 was a group with BP 430A, BP 509A and P 88, while S 795 was a group with BP 416A and BP 432A, but USDA 762 and BP 542A were the other groups. (e) The lowest pH and the highest acidity was AS 1. In this case, S 795, BP 416A, BP 509A, BP 430A, P 88, BP 542A, AS 1 and BP 542A were one group, but USDA 762 was the other group. (f) Bulk density of all observed varieties were >0.7 for green coffee and 0,39–0,47 for medium roasted coffee. (g) Outurn of all observed varieties were >83% and volume increment >50%, except for USDA 762. (g) AS 1 showed the best flavor characters, while USDA 762 was the lowest. The promising varieties which showed a group with AS 1 were P 88 and BP 542A, which fruity. All of tested varieties showed green flavor. Harsh flavor was found in BP4 16A, BP 509A, P 88, S 795 and USDA 762. (h) Based on the physicals, chemicals and flavors characters, 202 AS 1 was a group with P 88 and BP 542A; S 795 a group with BP 416A, BP 430A, BP 432A and BP 509, while USDA 762 was other group. Key words:Coffee, physic, chemical, flavor, variety.