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NON-TARIFF BARRIERS ON TRADE IN SERVICES

Unitas Vol 11, No 1 (2003)
Publisher : Unitas

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Abstract

AbstractThe increasing role ofservices in international trade increases restrictions on trade in this sector. Forms of barriers are more complex and less visible that tariffs. There are no significant differences between bailriers on services and now-tarrffharriers in goods. Based on experiences in developing cotmtries, this paper tries to examine the barriers on trade in services. A briejexplanation ahoul types oj.service trade and the cost of protection on services are also presented. Studies ofprotections in services show liberalization in service increases productivity and overall outcomes of service sectors.Keywords: Non-tarflharriers, trade jn .services, GATS.

DETEKSI DINI TUMBUH KEMBANG ANAK

Jurnal Keperawatan Vol 1, No 1 (2010): Januari
Publisher : Jurnal Keperawatan

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Abstract

Deteksi Dini Tumbuh Kembang AnakEarly Detection of GrowthSuyantoSMF Psikiatri (Ruang 23) Rumah Sakit DR Saiful Anwar MalangJl. Jaksa Agung Suprapto No 2 Malang 65333e-mail: joeinsella@yahoo.co.idABSTRAKPembangunan kesehatan sebagai bagian dari upaya membangun manusia seutuhnya antara lain diselenggarakan melalui upaya kesehatan anak yang dilakukan sedini mungkin sejak anak masih dalam kandungan. Upaya kesehatan ibu yang dilakukan sebelum dan semasa hamil hingga melahirkan, ditujukan untuk menghasilkan keturunan yang sehat dan lahir dengan selamat. Upaya kesehatan yang dilakukan sejak anak masih dalam kandungan sampai lima tahun pertama kehidupannya, ditujukan untuk mempertahankan kelangsungan hidupnya sekaligus meningkatkan kualitas hidup anak agar mencapai tumbuh kembang yang optimal baik fisik, mental, emosional maupun sosial serta memiliki intelegensi majemuk sesuai dengan potensi genetiknya. Sebagai calon generasi penerus bangsa, kualitas tumbuh kembang balita perlu mendapat perhatian yang serius yaitu mendapatkan gizi yang baik, stimulasi yang memadai serta terjangkau dalam melakukan deteksi dan intervensi dini dalam penyimpangan tumbuh kembang. Melakukan stimulasi yang memadai dengan tujuan untuk merangsang kemampuan gerak, bicara dan bahasa, sosialisasi dan kemandirian secara optimal.Kata kunci: tumbuh kembang, usia dini ABSTRACTThe health development as a part of effort to develop human whole, held by the children health effort that has to be done as just as possible since the children are in the womb the mother health effort that held before, during pregnant, until birth, has a purpose to make the health generation and born normally. Health intervention since child is in the womb until the first five year in their life, has a purpose to maintain his life, and then to improve child quality of life to achieve optimal growth in physic, mentally, emotionally and social aspects, and has plural intelligentsia agree with their genetic potential. As the net generation of the nation, quality of child growth needs serious attention, such as better nutrient, appropriate stimulation, and early detection and intervention in development abnormality. Appropriate stimulation has purpose to stimulate motor, speaking and language, socialization and independence ability optimally.Keywords: development, age early

ANALISA ASPEK BALITA TERHADAP KEJADIAN INFEKSI SALURAN PERNAFASAN AKUT (ISPA) DI RUMAH

Jurnal Keperawatan Vol 5, No 2 (2014): Juli
Publisher : University of Muhammadiyah Malang

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Abstract

ANALISA  ASPEK  BALITA  TERHADAP KEJADIAN  INFEKSI SALURAN PERNAFASAN AKUT  (ISPA) DI RUMAHAnalyzing of Under Five Children Aspect to Acute Respiratory Infection Desease Incidentat HomeAgrina(1) , Suyanto(2), Arneliwati(3)(1)Keperawatan Komunitas PSIK UR(2,3)Kesehatan Masyarakat  FK UREmail: 1)agrinas76@gmail.comABSTRAKISPA di Indonesia selalu menempati urutan pertama penyebab kematian  dan sering menempati urutan pertama angka kesakitan balita. Penelitian bertujuan untuk melihat hubungan antara usia dan status gizi  balitaterhadap kejadian infeksi saluran pernafasan akut (ISPA) di rumah. Desain  penelitian  yang digunakan  adalah deskriptif korelasi  pada 262 balita di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Sidomulyo. Alat pengumpul data yang digunakan adalah kuisioner yang berisi karakteristik balita, status gizi, dan kejadian ISPA yang dialami balita dalam 3 bulan.Analisa data yang digunakan adalah analisis univariat dan bivariate (chi square). Mayoritas responden berada pada usia bayi  sebanyak 156 orang (59,5%), kejadian ISPA pada balita sebanyak 60 orang (22,9%), status gizi balita adalah baik sebanyak 229 orang (87,4%). Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan adanya hubungan yang sangat signifikan antara usia anak, status gizi, dengan kejadian ISPA di rumah (p value<0,05). Perlu adanya upaya untuk meningkatkan status gizi dan kemampuan ibu dalam merawat balita agar kejadian ISPA dapat dicegah sehingga komplikasi ISPA dapat dihindariKata kunci: ISPA, balita, pengetahuan  ibu merawat, status giziABSTRACTAcute Respiratory Infection (ARI) desease is the first cause of death and often ranks first under five childrenmorbidity in Indonesia. The purpose of study is to examine the relationship between age and nutritional status on the incidence of acute respiratory infections (ARI) at home. Design research is descriptive correlation in 262 infants in Puskesmas Sidomulyo. Data collection by a questionnaire that contains the characteristics of children, nutritional status, and respiratory events experienced by children in 3 months. Analysis of the data used univariate and bivariate analysis (chi-square). The results showed that the majority of respondents were in the age of the baby as much as 156 people (59.5%), the incidence of respiratory infection in infants as many as 60 people (22.9%), good nutritional status of children is as much as 229 people (87.4%). The results also showed a highly significant relationship between age, nutritional status, with ARI in the home (p value <0.05). It is important  an effort to improve the nutritional status and mother’s  ability to care for under five children  that can be prevented complications of ARIKeywords: ARI, mother’s knowledge to take care under five children, nutritional status

PENICILLIN PRODUCTION BY MUTANT OF Penicillium chrysogenum

Jurnal Bioteknologi & Biosains Indonesia (JBBI) Vol 2, No 1 (2015): June 2015
Publisher : Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)

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Abstract

Penisilin adalah antibiotika yang pertama kali ditemukan dan digunakan untuk pengobatan infeksi bakteri. Sejak ditemukan penisilin sebagai antibiotika oleh Alexander Fleming pada tahun 1928, banyak usaha dilakukan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas Penicillium chrysogenum. Pemuliaan galur untuk meningkatkan produksi penisilin dapat menggunakan mutasi acak secara fisika dan kimia. Pada penelitian ini, radiasi sinar ultraviolet digunakan untuk mendapatkan mutan P. chrysogenum. Produksi penisilin ditentukan menggunakan HPLC dan produktivitas mutan dibandingkan dengan induk P. chrysogenum. Mutan M12 menghasilkan penisilin 1,23 kali lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan induk P. chrysogenum.Kata kunci: Penisilin, Penicillium chrysogenum, ultraviolet, mutan, radiasi ABSTRACTPenicillin is the first antibiotic discovered and used for treatment of bacterial infections. Since the discovery of penicillin as antibiotic by Alexander Fleming in 1928, much effort has been invested to improve productivity of Penicillium chrysogenum. Strain improvement to increase the penicillin production can be carried out by physical and chemical random mutation. In this research, ultraviolet irradiation was used to obtain P. chrysogenum mutant. Penicillin production was determined by using HPLC and productivity of P. chrysogenum mutants was compared to the wild type. Mutant M12 produced 1.23 fold higher penicillin than the wild type did.Keywords: Penicillin, Penicillium chrysogenum, ultraviolet, mutant, radiation

PRODUKSI BIOETANOL DARI BATANG TUA KELAPA SAWIT DENGAN AIR PANAS BERTEKANAN DAN BALL MILL

Jurnal Bioteknologi & Biosains Indonesia (JBBI) Vol 2, No 2 (2015): December 2015
Publisher : Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)

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Abstract

Bioethanol from oil palm trunk is one important source of energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to avoid competition between the use for food and for energy as happens in other commodities. Pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass using sulfuric acid has high efficiency but requires high cost to neutralize the byproducts formed. Pre-treatment using hot compressed water and ball mill can be used to break down the structure and composition of lignocellulose so as to increase the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis and increase the sugar yield. Hydrolysis using an enzyme cocktail with hot compressed water and ball mill can each produce 210 mg of glucose at a temperature of 220°C and 200 mg of glucose for 120 minutes at room temperature per gram of oil palm trunk. Both of these processes are environmentally friendly and have a high efficiency in the production of bioethanol from oil palm trunks.Keywords: bioethanol, oil palm trunk, ball mill, hot compressed water, hydrolysis  ABSTRAKBioetanol dari batang kelapa sawit adalah salah satu sumber energi yang penting untuk mengurangi emisi rumah kaca dan menghindari konflik kepentingan antara kebutuhan bahan pangan dan penggunaan energi sebagaimana terjadi pada komoditas lain. Pengolahan awal biomassa lignoselulosa menggunakan asam sulfat memiliki efisiensi yang tinggi tetapi membutuhkan biaya yang tinggi guna menetralisisr produk samping yang terbentuk. Pengolahan awal menggunakan air panas bertekanan dan ball mill dapat digunakan untuk memecah struktur dan komposisi lignoselulosa sehingga dapat meningkatkan laju hidrolisis enzim dan meningkatkan hasil gula. Hidrolisis menggunakan multienzim dengan air panas bertekanan dan ball mill masing-masing dapat menghasilkan 210 mg glukosa pada suhu 220°C dan 200 mg glukosa selama 120 menit pada suhu kamar per gram batang kelapa sawit. Kedua proses tersebut ramah lingkungan dan memiliki efisiensi yang tinggi pada produksi bioetanol dari batang kelapa sawit.Kata Kunci: bioetanol, batang kelapa sawit, ball mill, air panas bertekanan, hidrolisis 

Pengaruh Kinerja Account Representative, Self Assessment System, dan Pemeriksaan Pajak Terhadap Tingkat Kepatuhan Wajib Pajak

EKUILIBRIUM : JURNAL ILMIAH BIDANG ILMU EKONOMI Vol 12, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Ponorogo

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Abstract

This research is aimed to examine the effect of the performance of AR, self- assessment system, and the tax audit of the individual taxpayer compliance. This research was conducted in the Tax Office (KPP) Pratama Yogyakarta. The data used are primary data on the results of questionnaire 104 respondents and data that can be processed as many as 99 questionnaire. The sampling method using a convenience sampling and data analysis technique used is multiple linear regression techniques. This research findings show that performance of AR, self-assessment system, and the tax audit in partially and simultaneous have had a  positive effect on compliance of individual taxpayers

DETERMINAN PERTUMBUHAN EKONOMI

Journal of Management and Business Vol 6, No 1 (2007): MARCH 2007
Publisher : Department of Management - Faculty of Business and Economics. Universitas Surabaya.

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Abstract

This study examines the determinants of Growth in Indonesia using time series data from the first quarter of 1980 to fourth quarter of 2000. The result of OLS regression model shows that labor, physical capital, human capital, openness, and an institutional factor give positive effects to economic growth in Indonesia. This finding supports the arguments presented by neo-classical economists. The effect of institutional variable (e.g. inflation), in particular, exhibit the intervention of the central bank and the government in inflation and economic growth. Since the estimators consist of autocorrelation, the stationary test is applied to test the integration degrees and co-integration methodology is adopted to examine the linear combination of selected variables. The Granger’s two step error correction model tells us that the short-run disequilibrium is divergent from time to time from the long-run equilibrium, with the moderate speed of divergence. However, at least the long-run OLS estimators are unbiased, consistent, and asymptotically normally distributed.

FOREIGN OWNERSHIP, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ECONOMIC CRISIS

Journal of Management and Business Vol 10, No 2 (2011): SEPTEMBER 2011
Publisher : Department of Management - Faculty of Business and Economics. Universitas Surabaya.

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This paper evaluates the productivity benefit from the present of foreign ownership in manufacturing firms. The productivity benefit is analysed for the period before crisis (19881996) and the period crisis onwards (1997-2000). Using the methodology of stochastic production frontier, the results show that foreign ownership generates positive productivity benefit to local manufacturing firms, both during the before crisis period and during the crisis onwards period. An interesting result emerges when comparing the two periods. Although positive spillover benefits exist in both periods, the coefficient of FDI Spillovers is larger during the period of crisis onwards, suggesting that the productivity benefit increase after economic crisis. These findings support an argument by Takii (2007) that economic crisis has positive impact on the productivity spillovers of FDI.

TEST OF FISHER EFFECT IN A CASE OF INDONESIA: FURTHER EVIDENCE

Journal of Management and Business Vol 3, No 2 (2004): SEPTEMBER 2004
Publisher : Department of Management - Faculty of Business and Economics. Universitas Surabaya.

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Abstract

Studi ini merupakan kelanjutan dari studi tentang efek Fisher yang dilakukan oleh Purwandaya dan Suyanto (2000). Studi ini menggunakan data periode Januari 1991 sampai dengan Mei 2002. Dikarenakan adanya masalah endogeneity dalam model, estimasi OLS menjadi tidak konsisten lagi. Estimator variabel instrument kemudian digunakan untuk mendapatkan estimasi yang konsisten. Hasil estimasi dengan variabel instrument memperlihatkan bahwa koefisien variabel inflasi tidak sama dengan satu. Karena itu, belum bisa disimpulkan bahwa hipotesis Fisher terjadi di Indonesia.