Articles

Fowl Cholera and Its Control Prospect With Locally isolated Pasteurella multocida Bivalent Vaccines Ariyanti, Tati; ., Supar
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 18, No 1 (2008): MARCH 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

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Abstract

Pasteurellosis or fowl cholera disease which associated with Pasteurella multocida group A and D infections occurred sporadically in many parts of the world, including in Indonesia. The pathogenic activity of P. multocida in chickens were based on lipopolysacharide (LPS) antigens associated with group A and D capsules, and the resistance factor of complement mediated bacteriolysis in animals. In order to reduce common bacterial infections, antibiotics were routinely used as feed additive or by drinking water, but fowl cholera cases still occur. Fowl cholera control by vaccinations have been used more than a hundred years ago by means of inactive vaccine, but imported inactive vaccine was reported not effective due to lack of cross protection against heterologous serotype. At present, many  local P. multocida isolates from chicken and ducks from many  areas in Indonesia were characterised for their antigenicity, immunogenicity and prepared as monovalent or bivalent vaccine. Only the monovalent vaccine prepared from BCC 2331 or DY2 demonstrated the presence of immunoprotection against homologous and heterologous challenged with live bacteria. The prototype bivalent vaccine consisting of BCC 2331 + DY2 demonstrated high degree of cross protection against challenged individual with or mixed of BCC 2331 + DY2 at average of 60 – 75% and 75 – 100%, respectively. Monovalent and bivalent vaccine prepared from other isolates including imported reference strains of P. multocida demonstrated no protection in experimentally vaccinated ducks and chicken against challenged with live bacteria of neither BCC 2331 nor with DY2. From these retrospective studies, it was concluded that the local isolates P. multocida designated  as  BCC  2331  and  DY2  could  be  used  as candidates  of  prototype  vaccine  or  master  seed  vaccine  but their effectiveness still need to be evaluated under field conditions.  Key words: Pasteurella multocida, Indonesian isolates, inactive vaccines, fowl cholera
Studies on piglet diarrhoea associated with enterotoxigenic escherichia coli and its control by vaccination ., Supar
Hemera Zoa Vol 77, No 2 (1995): Jurnal Hemera Zoa
Publisher : Hemera Zoa

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Abstract

Piglet neonatal diarrhoea occured in all the piggeries studied in Indonesia. Field studies demonstrated the prevalence of diarrhoea in all piggeries were at range from 13.4% to 43.7% with and average 24.7%. The majority of piglets with diarrhoea were in the first 2 weeks of life. Mortality of piglets were at rates between 12.2% to 31.6% with an average 17.9%. The distribution of piglet mortality preceded by diarrhoea recorded in an intensive study in a piggery G for a seven week period showed a high positive correlation with diarrhoea (r2 = 0.79; P
Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease ., Tarmudji; ., Supar
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 18, No 4 (2008): DECEMBER 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

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Abstract

Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis). This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic). M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles), in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected positive reactors.   Key words: Bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, zoonotic disease
Molecular Characterization of Pasteurella multocida: Its Implication with Epidemiology and The Development of Local Isolate Vaccines ., Supar; Ariyanti, Tati
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 17, No 4 (2007): DECEMBER 2007
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

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Abstract

Pasteurella multocida strains are the causative agents of pasteurellosis attacking  wide range domestic and wild animals. The important pasteurellosis in animals in Indonesia are Haemorrhagic septicaemic (HS) or Septicaemia epizootica (SE) in large and small ruminants, fowl cholera in poultry and water powls. HS associated with P. multocida in large ruminants was controlled by killed whole cell vaccines produced by the use of P. multocida Katha strain, whereas fowl cholera was controlled by antimicrobial drugs. At present, there are only a limited molecular biology techniques have been applied to investigate P. multocida isolates from different geographic locations in Indonesia. Genomic DNA of P. multocida from HS cases from various provinces which were treated with restriction endonuclease ApaI and analysed by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoreses (PFGE) demonstrated the presence of high degree distinctive DNA pattern compared to that of the vaccine (Katha) strain from Burma and other reference strains. Similar different patterns were found in genomic DNA of local P. multocida isolates from cholera disease of chicken and ducks. P. multocida isolates from some provinces showed different DNA patterns to each other. These DNA pattern differences were probably associated with the alteration of their pathogenicity, antigenicity and immunogenicity, but it has not been confirmed yet. Vaccines prepared from P. multocida isolate originated from local HS cases and local cholera demonstrated better protection in experimental animals against heterologous and homologous challenges, in terms of higher and consistency antibody responses compared to that of Katha strain or imported P. multocida poultry strains. This supports the potential aspects of molecular characterization of local P. multocida isolates kept at the BCC Unit. These isolates may play an important role in developing local master seeds to produce pasteurellosis local vaccines which would be more promising to be used in Indonesia in the future but further field trials are still needed.   Key words: Pasteurella multocida, characterization, DNA analysis, vaccines
Food Safety of Animal Products That Viewed from Disease Aspect ., Supar; Ariyanti, Tati
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 15, No 4 (2005): DECEMBER 2005
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

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Abstract

Animal diseases are tnajor factors affecting food producing anitnals at husbandry productions. The infectious and or non infectious diseases can influence the food quality of animal products and their safety for human consumption. The food safety of animal products becomes a world trade issue because it affects some aspects of human life quality and health. The food safety of anitnal products is defined at least by physical and health conditions of animal at preharvest period . It can be achieved by good manufacturing practice, beginning at animal production level up to the harvesting period. During this period, the animals must be protected against infection by pathogens of either bacteria, viruses or protozoa. linportant animal diseases which often cause problems during animal husbandry productions are anthrax, salmonellosis, brucellosis, tuberculosis, clostridiosis. colibacillosis, staphylococcosis. Some of the pathogens causing those diseases may also cause food poisoning and foodborne disease. The viral disease infection can affect food-safety at preharvest time but not at postharvest. At prcharvest period in fanns the disease can be controlled by vaccines and selected drug application. To obtain the good quality assurance of food producing animals and the safety for human consumption, the physical and the health conditions of animals can be determined visually. To determine the health status of food producing animals, each animal must be tested for the presence of pathogens and or specific antibody. This needs a veterinary laboratory facility with good equipments, chemical and diagnostic reagents. On the other hand, in order to pursue the good quality assurance of food producing animals up to the harvesting period, the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) and good agricultural practice (GAP) concepts in animal husbandry productions must be followed. Key words: Animal products, preharvest, human consumption, food safety
The Role of Salmonella Enteritidis in Chicken and its Product Ariyanti, Tati; ., Supar
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 15, No 2 (2005): JUNE 2005
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

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Abstract

Free pathogenic microorganism of food derived from animals is a prerequisite for human consumption . One of the important pathogenic microorganisms originated from animal product of food is Salmonella. Salmonella enteritidis is frequently found in chicken and spreads vertically as well as horizontally products (eggs, meats and meat products) by direct or indirect contact. Salmonella that contaminated animal product of food can cause foodborne disease in human . Foodborne disease associated with Salmonella occurred in some parts of the world including Indonesia . This problem needs attention from the government, producers and consumers. In the animal production especially chicken, it is demanded to provide animal food and their products free from Salmonella . This is an important indicator of safety food condition . Salmonella control programs in the animal production level begin with raising free-Salmonella day old chick with free Salmonella feed, good farm environmental sanitation . Further more, the monitoring program of Salmonella in farm and post harvest process needs to be conducted . Appropriate handlings of animals and their products are important to obtain food of animal products that are healthy and safe for human consumption . Key word: Salmonella enteritidis, contamination, meat, egg
The detection of K88, K99 fimbrial antigen and enterotoxin genes of Escherichia coli isolated from piglets and calves with diarrhoea in Indonesia ., Supar
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 2, No 1 (1996)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

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Abstract

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains cause diarrhoeal disease in piglets and calves in Indonesia. These strains possess two virulence factors namely attachment and enterotoxin antigens . These factors could be detected phenotypically and genetically. Haemolytic Escherichia coli (E coli) isolates possessing K88 fimbrial antigen associated with 0-group 108 and 149. They were positive for K88 gene and demonstrated their ability to produce heat labile enterotoxin (LT) and genetically were all positive for LT gene . Seventeen isolates ofE coli K88 which associated with 0-group 149 were positive forSTb gene, other O-serotypes were negative . Ten isolates of Ecoli K88 which associated with 0-group 108 possessed K88, K99, LT and STa genes, but negative for STb gene . However, phenotypically the K99 antigen and STa toxin were not expressed under laboratory conditions, the reason was not well understood . E. coli K99 strains isolated from calves wit h diarrhoea were all associated with 0-group 9 and produced STa toxin when tested by suckling mousse bioassay. The E. coli K99 calf isolates were all hybridized with K99 and STa gene only . It is likely that K99 gene is associated with STa gene . The DNA hybridization technique is more convenience to be used for confirmation diagnosis of colibacillosis, however, not all veterinary laboratories could perform these tests .   Keywords: Excherichia coli, probe, gene detection, virulence determinant
The Veterinary Microbal Germ Plasm Applicability on Animal Husbandry Development: The Future Expectation of Enterotoxigenic, Enteropathogenic and Verotoxigenic Locally Isolated Escherichia Coli Vaccines for Controlling Neonatal Colibacillosis in Piglets and Calves ., Supar
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 11, No 1 (2001)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

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Abstract

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the major causes of neonatal diarrhoea in piglets and calves. The prevalence of diarrhoeal cases and mortality in neonatal piglets were reported to occur between 13 to 44% and 12 to 32% respectively. Similar problems were observed in neonatal dairy calves, at which the diarrhoeal cases and mortality were reported at an average of 20 to 30% and 24% respectively. ETEC containing either K88, K99, F41 or 987P fimbrial antigen isolates were commonly associated with piglet diarrhoea, whereas ETEC bearing K99, F41 or K99F41 fimbrial antigens associated with calf diarrhoea. Both of the ETEC isolates were known to exhibit multiple resistance between 4 to 6 antibiotic drugs, or even up to 9 to 15 antibiotic drugs commonly used in the field. These indicated that antibiotics were no longer effective to be used to treat and to control piglet and calf diarrhoea associated with ETEC. Inactivated multivalent ETEC vaccine containing K88, K99, F41 and 987P antigens was developed from local isolates and adjuvanted with alumium hydroxide gel at final concentration of 1,5% and cell concentration was equal to the number 10 of the McFarland tubes standard. Two doses of 2 ml vaccine were subcutaneously injected into pregnant sows at 6 weeks and 2 weeks before expected date of forrowing. New born piglets were allowed to suckle their own mother under field conditions. Similar vaccine was prepared from ETEC K99, F41, K99F41 and verotoksigenik E. coli (VTEC) field isolates originated from calves with diarrhoea as described above. Two doses of  5 ml ETEC vaccine were injected subcutaneously of pregnant dairy cows of 6 weeks and 2 weeks before expected date of calving. Calf born from vaccinated cow was given colostrum of its owm mother by the milk man. A killed whole cell multivalent ETEC vaccine containing K88, K99, F41 dan 987P injected intramuscularly or subcutaneously into pregnant sows induced antifimbrial IgG and IgA responses both in serum which was predominated by IgG, and in the mammary secretions were both IgA and IgG. In other words such vaccines provided passive protection to piglets which be able to suckle colostrum at birth. Similar antibody responses were demonstrated in dairy cows vaccinated with ETEC containing K99, F41 fimbrial antigens and E. coli producing verotoxin antigen (VTEC). Vaccine field trials to control piglet neonatal colibacillosis in swine that two doses of multivalent vaccine given four weeks apart  in pregnant sows at late gestation provided dramatically reduced piglet diarrhoea and mortality from 30% (unvaccinated) to 5% (vaccinated). The use of 2 doses of ETEC K99, F41 and VTEC in pregnant dairy cows at late gestation reduced the calf diarrhoea and mortality from 13.0% annualy (before vaccine application) to 0.7% (vaccine application period). The two types of vaccine (multivalent ETEC for pigs and ETEC+VTEC for cattle) demonstrated a good prospect, since these whole cell vaccines  are highly efficacious in controling neonatal piglet and calf diarrhoea and mortality. These vaccines could be used to replace antibiotic therapy in the future. The  ETEC, EPEC and VTEC local isolates are preseved at the Balitvet culture colection (BCC) Bogor.   Key words: Piglets, calves, microbial germ plasm, ETEC, EPEC, VTEC, colibacillosis, vaccines, field control
Food Safety of Animal Products That Viewed from Disease Aspect ., Supar; Ariyanti, Tati
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 15, No 4 (2005)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

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Abstract

Animal diseases are tnajor factors affecting food producing anitnals at husbandry productions. The infectious and or non infectious diseases can influence the food quality of animal products and their safety for human consumption. The food safety of animal products becomes a world trade issue because it affects some aspects of human life quality and health. The food safety of anitnal products is defined at least by physical and health conditions of animal at preharvest period . It can be achieved by good manufacturing practice, beginning at animal production level up to the harvesting period. During this period, the animals must be protected against infection by pathogens of either bacteria, viruses or protozoa. linportant animal diseases which often cause problems during animal husbandry productions are anthrax, salmonellosis, brucellosis, tuberculosis, clostridiosis. colibacillosis, staphylococcosis. Some of the pathogens causing those diseases may also cause food poisoning and foodborne disease. The viral disease infection can affect food-safety at preharvest time but not at postharvest. At prcharvest period in fanns the disease can be controlled by vaccines and selected drug application. To obtain the good quality assurance of food producing animals and the safety for human consumption, the physical and the health conditions of animals can be determined visually. To determine the health status of food producing animals, each animal must be tested for the presence of pathogens and or specific antibody. This needs a veterinary laboratory facility with good equipments, chemical and diagnostic reagents. On the other hand, in order to pursue the good quality assurance of food producing animals up to the harvesting period, the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) and good agricultural practice (GAP) concepts in animal husbandry productions must be followed. Key words: Animal products, preharvest, human consumption, food safety
Molecular Characterization of Pasteurella multocida: Its Implication with Epidemiology and The Development of Local Isolate Vaccines ., Supar; Ariyanti, Tati
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 17, No 4 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

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Abstract

Pasteurella multocida strains are the causative agents of pasteurellosis attacking  wide range domestic and wild animals. The important pasteurellosis in animals in Indonesia are Haemorrhagic septicaemic (HS) or Septicaemia epizootica (SE) in large and small ruminants, fowl cholera in poultry and water powls. HS associated with P. multocida in large ruminants was controlled by killed whole cell vaccines produced by the use of P. multocida Katha strain, whereas fowl cholera was controlled by antimicrobial drugs. At present, there are only a limited molecular biology techniques have been applied to investigate P. multocida isolates from different geographic locations in Indonesia. Genomic DNA of P. multocida from HS cases from various provinces which were treated with restriction endonuclease ApaI and analysed by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoreses (PFGE) demonstrated the presence of high degree distinctive DNA pattern compared to that of the vaccine (Katha) strain from Burma and other reference strains. Similar different patterns were found in genomic DNA of local P. multocida isolates from cholera disease of chicken and ducks. P. multocida isolates from some provinces showed different DNA patterns to each other. These DNA pattern differences were probably associated with the alteration of their pathogenicity, antigenicity and immunogenicity, but it has not been confirmed yet. Vaccines prepared from P. multocida isolate originated from local HS cases and local cholera demonstrated better protection in experimental animals against heterologous and homologous challenges, in terms of higher and consistency antibody responses compared to that of Katha strain or imported P. multocida poultry strains. This supports the potential aspects of molecular characterization of local P. multocida isolates kept at the BCC Unit. These isolates may play an important role in developing local master seeds to produce pasteurellosis local vaccines which would be more promising to be used in Indonesia in the future but further field trials are still needed.   Key words: Pasteurella multocida, characterization, DNA analysis, vaccines