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PERMASALAHAN DAN PENGEMBANGAN ANGKUTAN UMUM DI KOTA SURABAYA Widayanti, Ari; ., Soeparno; Karunia, Bhertin
Jurnal Transportasi Vol 14, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Jurnal Transportasi

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Abstract

Public transport is very important to support community activities. Problems that occur on public transport in the City of Surabaya are the condition of the fleet, infrastructure, passengers, regulators, and operators, including the driver and the company. Collecting data in this study is done by on-board and off-board surveys, interviews, and questionnaires. Data were analyzed using fish bone and descriptive analysis. Fleet operating conditions show that the frequency of the service is not good, the average headway is greater than 10 minutes, and a low load factor. Reasons for selecting the mode that mentioned most by AC bus users are facilities, safety, and cleanliness. As for the economic bus users, the reasons to select the bus are directly to the destination, inexpensive, and adequate bus driver behavior. To accommodate the needs of the user groups some improvements are needed to the operating fleet, service system, as well as operational and financial management by integrating all existing interests. Angkutan umum sangat penting untuk mendukung aktivitas masyarakat. Masalah yang terjadi pada angkutan umum di Kota Surabaya adalah kondisi armada, infrastruktur atau prasarana, penumpang, regulator, dan operator, termasuk sopir dan perusahaan. Pengumpulan data pada studi ini dilakukan dengan cara on-board dan off-board survey, wawancara, dan kuesionair. Data kemudian dianalisis menggunakan metode fish bone dan analisis deskriptif. Kondisi operasional armada menunjukkan frekuensi layanan yang kurang baik, waktu antara rata-rata lebih besar dari 10 menit, dan load factor yang rendah. Alasan pemilihan moda yang paling diperhatikan penumpang pengguna Bis AC adalah fasilitas, keamanan, dan kebersihan. Sedangkan bagi pengguna bis ekonomi adalah langsung ke tempat tujuan, murah, dan pelayanan sopir yang memadai. Untuk mengakomodasi kebutuhan kedua kelompok pengguna tersebut diperlukan  perbaikan-perbaikan terhadap armada yang beroperasi, sistem pelayanan, serta manajemen operasional dan keuangan dengan mengintegrasikan semua kepentingan yang ada.
OPTIMASI KONDISI FERMENTASI WHEY DANGKE SEBAGAI PRODUK MINUMAN DENGAN RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY Maruddin, Fatma; ., Soeparno; ., Nurliyani; Hidayat, Chusnul; Taufik, Muhammad
Jurnal Agritech Vol 32, No 03 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Agritech

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Abstract

Optimization of Fermentation Conditions of Dangke Whey as Beverage Product by Using Response SurfaceMethodologyABSTRAKWhey dangke merupakan limbah dangke yang belum banyak dimanfaatkan. Whey dangke dipisahkan dari curdmenggunakan getah buah pepaya sebagai sumber enzim. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengoptimasi kondisifermentasi (level inokulum, waktu inkubasi dan level tapioka) whey limbah dangke sebagai produk minuman denganresponse surface methodology. Minuman fermentasi komersial digunakan sebagai target dalam menentukan kondisioptimal. Whey dicampur tepung tapioka level 0, 0,35., 0,7., 1,05 dan 1,4% dan dipanaskan sambil diaduk selama 5menit suhu 70 oC. Whey selanjutnya dipasteurisasi suhu 80oC selama 30 menit. Setelah dingin diinokulasi L.acidophiluslevel 1, 3, 5, dan 7% serta diinkubasi suhu 37 oC selama 8, 12, 16, 18 dan 24 jam. Karakteristik produk minuman yangdiperoleh dengan penambahan level inokulum 5%, tapioka level 0,7% dan diinkubasi 16 jam hampir sama karakteristikminuman fermentasi komersial adalah kandungan asam laktat 0,58%, viskositas 0,21 poise dan pH 3,7. Karakteristiktersebut dapat didekati dengan mengoptimasi kondisi fermentasi menggunakan metode RSM.Kata kunci: Whey dangke, kondisi fermentasi, produk minuman, response surface methodologyABSTRACTDangke whey is a dangke by-product that has not been widely utilized. Dangke whey is separated from curd using thepapaya latex as source of enzymes. The objectives of the study were to optimize fermentation conditions (tapioca level,inoculum level, and incubation time) of whey from dangke waste by using a response surface methodology. Commerciallyfermentative beverage was used as a target to determine the optimal conditions. Whey was mixed with tapioca level of0, 0.35, 0.7, 1.05, and 1.4%, and was heated by stirring for 5 minutes at temperature of 70 oC. The whey was pasteurizedat the temperature of 80 oC for 30 minutes. The whey was cool, and inoculated with L.acidophilus at the level of 1,3, 5, and 7%, and incubated at 37 °C for 8, 12, 16, 18, and 24 hours, respectively. The characteristics of fermentationbeverage obtained by the addition of inoculum level of 5%, tapioca 0.7% level and incubated for 16 hours were similarto the characteristics of commercially fermentative beverage. The characteristics of fermentated beverage were asfollows: lactic acid was 0.58%, viscosity was 0.21 poise and pH was 3, 7, respectively. These characteristics could beobtained by optimization of fermentation conditions by using RSM method.Keywords: Dangke whey, fermentation conditions, beverage product, response surface methodology
KARAKTERISTIK WHEY LIMBAH DANGKE DAN POTENSINYA SEBAGAI PRODUK MINUMAN DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 (Characteristics of Whey from Dangke Waste and Its Potential as Beverage Product by using Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051) ., Fatma; ., Soeparno; ., Nurliyani; Hidayat, Chusnul; Taufik, Muhammad
Jurnal Agritech Vol 32, No 04 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Agritech

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Abstract

ABSTRACT Dangke whey has not been widely utilized.  Dangke  whey handling is required  for the prevention of environmental pollution, especially  in  Enrekang.  Evaluating the characteristics of dangke whey is the initial step of dangke  whey handling. Complete data about the dangke whey would be  scientific information for researchers or the public to further the utilization. Nutritional value of dangke whey allows the use of  Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 to be processed into  beverage  products. This research objectives were to investigate the characteristics of whey from dangke waste, which were obtained from milk protein separation by using lyophilization of papaya latex, and it also to evaluate the potential of dangke whey as beverage product by using Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051. A commercial fermented beverages product is used as a comparison, based on the activity  of growth/bacteria numbers, lactic acid and pH. Milk was added with enzyme solution (lyophilized latex) on the level of 0.4 to 1% (v/v). The best level was used for the production of the fermented whey beverage products. Whey was mixed with tapioca level of 0, 0.35, 0.7, 1.05, and 1.4%, and was heated by stirring for 5 minutes at temperature of 70oC. The whey was pasteurized at the temperature of 80oC for 30 minutes. The whey was cooled, and inoculated with L.acidophilus at the level of 1, 3, 5, and 7%, and incubated at 37°C for 8, 12, 16, 18, and 24 hours, respectively. The characteristics of whey dangke were as follows: the solid total was 6.95 ± 0.23%, lactic acid was 0.1 ± 0.003%, fat was 0.2 ± 0.05%, protein was  0.63 ± 0.009%, lactose was 5.08 ± 0.009%, pH was 6.31 ± 0.01, and viscocity was 0.19 ± 0.004 poise. Dangke whey is potential as a beverage products with the addition of  Lactobacillus acidophilus with quality similar to the commercial fermented beverage after incubated for 16 hours, with the addition of inoculum level of 5% and tapioca level of 0.35% based on the activity of growth, lactic acid and pH. Keywords: Dangke whey, characteristics, potential, beverage product, Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 ABSTRAK Whey dangke belum banyak dimanfaatkan. Penanganan whey dangke sangat diperlukan untuk pencegahan pencemaran lingkungan khususnya di Kabupaten Enrekang. Evaluasi karakteristik whey dangke merupakan langkah awal penanganan whey dangke. Data yang lengkap tentang karakteristik whey dangke akan menjadi informasi ilmiah bagi para peneliti ataupun masyarakat untuk pemanfaatan whey dangke lebih lanjut. Nutrisi whey memungkinkan penggunaaan Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 untuk diolah menjadi produk minuman. Penelitian ini  bertujuan mengetahui karakteristik whey limbah dangke, diperoleh dari pemisahan protein susu dengan menggunakan getah pepaya liofilisasi serta mengetahui potensi whey dangke sebagai produk minuman menggunakan Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 dengan menggunakan produk minuman fermentasi komersial sebagai pembanding, berdasarkan aktivitas pertumbuhan/jumlah bakteri, kandungan asam laktat dan pH. Susu ditambahkan larutan enzim (getah liofilisasi) level 0,4 - 1% (v/v), dan level terbaik digunakan untuk  pembuatan produk minuman whey fermentasi. Whey dicampur tepung tapioka  level 0, 0,35., 0,7., 1,05 dan 1,4% dan dipanaskan sambil diaduk selama 5 menit suhu 70oC. Whey selanjutnya di pasteurisasi suhu 80oC selama 30 menit. Setelah dingin diinokulasi L.acidophilus level 1, 3, 5, dan 7% serta diinkubasi  suhu  37oC selama 8, 12, 16, 18 dan 24 jam. Karakteristik whey dangke adalah; total padatan 6,95±0,23%, asam laktat 0,1±0,003%, lemak 0,2±0,05%, protein 0,63± 0,009%, laktosa 5,08 ±0,009%, pH 6,31±0,01 dan viskositas 0,19±0,004 poise. Whey dangke berpotensi sebagai produk minuman dengan penambahan Lactobacillus acidophilus dengan kualitas yang hampir sama dengan produk minuman fermentasi komersial setelah diinkubasi selama 16 jam, penambahan level inokulum 5%  dan penambahan level tapioka 0,35% berdasarkan aktivitas pertumbuhan, asam laktat dan pH. Kata kunci: Whey dangke, karakteristik, potensi, produk minuman, Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051
PERMASALAHAN DAN PENGEMBANGAN ANGKUTAN UMUM DI KOTA SURABAYA Widayanti, Ari; ., Soeparno; Karunia, Bhertin
Jurnal Transportasi Vol 14, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Jurnal Transportasi

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.26593/jt.v14i1.1374.%p

Abstract

Public transport is very important to support community activities. Problems that occur on public transport in the City of Surabaya are the condition of the fleet, infrastructure, passengers, regulators, and operators, including the driver and the company. Collecting data in this study is done by on-board and off-board surveys, interviews, and questionnaires. Data were analyzed using fish bone and descriptive analysis. Fleet operating conditions show that the frequency of the service is not good, the average headway is greater than 10 minutes, and a low load factor. Reasons for selecting the mode that mentioned most by AC bus users are facilities, safety, and cleanliness. As for the economic bus users, the reasons to select the bus are directly to the destination, inexpensive, and adequate bus driver behavior. To accommodate the needs of the user groups some improvements are needed to the operating fleet, service system, as well as operational and financial management by integrating all existing interests. Angkutan umum sangat penting untuk mendukung aktivitas masyarakat. Masalah yang terjadi pada angkutan umum di Kota Surabaya adalah kondisi armada, infrastruktur atau prasarana, penumpang, regulator, dan operator, termasuk sopir dan perusahaan. Pengumpulan data pada studi ini dilakukan dengan cara on-board dan off-board survey, wawancara, dan kuesionair. Data kemudian dianalisis menggunakan metode fish bone dan analisis deskriptif. Kondisi operasional armada menunjukkan frekuensi layanan yang kurang baik, waktu antara rata-rata lebih besar dari 10 menit, dan load factor yang rendah. Alasan pemilihan moda yang paling diperhatikan penumpang pengguna Bis AC adalah fasilitas, keamanan, dan kebersihan. Sedangkan bagi pengguna bis ekonomi adalah langsung ke tempat tujuan, murah, dan pelayanan sopir yang memadai. Untuk mengakomodasi kebutuhan kedua kelompok pengguna tersebut diperlukan  perbaikan-perbaikan terhadap armada yang beroperasi, sistem pelayanan, serta manajemen operasional dan keuangan dengan mengintegrasikan semua kepentingan yang ada.
PERMASALAHAN DAN PENGEMBANGAN ANGKUTAN UMUM DI KOTA SURABAYA Widayanti, Ari; ., Soeparno; Karunia, Bhertin
Jurnal Transportasi Vol 14, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Forum Studi Transportasi antar Perguruan Tinggi (FSTPT)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.26593/jt.v14i1.1374.%p

Abstract

Public transport is very important to support community activities. Problems that occur on public transport in the City of Surabaya are the condition of the fleet, infrastructure, passengers, regulators, and operators, including the driver and the company. Collecting data in this study is done by on-board and off-board surveys, interviews, and questionnaires. Data were analyzed using fish bone and descriptive analysis. Fleet operating conditions show that the frequency of the service is not good, the average headway is greater than 10 minutes, and a low load factor. Reasons for selecting the mode that mentioned most by AC bus users are facilities, safety, and cleanliness. As for the economic bus users, the reasons to select the bus are directly to the destination, inexpensive, and adequate bus driver behavior. To accommodate the needs of the user groups some improvements are needed to the operating fleet, service system, as well as operational and financial management by integrating all existing interests. Angkutan umum sangat penting untuk mendukung aktivitas masyarakat. Masalah yang terjadi pada angkutan umum di Kota Surabaya adalah kondisi armada, infrastruktur atau prasarana, penumpang, regulator, dan operator, termasuk sopir dan perusahaan. Pengumpulan data pada studi ini dilakukan dengan cara on-board dan off-board survey, wawancara, dan kuesionair. Data kemudian dianalisis menggunakan metode fish bone dan analisis deskriptif. Kondisi operasional armada menunjukkan frekuensi layanan yang kurang baik, waktu antara rata-rata lebih besar dari 10 menit, dan load factor yang rendah. Alasan pemilihan moda yang paling diperhatikan penumpang pengguna Bis AC adalah fasilitas, keamanan, dan kebersihan. Sedangkan bagi pengguna bis ekonomi adalah langsung ke tempat tujuan, murah, dan pelayanan sopir yang memadai. Untuk mengakomodasi kebutuhan kedua kelompok pengguna tersebut diperlukan  perbaikan-perbaikan terhadap armada yang beroperasi, sistem pelayanan, serta manajemen operasional dan keuangan dengan mengintegrasikan semua kepentingan yang ada.