Darminto .
Dept. of Physics, Fac. of Math. and Natural Sciences-Sepuluh November Institute of Tech. Surabaya Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia

Published : 76 Documents
Articles

Pengaruh Waktu Kontak Tanah Diatomeae Terhadap Peningkatan Hasil Reduksi Cr(VI) oleh Fotokatalisis TiO2 ., Darminto; Ketut Suryaning, Gusti
C H E M I C A Vol 9, No 2 (2008)
Publisher : Jurusan Kimia FMIPA UNM

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ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui massa optimum dan pengaruh waktu kontak tanah diatomeae terhadap peningkatkan hasil reduksi Cr(VI) oleh fotokatalis TiO2. Tanah diatomeae diambil dari Laboratorium Tanah Fakultas Tehnik Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta yang dikontakkan dengan larutan yang mengandung Cr(VI) 80 ppm dan katalis TiO2. Berat katalis yang digunakan adalah 0,25 gram. Variasi massa tanah diatomeae yang digunakan adalah 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 dan 60 mg dan variasi waktu kontak yang digunakan adalah 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11 dan 12 jam. Analisis sampel dilakukan masing-masing tiga kali dengan menggunakan spektrofotometer UV-Vis pada panjang gelombang 543,5 nm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa massa optimum tanah diatomeae yang dapat meningkatkan hasil reduksi Cr(VI) adalah 40 mg dengan konsentrasi Cr(VI) yang tereduksi sebesar 21,4612 ppm dari konsentrasi awal Cr(VI) 80 ppm. Berdasarkan hasil uji F dan uji bnt, waktu kontak optimum tanah diatomeae terhadap peningkatan hasil reduksi Cr (VI) adalah 10 jam Kata Kunci: Diatomeae, Reduksi Cr(VI). Fotokatalisis ABSTRACT This research was conducted to know the optimum mass and the effect of contact time the diatomeae to improve of Cr(VI) reduction by Photocatalysis TiO2. The Diatomeae was taken from Technique Faculty Laboratory of Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta. Diatomeae was contacted with the solution contain Cr(VI) 80 ppm and TiO2 Catalysis 0,25 gram. The variation of diatomeae mass where used, namely 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mg and, the  variation of contact time are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11 and 12 hour. The sample was analyzed by spectrophotometer UV-VIS with 543.5 nm wavelength. The result of the research is indicated that the optimum mass diatomeae which can improve of Cr(VI) reduction is 40 mg with the concentration of Cr(VI) reduced equal to 21,4612 ppm from 80 ppm. Based of F test and the end bnt test, the optimum contact time of diatomeae to improve of result reduced the Cr(VI) are 10 hours. Keyword: Diatomeae, Reduction of the Cr(VI), photocatalysis.
Indentifikasi Senyawa Metabolit Sekunder Potensial Menghambat Pertumbuhan Bakteri Aeromonas hydrophyla dari Kulit batang Tumbuhan Aveccennia spp. ., Darminto; Ali, Alimuddin; Dini, Iwan
C H E M I C A Vol 10, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Jurusan Kimia FMIPA UNM

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ABSTRAK Tumbuhan mangrove berpotensi memetabolisme senyawa yang sebagai anti bakteri yang diketahui dari hasil uji ekstrak kulit batang tumbuhan Avecennia spp. terhadap bakteri Aeoromonas hydrophyla. Penelitian ini menindak lanjuti hasil tersebut untuk mengetahui kandungan senyawa metabolit sekunder dengan melakukan identifikasi terfraksinasi dilajutkan dengan fraksinasi dan purifikasi ekstrak. Hasil menujukkan adanya kandungan senyawa metabolit sekunder; golongan terpenoid, steroid, alkaloid, dan flavanoid pada tumbuhan Avecennia spp. Kata Kunci; Avicennia spp., A. hydrophyla.. ABSTRACT The Mangrove plant have potential to metabolism compounds as to against bacterium. This know at test of the tree bark extract of Avecennia spp. plant to Aeromonas hydrophyla. The Research to continue to know the content of secondary metabolite compounds by fractionation, identification and purification of extract. The result shown there are; terpenoid, steroid, alkaloid, and flavanoid content of Avecennia spp. plant. Key word; Avicennia spp., A. hydrophyla
Analisis Mutu Layanan Laboratorium Kimia Jurusan Kimia Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam UNM Masri, Melati; ., Darminto; Fauziah, Indah
C H E M I C A Vol 12, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Jurusan Kimia FMIPA UNM

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Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif analisis untuk melihat gambaran layanan laboratorium Kimia FMIPA UNM kepada mahasiswa pengguna laboratorium dan layanan masyarakat. Prosedur penelitian mengikuti alur mulai dari aktivitas studi dan analisis pendahuluan, merancang alat informasi data, mengevaluasi dan merevisi sampai tujuan yang diinginkan. Hasil penelitian diperoleh; (1) Kondisi daya dukung SDM dan sarana-prasarana laboratorium Kimia Jurusan Kimia FMIPA UNM untuk menunjang kegiatan meningkatkan kompetensi mahasiswa belum memadai, (2) Pemahaman laboran dalam pengelolaan laboratorium Kimia jurusan Kimia FMIPA UNM sebagian besar (73%) cukup memahami tugas pokoknya sebagai laboran dengan keterlaksanaan tugas 86%; (3) tingkat keterampilan laboran masih kurang (4) pelayanan pada mahasiswa dinilai netral atau cukup. Katakunci: mutu layanan labABSTRACT This research is descriptive analysis to know the laboratory services to the students us users and community service. Procedures to follow the research activities ranging from preliminary studies and analysis, designing an information tool data, evaluate and revise until the desired goal. The results obtained: (1) carrying capacity of the human condition and the laboratory infrastructure of Chemistry Department of Chemistry, Faculty UNM to support activities that improve student competency has not been adequate, (2) Understanding of the laboran in the Chemistry Department of Chemistry laboratory management UNM Faculty majority (73%) is quite understand the main task as a laboratory with 86% job usfull, (3) the level of laboran skills still low (4) student services there are at a neutral. Keywords: quality lab services
Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran IPA Kimia SMP Berbasis Kontekstual pada Materi Pokok Bahan Kimia di Rumah ., Darminto; Side, Sumiati
C H E M I C A Vol 13, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Jurusan Kimia FMIPA UNM

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Penelitian ini adalah penelitian pengembangan yang bertujuan  mengembangkan perangkat pembelajaran IPA Kimia SMP berbasis kontekstual  pada  materi pokok bahan kimia di rumah yang layak, praktis dan efisien untuk digunakan. Model pengembangan mengacu pada model Plomp. Hasil validasi menunjukkan bahwa kepraktisan berdasarkan angket persepsi dari empat orang guru IPA SMP memberikan respon positif terhadap perangkat pembelajaran  yang dikembangkan dan setuju bahwa perangkat tersebut lebih membuat kelas menjadi termotivasi untuk belajar. Persepsi dari 28 siswa terhadap perangkat dan model pembelajaran pernyataan positif 81,88%  rata-rata  (kategori praktis). Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa perangkat pembelajaran maupun model pembelajaran berbasis  kontekstual praktis dan layak untuk digunakan. Uji coba terbatas pada SMPN 1 Sungguminasa Kab. Gowa siswa kelas VIIIb dengan pretest dan postest diperoleh jumlah siswa yang tuntas 79,3% dan 20,7% tidak tuntas. Hasil pengujian dengan SPSS for Windows 15,0 dengan uji t ditemukan bahwa nilai signifikansi sebesar 0,000 artinya perangkat pembelajaran yang dikembangkan efektif untuk digunakan. Kata Kunci: Perangkat  Pembelajaran,  CTL, Bahan Kimia di rumah. ABSTRACT The aimed of this research is developing a Science chemistry learning tools for SMP based on contextual of chemicals topic at home indeed proper, practical, and efficient. Model refers to the Plomp Development model. Validation results contain that the practicality based a perception questionnaire from the four  science teachers of SMP responded positively to the learning tools were developed and agreed that such devices are motivated to learn. The perception of 28 students to the tools and learning models positive statement 81.88% on average (practical class). This shows that the learning tools and the learning model based on practical contextual are feasible to use. The limited trial to SMP 1 Sungguminasa District. Gowa grade students with pretest and posttest VIIIb obtained the number of students who completed 79.3% and 20.7% did not complete. Test with SPSS for Windows 15.0 by t test found that the significant value of 0.000 means the learning tools was developed are affective to use. Keywords: Learning Tools, CTL, Chemicals at home
UJI XRD DAN XRF PADA BAHAN MENERAL (BATUAN DAN PASIR) SEBAGAI SUMBER MATERIAL CERDAS (CaCO3 DAN SiO2) ., Munasir; ., Triwikantoro; Zainuri, M.; ., Darminto
Jurnal Penelitian Fisika dan Aplikasinya (JPFA),ISSN:2087-9946 Vol 2, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Penelitian Fisika dan Aplikasinya (JPFA),ISSN:2087-9946

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The clinico-pathological effects of chicken infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza in some farms located in East Java and West Java Damayanti, R; Dharmayanti, NLP.I; Indriani, R; Wiyono, Achmad Selamet; ., Darminto
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 9, No 2 (2004): JUNE 2004
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (448.741 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v9i2.419

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The study was conducted to investigate the clinico-pathological features of highly contagious disease occurred in chicken located in East and West Java during the outbreak in September-October 2003. Six farms located in Districts of Surabaya, Malang and Blitar of East Java had been visited. They were mainly commercial layer, breeder layer and breeder broiler, which the population was between 14.000, 80.000, and aged 17-70 weeks. Where as five farms in West Java (Districts of Bogor, Bekasi and their surrounding areas) were visited and consisted of commercial layer and breeder broiler, having population of 3000-16.000 and aged 11-53 weeks. Observation was made according to clinical, gross pathological and histopathological changes. Clinically, most of them had cyanotic wattle and comb and subcutaneous petechiation of non-feathered part of the legs. These were also seen in necropsy, accompanied by general circulatory disturbances in most organs: namely pectoral and thigh muscle, trachea, lungs, epicard, myocard, proventriculus, liver, kidney and ovary. In addition, the liver was congested, friable and necrotic in some parts. Histologically, hemorrhage and non suppurative inflammatory reaction were observed in the brain, skin (comb, wattle and non feathered leg), skeletal muscle, trachea, lung, heart, proventriculus, liver, kidney and ovary whereas vasculitis was found especially in the skin of the wattle and comb, brain and kidney. It is concluded that based on the clinicopathological findings the outbreak of poultry disease in East and West Java were attributed to highly pathogenic avian influenza.   Key words: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), chicken, clinico-pathology, outbreak, East Java, West Java
Detection of avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype in organs of chicken affected by higly pathogenic avian infuenza in East and West Java by using immunohistochemical technique Damayanti, R; Dharmayanti, N.L.P.I; Indriani, R; Wiyono, A; ., Darminto
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 9, No 3 (2004): SEPTEMBER 2004
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (310.53 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v9i3.409

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The study was conducted to detect antigen H5N1 of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) virus in various farms in East and West Java. The immunohistochemical technique was applied due to Hematoxilin-eosin (H&E) staining was impossible to visualize the antigen in tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was applied for some visceral organs collected from the areas where the outbreaks occurred in September-October 2003. The specimens were processed as histopathological paraffin blocks using standard method. The blocks that were suspected to have antigen H5N1 were cut and rabbit antisera to H5N1 produced from the local isolate was applied as the primary antibody. Biotinylated secondary antibody and avidin biotin peroxidase from a commercial kit were administered. The antigen present in the tissues were visualized by adding a substrate called Amino Ethyl Carbazole (AEC) resulting in reddish brown colour. This immunostaining proved to be accurate and reliably quick method to detect H5N1 antigen present in the avian tissues. In conclusion, the outbreak of bird flu was caused by H5N1 strain and the antigen could be found in wattles, combs, brain, trachea, lungs, heart, proventriculus, liver, spleen, kidney and ovary.   Key words: Highly pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI), chicken, H5N1, outbreak, immunohistochemistry
Infectious Bronchitis (IB) Disease and its Control in Chicken Indriani, Risa; ., Darminto
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 9, No 2 (1999)
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (274.556 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v9i2.723

Abstract

Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory disease of chicken’s caracterized by tracheal rallies, coughing, sneezing and nasal discharge in young chicks. In addition, the disease may affect kidhney, and in laying flock there is usually a drop in egg production and quality. IB is a major negative economic importance in poultry industry because the disease causes poor weight gain and feed efficiency, mortality in young chicks, reduction in egg production and egg quality in laying flock. IB is distributed worldwide and has been reported to be present in Indonesia. IB is caused by virus of a member of Coronaviridae under genera of Coronavirus. Spreading of IB virus among chickens usually by inhalation. Diagnosis of the disease can be based on the isolation and identification of the virus using embryonated chicken eggs and trachea organ culture. There is no treatment available for IB, so the control of the disease is mainly by vaccination. The existence of multiple serotipes of IB virus requires vaccines which are represent the antigenic spectrum of field isolates. To ensure the results of vaccination program, monitoring antibody titers following vaccination is recommended. The most widely used serological test for antibody monitoring is an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or Haemaglutination Inhibition (HI) test.   Key words: IB, virus, chicken, control
Marek's Disease in Chicken: I. Aetiology, Pathogenesis and its Control Adjid, R M A; Damayanti, R; Hamid, H; Sjafriati, T; ., Darminto
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 2 (2002)
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (153.523 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v12i2.768

Abstract

Marek’s disease (MD) is a neoplastic and neuropathic disease of poultry, especially chicken, caused by a highly contagious cell-associated herpesvirus. Marek’s disease is one of poultry diseases that is seriously concerned by poultry farmers. Before introduction of vaccine technology, the disease caused great economic loss in poultry industry, for example, in the United State the annual losses was estimated around $150 millions. Marek’s disease virus is relatively resistant to physical and chemical influence.  In  poultry  farms  the  virus  remains infectious  for  months  and  play  an  important  role  as  source of  infection. Pathogenesis of the disease is complex and influenced by factors. There are four phases of infection: early cytolytic infection, latent infection, second phase of cytolytic infection, and proliferative infection. Pathogenesis influenced by factors causes variety on clinical syndroms and incubation period of the disease in field condition. Successful disease control can be achieved, with vaccination as the main program, by selection of breed resistance and good management systems. The emergence of more virulent pathotypes of MD is a serious threat to the poultry industry, which requires development of more effective control strategies.   Key words. Marek, poultry, etiology, pathogenesis, control
Studies on the susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus) to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus ., Darminto; Bahri, Sjamsul
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 2, No 4 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (876.974 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v2i4.80

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Susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus) to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was evaluated by artificial infection . Twelve - 5 to 6 week old ostriches were divided into 3 groups each containing 4 birds . The first group was inoculated through respiratory system by dropping directly the virus solution into the nostrils, while the second group was inoculated through digestive system by dropping directly the virus solution into the oesophagus, with the dose of infection 106ELDSo (50%-embryo lethal dose) per bird . Meanwhile, the third group was treated as uninfected control . All infected birds developed antibody responses, but only two inoculated birds from the first group and two inoculated birds from the second group developed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND), with no specific pathological alterations . Infected birds, either sicks or healthy, excreted the challenge viruses through the respiratory system and still be detected up to the end of this experiment, ie . 15 days post-inoculation . The challenge viruses can be re-isolated from the brain, trachea, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, cecal-tonsil, and proventriculus of the infected birds . This study concludes that: (1) the ostriches are susceptible to the infection of the Indonesian velogenic strain ofNDV; (2) all infected birds developed immune responses, but only half of them develops el jtigi aj i disease ; (3) the infected birds excreted the challenge viruses for a considerable long time which may play role as the Mginiseti.ce ofinfectron the other healthy ostriches ; and (4) the challenge viruses can be re-isolated from various organs of the birds . .   Keywords : Newcastle disease vir4, 9strich, immune response, artificial infection