Sunarno -
Dosen Jurusan Fisika Fakultas MIPA Universitas Negeri Semarang Gedung D7 Lt. 2 Kampus Sekaran Gunungpati Semarang 50229

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PEMBERHENTIAN PRESIDEN REPUBLIK INDONESIA DARI MASA KE MAS -, Sunarno
Wacana Hukum Vol 10, No 2 (2011): Wacana Hukum
Publisher : Universitas Slamet Riyadi

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.33061/1.jwh.2011.10.2.257

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Abstract: The impeachment of the President of Indonesia that has happened from periode to periode is not the same uniform. In the Old Orde has been no provision for sure when the President can be impeach, especially when the President Soekarno was appointed as President for Life. During the New Order, according to Article 4 has been set Tap No.III/MPR/1978 to impeach the President before his term runs out, namely because: (a) at his own request, (b) remain absent, (c) really is agains the GBHN. During the Reformation, the termination of President expressly provided in Article 6 and Article 7 of the 1945 Constitution. Both in the Old Orde  and the New Orde Impeachment of President is more political than judicial. While at the Reformation Orde had never happened to impeach the Presiden. In Constitutional Law, decisions of state institution in generally is more political than judicial. Keywords: Impeachment, The  President  Republic of Indonesia
NEGARA HUKUM YANG DEMOKRATIS -, Sunarno
Wacana Hukum Vol 10, No 1 (2011): Wacana Hukum
Publisher : Universitas Slamet Riyadi

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.33061/1.jwh.2011.10.1.264

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Abstract : Law must go on democrazy. Law without democrazy will be repress law. In    the opposite democrazy without law  will be anarchist. This short paper want to give explaining academy about democrazy and institutionalization in law and to contect  Indonesia country, because  in  accordance  to UUD 1945 our country is a state law where the authority in the hand of people. The analizing of my short paper use to decision of Conference The International Commision of Yurist in Bangkok 1965. Key Word: The Reprensentative Government Under The Rule of Law
MENCARI KEPALA DAERAH YANG JUJUR DAN ADIL -, SUNARNO
Wacana Vol 9, No 1 (2010): Wacana Hukum
Publisher : Wacana

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AbstractsElection becomes a means of the process of democratization that must be conducted directly, publicly, freely, undisclosely, reliable and fairness. Based on the above norms, especially for the local election, it is hoped that a responsible and potential capable local leader/chief and/or vice local leader/chief will emerge. Yet, there are many disappointed incidents that need to be concerned during and after the election complete, such as the fight between supporters’ candidates, the unfair ballot counting, money politics and other dirty tricks. Those proved that the rules of law are still neglected during the local election. Considering that negligence, it is necessary (a) to recover the article 581 UU Number 32/2004 (b) to compromise between the law assurance, justice and benefits, and (c) to educate people about the culture of law, especially for the culture of personal law to be the open culture of law. Keywords:local leader/chief, reliable.
BEBERAPA MASALAH PADA PERJANJIAN KERJA WAKTU TERTENTU DAN SOLUSINYA -, SUNARNO
Wacana Hukum Vol 8, No 2 (2009): Wacana Hukum
Publisher : Universitas Slamet Riyadi

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.33061/1.jwh.2009.8.2.310

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Abstract: There are two work agreement stated in UU No 13 2003 about labour. They are given-time work agreement and not-given time work agreement. Business people prefer to take the first  for practical reason when they intend to break ther work agreement. That is why government establish rules to protect he labours. However, there ar still some disobedience. Therefore, government still ned to find th solution. Keywords: some problems in given-time work agreement
PEMBUATAN SISTEM PENGATURAN PUTARAN MOTOR DC MENGGUNAKAN KONTROL PROPORTIONAL-INTEGRAL-DERIVATIVE (PID) DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN SENSOR KMZ51 Khakim, L; -, Sunarno; -, Sugiyanto
Jurnal MIPA Vol 35, No 2 (2012): October 2012
Publisher : Jurnal MIPA

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Penelitian ini adalah penelitian pengembangan desain rancang bangun sistem pengendalian otomatis yang digerakkan dengan dua motor DC sehingga mampu mempertahankan kelembaman pada arahnya. Sistem otomatis ini terdiri dari sensor KMZ51 sebagai komponen feedback dan dua motor DC sebagai komponen plant. Pengujian dari sistem otomatis dibagi menjadi tiga yaitu pengujian sensor KMZ51, pengujian PWM sebagai penggerak motor DC dan pengujian performansi kontrol PID. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan nilai ketelitian sensor 99.17%. Pada pengujian PWM diperoleh error pengukuran 1.07% dan pengujian performansi sistem didapatkan bahwa penerapan kontrol PID dapat mengatur putaran motor DC sehingga model sistem mampu mempertahankan arahnya pada set point yang telah ditentukan dengan nilai overshoot maximum kurang dari 10%, rise time 2 detik dan settling time kurang dari 5% yang diperoleh pada Kp= 27, Ki= 6, dan Kd= 40 menggunakan metode trial and error. This research is design of automatic control system which driven by two DC motors that can keep the inertia of direction. The system is composed of sensor KMZ51 as feedback component and two DC motors as plant component. Testing of the automated system divided into three, KMZ51 sensor testing, PWM testing as drive DC motors, and performance testing of PID control system. The results show that the sensor accuracy values 99.17%, on testing the PWM measurement error obtained 1.07%, and testing of performance system obtained that the application of PID control can adjust DC motors rotation so that the model system is able to maintain direction the set point specified with maximum overshoot less than 10%, rise time of 2 seconds and settling time less than 5% were obtained at Kp= 27, Ki= 6, and Kd= 40 using trial and error method
APLIKASI ALAT RADIOGRAFI DIGITAL DALAM PENGEMBANGAN LAYANAN FOTO RONTGEN -, Susilo; -, Sunarno; Setiowati, E; Lestari, L
Jurnal MIPA Vol 35, No 2 (2012): October 2012
Publisher : Jurnal MIPA

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Sistem radiografi digital (RD) selama ini dianggap sebagai teknologi impor yang canggih,  mahal, dan memerlukan kemampuan sumber daya yang tinggi. Pengadaan secara built-in cenderung menyerap APBD cukup besar terutama untuk pelaksanaan otonomi daerah dan desentralisasi, selain itu juga tidak memberi nilai tambah bagi struktur iptek daerah. Dalam upaya pengembangan sistem RD untuk aplikasi medis, penelitian ini mengembangkan sistem pencitraan radiografi digital untuk pengembangan layanan RS Daerah. Melalui penelitian ini, hasil penelitian terdahulu dikembangkan menjadi model prototipe aplikasi pencitraan medis yang dilengkapi dengan sistem pelindung radiasi, dan sistem penangkap gambar yang dibangun dari tabung kedap cahaya, intensifying screen bersama kamera CCD, dan pengolah citra. Hasil penelitian ini adalah berupa model prototype sistem pencitraan radiografi digital (tanpa film) untuk pemeriksaan fraktur tulang dan software analisis citra radiografi digital berbasis Matlab 7.1, sehingga pencitraan medis ini dapat diduplikasi oleh unit kendali mutu yang ada di rumah sakit kota/daerah. Digital radiography system (RD) is considered as advanced and expensive imported technology, and it requires high resource capabilities. Built-in procurement tends to absorb substantial budget, especially for the implementation of regional autonomy and decentralization, but it also does not add value to the structure of the science and technology region. To develop the RD system for medical applications, this study developed a digital radiographic imaging system for the development of regional hospital services. Through this research, the results of previous studies developed a prototype model of medical imaging application that comes with the system of radiation protection and image capture system built from a light-tight tube, intensifying screen with a CCD camera and image processing. This study results a prototype model of digital radiography imaging system (without film) for examination of bone fractures and image of digital radiography software analysis based on Matlab 7.1, so that medical imaging can be duplicated by the quality control unit of city/regional hospital.
Rancang Bangun Sistem Penangkap Gambar Radiograf Digital Berbasis Kamera DSLR -, Susilo; -, Supriyadi; -, Sutikno; -, Sunarno; Setiawan, R.
Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika Indonesia Vol 10, No 1 (2014): January 2014
Publisher : Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Semarang State University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/jpfi.v10i1.3052

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Telah dilakukan modifikasi sistem penangkap gambar kedap cahaya yang dapat menampilkan langsung citra radiograf digital pada layar monitor PC dan menyimpan file radiograf tersebut sehingga bisa ditampilkan kembali. Penelitian ini bertujuan membangun model prototip sistem penangkap gambar berbasis kamera digital, sehingga hasilnya bisa diproses lebih lanjut menggunakan perangkat lunak pengolah citra berbasis Matlab. Hasil pemotretan dengan sinar-X pada benda uji dan volunteer digunakan untuk menguji keajegan hasil radiograf tersebut, dan diperoleh perbaikan kontras yang signifikan, ditunjukkan dengan tampilan histogram, nilai MSE dan PSNR yang sesuai. Aplikasi perangkat lunak tersebut dalam menganalisis radiograf benda uji, kaki, tangan serta stepwedge menunjukkan juga kenaikan ukuran file, kontras radiograf dan resolusi citra yang meningkat. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa model penangkap gambar yang dilengkapi dengan perangkat lunak berbasis Matlab dapat dikembangkan untuk pemeriksaan radiografi digital yang efektif, efisien dan mempunyai nilai ekonomi yang tinggi. It has been modified a system of light-tight image capturing which can display directly digital radiograph image on the monitor screen of PC and save that radiograph digital image for re-displaying it. This research aims to build a prototype of digital camera based-image capturing, so that the result can be processed further using a mathlab based-image processing software. The imaging process using X-ray on the test materials and volunteers are used to investigate its image consistency and find more contrast image, shown on the histogram, appropriate MSE and PSNR values. The application of this software for analyzing test materials, feet, hands and stepwdge showed the file size increase, radiograph constrast, and image resolution. This result shows that a model of image capturing completed by software based-mathlab can be developed to check an effective, efficient and has an economic value digital radiography test result.
Kajian Sistem Radiografi Digital sebagai Pengganti Sistem Computed Radiography yang Mahal (Halaman 40 s.d. 43) -, Susilo; -, Sunarno; Ketut Swakarma, I; Setiawan, Rudi; Wibowo, Edy
Jurnal Fisika Indonesia Vol 17, No 50 (2013)
Publisher : Department of Physics Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (423.176 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jfi.24423

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Sisitem radiografi diagnostic yang ada pada bagian radiologi Rumah Sakit Daerah (RSD) atau Puskesmas di Indonesia umumnya masih menggunakan system Radiografi Konvensional (RK) dengan film radiograf sebagai media penangkap citra. Berbeda dengan system Computed Radiography (CR)  tanpa film (filmless) yang sudah ada di RS tipe A atau RS maju di kota-kota besar. Dalam studi sebelumnya telah dilakukan pencitraan system radiografi digital  diagnostic berbasis X-Ray Intensifying Screen, diperoleh file radiograf digital dengan resolusi rendah, sehingga kalau dibesarkan citra radiograf menjadi pecah. Pada studi kali ini telah dikaji kemungkinan penggunaan kamera digital jenis single lens reflex pada  ruang kedap cahaya. Hasil eksperimen diperoleh hasil file radiograf digital dengan resoluasi lebih tinggi dibanding sebelumnya. Kajian ini bisa dikembangkan menjadi system radiografi digital dengan memodifikasi unit penangkat gambar pada sistem RK, sehingga sistem ini bisa menjembatani antara pembacaan radiograf analog menggunakan film menjadi file radiograf digital, sekaligus sebagai pengganti sistem CR  yang relative mahal.
Perbedaan Somatometri Itik Tegal, Itik Magelang Dan Itik Pengging Wulandari, Desi; -, Sunarno; Saraswati, Tyas Rini
Bioma Vol. 17, No.2, Tahun 2015
Publisher : Bioma

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (131.158 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/bioma, 17, 2, 94-101

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Local ducks in Indonesia there are several kinds, for example Tegal ducks, Magelang ducks and Pengging duck each having characteristics different somatometri. Research on somatometri ducks that includes body weight, leg length, beak length, wing length, body length, and long-neck ducks important to know somatometri of each duck. This study aimed to analyze the differences somatometri at Tegal ducks, Magelang ducks and Pengging duck, which includes weight, leg length, beak length, wing length, body length, and a long neck. Ducks were used in this study maintained in the Central Breeding and Raising Ducks Work Unit Non Ruminant Livestock Banyubiru, Ambarawa. The study was conducted by measuring somatometri of each six monthold ducks. Duck samples taken from three different types of ducks that Tegal duck, Pengging duck and Magelang duck, of each type of sample taken many ducks as 6 tails. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the differentiating factor is the type of duck. If the data were analyzed contained a real difference, then do a further test using the test Least Significant Differences (LSD) at 95% confidence level. The results showed that there was no significant difference in all parameters of the study. Conclusion of the study three types of ducks will have somatometri not unlike that includes, weight, leg length, beak length, wing length, body length and the length of the neck. It was because give feed and feed same time.   Keywords: Local Ducks in Central Java, Somatometri, Tegal ducks, Magelang ducks, Pengging duck
Penerapan Diagnostik Laboratorium pada Kasus Tersangka Positif Difteri pada Kejadian Luar Biasa di Kota Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat Sariadji, Kambang; -, Sunarno; Putranto, Rudi Hendro
Jurnal Biotek Medisiana Indonesia Vol 3, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Central Basic Biomedical and Health Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (412.351 KB)

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Based on national health research 2010, the coverage of basic immunization on West Kalimantan were 52,1%. It’s causes concern of outbreaks some immunizable prevented diseases in West Kalimantan . One of them is diphtheria. It was reported incidence of diphtheria suspect in Dalam Bugis, Pontianak Timur, Kota Pontianak, West Kalimantan in April 2013. A suspect of 12 years old girl was reported with a clinical diagnosis of diphtheria. Confirmation of positive suspect of diphtheria outbreaks occurred in West Kalimantan. A suspected case of diphtheriae and her mother were taken throat swabs on April 4, 2013, then she was retaken throat swabs and also 29 of her classmate as a contacts of case on April 24th 2013. Microscopic examination by staining Albert. Culture and isolation using blood agar and blood agar telurit. Suspect colonies are followed by biochemical tests using the API Coryne commercial product. Toxigenic test performed by polymerase chain reaction. A suspected case throat swab was taken on 4 April 2013 shows a microscopic results found difteroid form. Then the results of culture, isolation and biochemical have possibility > 89.5% of bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae type mitis. Toxigenic test showed that positif toxigenic bacteria which characterized by amplification gene tox (dtx) along 248 bp. Meanwhile her mother is a negative culture results C.diphtheriae. On 24th April 2013 the suspected case was re-taken of throat swab including 29 contacts from her classmate which showing negative culture result of C.diphtheriae. The suspected case was infected of C.diphtheriae type mitis toxigenic. It’s cases makes an outbreak in West Kalimantan.Key words : Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Culture and isolation, Biochemical test AbstrakRendahnya cakupan imunisasi dasar di Provinsi Kalimantan Barat menyebabkan kekhawatiran timbulnya penyakit yang dapat dicegah dengan imunisasi (PD3I) salah satunya adalah difteri. Kejadian difteri yang dilaporkan ini terjadi di Kelurahan Dalam Bugis, Kecamatan Pontianak Timur, Kota Pontianak, Provinsi Kalimantan Barat pada bulan April 2013. dilaporkan adanya kasus suspek dengan diagnosis klinis difteri pada anak perempuan usia 12 tahun. Mengidentifikasi suspek positif kasus kejadian luar biasa difteri yang terjadi di Kalimantan Barat. Suspek dan ibu suspek diambil swab tenggorok tanggal 4 April 2013, kemudian suspek diambil swab tenggorok lagi beserta 29 kontak teman sekolahnya pada tanggal 24 April 2013. dilakukan pemeriksaan secara mikroskopik dengan pewarnaan Albert. Kultur dan isolasi menggunakan medium agar darah dan telurit agar darah. Koloni tersangka dilanjutkan dengan uji biokimia menggunakan produk komersial API Coryne . Uji toksigenitas dilakukan dengan polymerase chain reaction Suspek yang diambil swab tenggorok pada tanggal 4 April 2013 menunjukkan hasil mikroskopis ditemukan bentuk difteroid. Hasil kultur, isolasi dan uji biokimia menunjukan possibility > 89,5 % bakteri Corynebacterium diphtheriae tipe mitis. Uji toksigenitas menunjukkan bakteri tersebut toksigenik yang ditandai dengan terbentuk produk amplifikasi dari gen dtx (tox) sepanjang 248 pb. Sementara hasil kultur Ibu suspek negatif C.diphtheriae. Pada pengambilan swab tenggorok tanggal 24 April 2013 terhadap suspek yang sama dan 29 kontak dari teman kontak menunjukkan hasil kultur negatif C.diphtheriae. Suspek terinfeksi C.diphtheriae tipe mitis toksigenik yang menjadikan Kasus tersebut menjadi kasus Kejadian Luar Biasa di provinsi Kalimantan Barat.Kata Kunci : Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Kultur dan isolasi, Uji biokimia