Sobir ,
Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura, Fakultas Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor (Bogor Agricultural University), Jl. Meranti Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia

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Analisis Genetik Sifat Ketahanan Melon (Cucumis melo L.) terhadap Virus Kuning Hermawan, Entit; ,, Sobir; Efendi, Darda
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 42, No 2 (2014): Jurnal agronomi indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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ABSTRACTResistance to yellow virus (YV) is an important breeding trait in melon. However information regarding genetic inheritance pattern of the character are limited. This study aimed to provide information on genetic control for resistance to YV in melon caused by Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV). Twenty genotypes from three major melon groups (dudaim, cantaloupe, and inodorous) were evaluated using controlled inoculation method. The results revealed that one line, MEV1 from the dudaim group, showed high resistance to YV; while other lines belong to cantaloupe and indororus indicated as highly susceptible lines. Screening of the F1 from crossing between resistant and susceptible parents resulted in resistant F1 after inoculation and planted in endemic location. Subsequently, evaluation on F2 population revealed a non-normal distribution for disease severity score, indicating that resistance to YV in melon was controlled by major genes. Chi-square (χ2) test resulted in 13:3 ratio and indicated that the resistance to YV was controlled by 2 genes pair with dominant and epistasis recessive actions.Keywords: dominant and epstasis recessive action, major gene, Bemicia tabaci, Begomovirus
Identification of Gene Related to Hard Bunch Phenotype in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) ,, Roberdi; ,, Sobir; Yahya, Sudirman; Toruan-Mathius, Nurita; Liwang, Tony
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 43, No 2 (2015): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

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ABSTRACTMolecular genetic analysis of hard bunch phenomenon in oil palm was done in order to elucidate the role of genetic factor underlying hard bunch in oil palm plantation. The aim of this study was to identify the AFLP primer combination that co-segregates with hard bunch phenotype related gene in oil palm. Molecular analysis was done by bulk segregant analysis approach. DNA was isolated from leaves of the normal and hard bunch palm. DNA from ten individual palms from each category were pooled and used as a template. A total of 56 AFLP primer combinations were selected for selection of polymorphic primer, and as a result it was found that 22 AFLP primer combinations (39.28%) were polymorphic. A total of 48 individual of palm DNA containing 24 individual for each group were further genotyped by those 22 polymorphic markers. Of these, one AFLP primer combination (E-ACC/M-CTG) was obtained as a co-segregated marker that distinguished the hard bunch DNA from the normal one. Based on the analysis of the target sequence aligned to the oil palm DNA sequences available in database, we found that our sequence has similarity with Ty-1 copia retrotransposon. This sequence distribute in all 16 linkage group of oil palm genome.Keywords: abnormal fruits, AFLP, oil palm, Ty-1 copia retrotransposon
Identifikasi Spesies Cabai Rawit (Capsicum spp.) Berdasarkan Daya Silang dan Karakter Morfologi ,, Undang; Syukur, Muhamad; ,, Sobir
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 43, No 2 (2015): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

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ABSTRACTThe chili consists of several species, five of which have been cultivated, namely C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens. The classifications of these species are based on: 1) morphological characters, especially floral morphology, 2) crossability between species, and 3) fertile hybrids between species. Species C. baccatum and C. pubescens can be easily identified and distinguished from one another, because there are obvious differences in the two species. However the species C. annuum, C. chinense, and C. frutescens has many common characteristics, so it is difficult to distinguish morphologically. The purpose of this study was to identify capsicum species based on crossability and morphological characters. The crossability experiment was done in housing area TDP 2 Ciampea Bogor from January to December 2013 and the morphological characteristics at Leuwikopo experimental station, IPB. The morphological characters experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Data were collected on successful crosses, seed viability of successful crosses and morphological characters based on descriptor for capsicum IPGRI. The percentage of successful crosses involving IPBC10 and IPBC145 (C. annuum) as female parents and 20 genotypes as male parents ranged between 0-90%; and using IPBC295 (C. frutescens) as female parent was 40%. Genotypes which had successful results equals 40% were alleged as C. frutescens species (IPBC61, IPBC139, IPBC63, IPBC163, IPBC289, IPBC288, IPBC294 and IPBC285). Principal component and of clusters analysis suggests that there are two species groups, i.e. C. annuum and C. frutescens.Keywords: capsicum, cluster analysis, crossing, genotypes, principal component analysis
Keragaman Morfologi dan Kandungan Tanin pada Tanaman Leunca [Solanum nigrum (L.)] Nadila, Dea; ,, Sobir; Syukur, dan Muhamad
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 47, No 1 (2019): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

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Black nightshades [Solanum nigrum (L.)] is an indigenous vegetable originatied from tropical and subtropical regions. In Indonesia, black naightshades widely spread in Java, especially West Java. Black nightshades has a bitter taste caused by the content of tannins. The objective of this study was to identify and analyze the morphological and tannin content of 20 black nightshades accessions. The research was started with germplasm exploration in November 2015-February 2016, followed by planting and analysis until September 2016 at a laboratory of the Center for Tropical Horticultural Studies (PKHT) IPB. The experiment was arranged in a single-factor randomized complete block design with three replications. The results from cluster analysis based on morphological variability showed that the accessions of black nightshades can be grouped into two groups. The accessions had different fruit tannin contents, and some accessions can be selected for breeding material.Keywords: group analysis, indigenous vegetable, qualitative character, quantitative character
Identifikasi Penanda SSR yang Berasosiasi dengan Bobot Tandan Buah Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Yono, Dwi; Wahyu, Yudiwanti; ,, Sobir; Toruan-Mathius, dan Nurita
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 45, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

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Oil palm is a perennial oil crop that contribute the most important source of vegetable oil in the world. Oil palm breeding cycle take a long period, therefore molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) is required to shorten the selection time. This MAS require the associated marker to desired trait, particularly for yield and the component that as a complex trait and depend on genetic background. The aim of this study was to obtain SSR marker that associated with average of bunch weight (ABW). Plant material was used in this study is Tenera population derived from Deli Dura x AVROS Pisifera. Seven SSR markers from public database were associated to ABW trait. Molecular data analysed for SSR markers profile which consisted of allelic diversity, heterozygosity level, and polymorphism information content (PIC). Association between SSR markers to ABW traits was performed with single marker analysis using one way analysis of variance. The results showed that SSR markers were able to amplify DNA with two to three number of alleles with the average of 2.3 alleles per locus. ABW trait for this population was significantly associated with mEgCIR3428 marker. This marker may be used in the selection of Deli Dura and AVROS Pisifera palm on the next selection cycle.Keywords: Average of bunch weight, AVROS Pisifera, Deli Dura, single marker analysis
Keragaan Karakter Pembungaan Kuantitatif dan Profil Metabolomik Bawang Merah (Allium cepa var. aggregatum) yang Diinduksi dengan Perlakuan Vernalisasi ,, Marlin; Maharijaya, Awang; ,, Sobir; Purwito, Agus
Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia Vol 9, No 3 (2018): Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesian Society for Horticulture / Department of Agronomy and Horticulture

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ABSTRACTFlowering initiation is regulated by the internal and external condition of plant. Vernalization is considered to induce flower initiation on shallots (Allium cepa var. aggregatum). This research objective was to analyze the flowering quantitatif characters and metabolomic profile of shallot duringvernalization on bulb development. Vernalization was carried out at 8 0C for 6 weeks treatment were four bulb growth stage i.e non-vernalized bulbs (S0), vernalization on embryonic stage (S1), vernalized bulbs on 1 cm of shoot stage (S2) and vernalized bulbs on 2 cm of shoot stage (S3). Vernalization treatment in early stage increased the number of tillers, number of umbel, diameter of umbel and percentage of flowering compared to another stage. The early stage of bulbs growth was the effective stage in receiving vernalization treatment. The bigger number and diameter of umbel lead to the higher percentage of flowering in shallot plant. The number and diameter of umbel can be used as character of selection for the percentage flowering character in shallot. Metabolomic analysis has identified of 104 specific metabolites from different vernalization treatments and clustered shallot into three groups. The early stadium of bulbs development (embryo stadia and stadia 1 cm buds) contains specific metabolomes (phytol and 2-propanone) as the indicator of reproductive phase.Keywords: correlation, flower induction, hierarchical cluster analysis, metabolomicABSTRAKProses pembungaan pada bawang merah (Allium cepa var. aggregatum) sangat dipengaruhi faktor internal dan eksternal tanaman. Induksi pembungaan dengan perlakuan vernalisasi dilakukan untuk mendorong inisiasi pembentukan bunga bawang merah. Penelitian bertujuan untukmenganalisis karakter kuantitatif pembungaan dan profil metabolomik bawang merah yang diberikan perlakuan vernalisasi pada stadia perkembangan umbi. Vernalisasi dilakukan pada suhu 8 0C selama6 minggu terdiri atas empat taraf, yaitu umbi tanpa vernalisasi (S0), vernalisasi pada stadia embrio (S1), vernalisasi pada stadia tumbuh tunas 1 cm (S2), dan vernalisasi pada stadia tumbuh tunas 2 cm (S3). Perlakuan vernalisasi pada stadia awal pertumbuhan umbi mampu meningkatkan karakter jumlah anakan, jumlah umbel, diameter umbel, dan persen berbunga bawang merah dibandingkan vernalisasi pada stadia lainnya. Stadia awal pertumbuhan umbi merupakan stadia terbaik dalam menerima perlakuan vernalisasi. Semakin besar jumlah umbel dan diameter umbel semakin meningkatkan persen berbunga bawang merah. Karakter jumlah umbel dan diameter umbel dapat digunakan sebagaikarakter seleksi untuk peubah persen berbunga bawang merah. Analisis metabolomik berhasil mengidentifikasi 104 metabolit spesifik dan mengelompokkan bawang merah menjadi 3 kelompok stadia. Vernalisasi pada stadia awal perkembangan umbi (stadia embrio dan tunas 1 cm) menunjukkan adanya perubahan fase reproduktif, yang dicirikan dengan adanya senyawa phytol dan 2-propanone.Kata kunci: metabolomik, analisis pengelompokan hierarkis, induksi pembungaan, korelasi
Pengembangan Kriteria Seleksi untuk Perakitan Terung (Solanum melongena L.) Berdaya Hasil Tinggi Putri, Faradila Danasworo; ,, Sobir; Syukur, Muhamad; Maharijaya, dan Awang
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 45, No 2 (2017): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

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Abstract

Eggplants (Solanum melongena L.) are consumed worldwide in a variety of colors, shapes and sizes, thus vegetable plant breeders place great interest in developing high yielding genotypes in response to the population growth and the need to increase vegetable production. This research was aimed to determine the proper character as selection character for breeding high yielding eggplants by using estimated heritability value, coefficient of genetic diversity, characters correlation and path analysis. The experiment was conducted during 2014 to August 2015 at Cikabayan Experimental Field, Tajur Experimental Field and Pasir Sarongge Experimental Field, IPB, West Java. A total of 12 characters was observed in the 25 genotypes. Eleven characters has a high estimated heritability value and high coefficient of genetic diversity value. Those characters were time of flowering, time of harvest, fruit length, fruit weight, fruit diameter, plant height, stem length, fruit apical scar length, calyx length, the number of fruits per plant and fruit weight per plant. Results of correlation and path analysis showed that fruit length, fruit weight, fruit diameter, stem diameter, calyx length and number of fruits per plant have a direct positive effect on fruit weight per plant. Fruit weight, fruit diameter and number of fruits per plant are suitable characters in determining the selection criteria for developing high productivity eggplant.Keywords: path analysis, correlation, heritability, genetic diversity coefficient
Interaksi Genotipe x Lingkungan Hasil dan Komponen Hasil 14 Genotipe Tomat di Empat Lingkungan Dataran Rendah Dewi, Suprayanti Martia; ,, Sobir; Syukur, Muhamad
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 43, No 1 (2015): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

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Genotype x environment interaction (GxE) information is needed by plant breeders to assist the identification of superior genotype. Stability analysis can be done if there is a GxE interaction, to show the stability of a genotype when planted in different environments. This study aimed to estimate the effects of genotype x environment interaction on yield and yield components of fruit weight per plant as well as to look at the stability of 14 tomato genotypes at four lowland locations. The study was conducted at four locations, namely Purwakarta, Lombok, Tajur and Leuwikopo. Experiments at each location was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Stability analysis was performed using the AMMI model. Fruit weight, fruit diameter, number of fruits per plant and total fruit weight per plant characters showed highly significant genotype x environment interactions. Variability due to the effect of GxE interaction based on a AMMI2 contributed by 88.50%. IPBT3, IPBT33, IPBT34, IPBT60 and Intan were stable genotypes under AMMI model.Keywords: AMMI, multilocation trials
Respon Morfologi dan Fisiologi Genotipe Terung (Solanum melongena L.) terhadap Cekaman Salinitas ,, Sobir; ,, Miftahudin; Helmi, Susan
Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia Vol 9, No 2 (2018): Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesian Society for Horticulture / Department of Agronomy and Horticulture

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ABSTRACTCultivation of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) needs fertile soils to optimize the yield,however since the fertile land become limited, cultivation of eggplant needs to utilize sub optimal landssuch as salin soils. The objective of the research was to analyze morphological and physiologicalresponses of six eggplant genotypes (collection of the Center for Tropical Horticulture Studies), todetermine the tolerance of genotypes to salinity stress to be used as tolerant parents in eggplantbreeding program. The research was a factorial experiment. It was designed as randomized blockdesign with two factors, which were genotype factor (6 genotypes) and salinity factor (0, 2-4, 5-7, 8-10 mS cm-1) with 5 replications. The research was conducted in greenhouse using pot. Themorphological evaluation included shoot length, number of leaves, fruit weight, number of branches,shoot biomass, root biomass, and the physiological characters included photosynthesis rate,transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, CO2 intercelluler, leaf relative water contents, and prolineaccumulation. The results showed that salinity stress decreased all morphological as well asphysiological characters in all genotypes, except for proline accumulation that showed increase asthe salinity increase. Based on the stress susceptivility index (SSI), there was no eggplant genotypesclassified as tolerant to salinity. However, there were two eggplant genotypes, i.e., number 061 and072, classified as moderat genotypes to salinity stress.Keywords: proline, sensitive, stress susceptibility index, tolerantABSTRAKBudidaya terung (Solanum melongena L.) membutuhkan tanah yang subur untukmengoptimalkan hasil panen, namun karena lahan subur menjadi terbatas, maka dalam budidayaterung memerlukan pemanfaatan lahan suboptimal seperti tanah yang bersifat salin. Tujuan penelitianini ialah untuk menganalisis respon morfologi dan fisiologi enam genotipe terung, yang merupakanterung hasil koleksi Pusat Kajian Hortikultura Tropika, untuk menentukan toleransi genotipe terhadapcekaman salinitas yang akan digunakan sebagai tetua toleran pada program pemuliaan tanaman terung.Penelitian ini merupakan percobaan faktorial yang dirancang menggunakan rancangan acak kelompokyang terdiri dari dua faktor yaitu faktor genotipe dengan 6 genotipe dan faktor perlakuan salinitas(NaCl) yang terdiri atas 4 taraf yaitu 0-1, 2-4, 5-7, 8-10 mS cm-1) dan diulang sebanyak 5 kali.Penelitian dilakukan di rumah kaca sebagai percobaan pot. Karakter morfologi yang diamati adalahtinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, bobot buah, jumlah cabang, bobot basah tajuk, bobot basah akar,sedangkan karakter fisiologis adalah laju fotosintesis, laju transpirasi, konduktansi stomata, CO2interselular, kandungan air relatif daun, dan akumulasi prolin. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwacekaman salinitas menurunkan semua karakter morfologi dan fisiologis pada semua genotipe, kecualiakumulasi prolin yang menunjukkan peningkatan seiring meningkatnya cekaman salinitas.Berdasarkan indeks kepekaan cekaman (SSI), tidak ada genotipe terung yang tergolong toleranterhadap salinitas. Namun, ada dua genotipe terung, yaitu: 061 dan 072, tergolong genotipe moderatterhadap cekaman salinitas.Kata kunci: indeks kepekaan cekaman, proline, sensitif, toleran
Perlakuan Air Panas pada Umbi Bawang Merah (Allium cepa var. ascalonicum) untuk Menekan Infeksi Virus di Lapangan Harti, Heri; ,, Sobir; Wiyono, Suryo; Hendrastuti Hidayat, Sri
Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia Vol 9, No 3 (2018): Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesian Society for Horticulture / Department of Agronomy and Horticulture

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ABSTRACTHigh infestation of viruses on shallot’s bulb has been reported, although little is known on the effect of virus infection on shallot productivity. The use of virus-free bulbs is assumed to be the key factor to improve productivity. Hot water treatment of bulbs before planting is one of methodologies to eliminate virus from shallot bulbs. Therefore, research was conducted to study the effectiveness of hot water treatment methods of shallots bulbs to reduce virus infections in the field. Field experimentwas conducted using split plot randomized block design with two factors. The first factor was the use of netting, i.e. growing shallot in netting house and in open field. The second factor was hot water treatment of shallot bulb at 45 0C for 15, 30, and 45 min and without treatment. Observations were conducted on the incidence of virus infections, plant growth (number of tillers and plant height) and shallots productivity. Virus infection was confirmed using specific antibodies. Observation of disease symptom indicated that the use of netting house did not significantly suppress the incidence of virus diseases, while hot water treatment significantly reduced the incidence of virus diseases. Hot water treatment for 15, 30 and 45 minutes at 45 0C was able to suppress virus incidence in the field up to54.98%, 56.77% and 64.35%, respectively.Key words: netting house, soaking time, viruses elimination, virus incidenceABSTRAKInfestasi virus pada umbi bawang merah dilaporkan sangat tinggi, meskipun efek infeksi virus terhadap produktivitas bawang merah masih sedikit diketahui. Penggunaan umbi bebas virus diasumsikan menjadi salah satu faktor utama untuk meningkatkan produktivitas. Perlakuan air panas pada umbi sebelum tanam merupakan metode pilihan untuk mengeliminasi virus. Penelitian dilakukan dengan tujuan mempelajari keefektifan metode perlakuan air panas pada umbi bibit bawang merahterhadap infeksi virus di lapangan. Penelitian disusun menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap petak terbagi dengan dua faktor. Faktor pertama adalah perlakuan rumah kasa dengan dua taraf, yaitu penanaman dalam rumah kasa dan penanaman di lahan terbuka. Faktor kedua adalah perlakuan air panas suhu 45 0C dengan 4 taraf waktu perendaman, yaitu 15 menit, 30 menit, 45 menit dan kontrol (tanpa perlakuan). Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap insidensi penyakit, parameter pertumbuhan tanaman (jumlah anakan dan tinggi tanaman), dan produktivitas tanaman. Insidensi virus dikonfirmasi dengan deteksi menggunakan antibodi spesifik. Hasil pengamatan gejala menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan rumah kasa tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap penekanan insidensi penyakit, sementara perlakuan pemanasan berpengaruh nyata terhadap penekanan insidensi penyakit. Waktu perendaman umbi selama 15, 30 dan 45 menit pada suhu 45 0C dapat menekan insidensi penyakit virus dilapanganberturut-turut sebesar 54.98%, 56.77% dan 64.35%.Kata kunci: eliminasi virus, insidensi penyakit, rumah kasa, waktu perendaman