Prasasti, Gita Dwi
Departemen Parasitologi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Sriwijaya

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Investigasi resistensi Anopheles sp. terhadap insektisida piretroid dan kemungkinan terjadinya mutasi gen voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC)

Jurnal Entomologi Indonesia Vol 15, No 3 (2018): November
Publisher : Perhimpunan Entomologi Indonesia

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Abstract

Penggunaan insektisida golongan piretroid secara luas dan terus menerus dalam pencegahan penularan malaria dapat menimbulkan mutasi gen voltage gate sodium channel (VGSC) pada vektor nyamuk yang dikenal dengan mutasi knockdown resistance (kdr). Mutasi gen ini membuat sensitifitas ikatan protein VGSC dengan insektisida menurun sehingga menyebabkan resistensi. Timbulnya resistensi insektisida piretroid pada nyamuk vektor dapat menjadi penghambat keberhasilan pemutusan penularan penyakit malaria sehingga deteksi adanya mutasi mutlak diperlukan. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui status resistensi insektisida piretroid dan mengidentifikasi mutasi pada gen VGSC kodon 1014 penanda resistensi nyamuk Anopheles sp. yang menjadi vektor malaria di Provinsi Sumatera Selatan. Sampel diambil di tiga Kabupaten, yaitu Muara Enim, Ogan  Komering Ulu (OKU), dan Lahat. Uji awal kerentanan terhadap insektisida piretroid (permetrin 0,75%) dilakukan sesuai standar WHO tahun 2016 pada spesies dominan, yaitu Anopheles vagus Dönitz. Selanjutnya, identifikasi mutasi gen VGSC pada kodon 1014 dilakukan pada An. vagus dan spesies Anopheles barbirostris van der Wulp yang tertangkap, dengan teknik seminested-PCR dan dilanjutkan dengan analisis sekuensing. Hasil uji kerentanan Anopheles sp. di Kabupaten Muara Enim menunjukkan resisten terhadap piretroid, sedangkan di Kabupaten Lahat dan OKU masih rentan terhadap insektisida piretroid. Sementara, analisis sekuensing PCR menunjukkan tidak terjadi perubahan basa alel kdr pada target site insektisida gen VGSC sehingga dapat disimpulkan secara molekuler belum ditemukan adanya mutasi pada gen VGSC kdr allel penanda resistensi insektisida piretroid. 

Identification of IL-10 Gene Polymorphisms in Leprosy

Bioscientia Medicina : Journal of Biomedicine and Translational Research Vol 2 No 4 (2018): Bioscientia Medicina: Journal of Biomedicine and Translational Research
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Sriwijaya (Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sriwijaya) Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by an infection of Mycobacterium leprae, which affects skin and nerve lesions, which can result in disability. The prevalence of leprosy continues to increase, especially in Indonesia, which is one of the endemic areas of leprosy. The unique immune response of each individual not only determines the susceptibility of individuals to leprosy, but also determines the type of leprosy that will manifest. One of the immune responses that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of leprosy is interleukin-10 (IL-10). Increased regulation of IL-10 can have an effect on decreasing macrophage activity in killing bacteria. Production of IL-10 is regulated by genes that encode the cytokine. Gen IL-10 is located on chromosome 1q32. Polymorphism in this gene can cause variations in the function of IL-10 protein, which can then influence the process of microbial elimination in the development of leprosy.Objective: This study aimed to identify IL-10 -819 C / T gene polymorphisms which were cut with the MslI enzyme in lepers.Method: This study is a laboratory study, which is also an observational descriptive study with a cross sectional study approach to 40 subjects with leprosy. Identification of IL-10 -819 C / T gene polymorphism was carried out by PCR amplification and RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) technique using the MslI enzyme. Results: Distribution of TT, CT, and CC genotypes in the study subjects were 0 (0%), 14 (35%), and 26 (65%). Based on age, the distribution was 0 (0%), 6 (15%), 19 (47.5%) for those under 50 years old, and 0 (0%), 8 (20%), 7 (17.5 %) for those over 50 years old. Based on gender, the distribution is 0 (0%), 5 (12.5%), 16 (40%) in men, and 0 (0%), 9 (22.5%), 10 (25%) in women. Based on the classification of diseases, the distribution was 0 (0%), 3 (7.5%), 7 (17.5%) for papalacillary, and 0 (0%), 11 (27.5%), 19 (47.5 %) for multibasilers. Conclusion: More wild type genotypes are found in lepers (65%). Keywords: leprosy, polymorphism, IL-10 gene